Research Advances in the Fungal World: Culture, Isolation, Identification, Classification, Characterization, Properties and Kinetics

Pankaj Kumar Chaurasia (Editor)
Assistant Professor, PG Department of Chemistry, L.S. College, Muzaffarpur Bihar (India) (Constituent unit of BRA Bihar University)

Shashi Lata Bharati (Editor)
Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, Nirjuli, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh (India)

Series: Life Sciences Research and Development
BISAC: SCI094000

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Fungi are the renowned eukaryotic organisms. They are heterotrophs like animals, plants and most of the bacteria and studied under the separate branch of science ‘Mycology’. They are abundantly found worldwide as yeasts, moulds, mushrooms etc. Due to the discovery of the different types of fungi, their working styles, habitats, their growing style, culture, sources and optimum locality, fungi have been classified separately from the other eukaryotes like animal and plants. In modern time, there are a number of diseases known which have been caused by fungi but many more significant and useful functions of them are also known and well discovered. Their various positive roles in medicines, remediation, food industries, agriculture, paper and pulp industries, chemical industries, biological researches etc. make them highly significant objectives for researchers and scientists. They also secrete a number of biologically valuable enzymes which further enhance their utility in the field of biotechnology. Their worldwide distributions make them easily available for the research.

A number of researches in the field of fungal biotechnology are currently running in order to explore their momentous properties related to their nutraceutical and pharmaceutical values. In this regard, the deep study of their detailed properties, sources, culture, secretion of enzymes, isolation techniques, characterization, kinetics etc. are highly required. Handy nature, very easy language, scientific writing style and advanced research materials of this book make this interesting and highly helpful for the readers and researchers of the field of life sciences, biochemistry and biotechnology to conduct their research. Students of undergraduate and post graduate courses of life sciences/biochemistry/biotechnology will also highly benefit from this book.

This book has recent, descriptive as well as up to date information on the recent developments in the world of fungi in the form 17 chapters (divided in two sections: section A and section B) prepared by admirable scientific collaborations. Each chapter has been written by worldwide eminent experts of their scientific research fields. This book covered several valuable and promising topics:
(i) Diversity, distribution and classification of fungi.
(ii) Isolation, identification and characterization of fungi.
(iii) Study of the fungal culture, growth, production, optimization etc.
(iv) Rhizospheric fungi, endophytic fungi, lichens, pathogens and secondary metabolites.
(v) Fungal properties and applications, biologically potential mushrooms, nutraceutical applications, pharmaceutical applications and bioconversions of wastes materials etc.
(vi) Secretion of the different enzymes from fungi
(vii) Fungal enzymes, their purification, characterization, kinetics, properties and applications in the field of biotechnology.
(Imprint: Nova)

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1. Fungi and Their Associated Enzymes
(Pankaj Kumar Chaurasia and Shashi Lata Bharati, P. G. Department of Chemistry, LS College, Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India, and others)

Chapter 2. Species Diversity and Distribution of Indigenous Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Isolated from Different Wheat Cultivars of Pratapgarh (Uttar Pradesh) India
(O. P. Dwivedi, Lab of Mycology and Plant Pathology, P.G. Department of Botany, S. V. M. Science and Technology P. G. College, Lalganj, Pratapgarh, India)

Chapter 3. Isolation, Identification and Study of the Potential Applications of Tropical Fungi in Lignocellulolysis
(S. K. Jayasekara, M. Kathirgamanathan and R. R. Ratnayake, Bioenergy and Soil Ecosystems Research Project, National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantana Road, Kandy, Sri Lanka)

Chapter 4. Wild Edible Mushrooms of Rudraprayag District, Uttarakhand Himalaya: Diversity, Distribution and Ethnomycology
(Upendra Singh and R. P. Bhatt, Department of Botany and Microbiology, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India)

Chapter 5. Rhizospheric Fungi: Diversity and Therapeutic Potential
(Mahendra Kumar Sahu and Harit Jha, Department of Biotechnology, Guru Ghasidas Viswavidyalaya, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India)

Chapter 6. A Review on Lichen Diversity and Its Associated Fungi: Present and Future Prospects
(Dipanjali Devi and Kumanand Tayung, Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, India)

Chapter 7. Secondary Metabolites by Endophytic Fungi: Potential for Bio-Based Products Developments
(Ana Paula Sant’Anna da Silva, Rebeca Xavier da Cunha, Jadson Diogo Pereira Bezerra, Thaíse Gabriele da Silva Brito, Caíque Silveira Martins da Fonseca, Irailton Prazeres dos Santos and Vera Lúcia de Menezes Lima, Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Cidade Universitária, Recife, PE, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 8. A Biological Active Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus: An Update of Its Phytopharmacology and Medicinal Properties with Respect to Various Diseases
(Mayank Kulshreshtha and Shristy Srivastava, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Babu Banarasi Das University, Lucknow, UP, India)

Chapter 9. Mushrooms in Nigeria and Their Nutraceutical Potentials
(Victor Olusegun Oyetayo and Folake Lucy Oyetayo, Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, and others)

Chapter 10. Ancient and Recent Methods of Characterization of Fungi and Breakthroughs in Their Identification
(Rajalakshmi Sridharan and Veenagayathri Krishnaswamy, Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College [Autonomous], India)

Chapter 11. The Role of Edible Mushrooms in Cancer Treatment
(Md. Moyen Uddin Pk, Rumana Pervin and Md. Matiar Rahman, Institute of Biological Science, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh, and others)

Chapter 12. Bio-Conversion of Agro-Wastes Using Mushroom Technology
Abiodun Olusola Salami and Faith Ayobami Bankole, Department of Crop Production and Protection, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria)

Chapter 13. Trichophyton rubrum: A Leading Pathogen of Skin and Nail Infection
(K. Anita, Assistant Professor, Deptartment of Botany, M. G. P. G. College, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India)

Chapter 14. Mycotoxins and Their Impacts on Human Health
(K. Anita, Department of Botany, M. G. P. G. College, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India)

Chapter 15. Purification, Characterization and Clinical Applications of Therapeutic Fungal Enzymes
(Mafalda R. Almeida, Ana M. Ferreira, João C. F. Nunes and Ana P. M. Tavares, Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal)

Chapter 16. Fungal Lignocellulolytic Enzymes: Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Applications
(Chandana Paul, Madhumita Maitra and Nirmalendu Das, Post Graduate Department of Botany, Barasat Govt. College, Barasat, Kolkata, India, and others)

Chapter 17. Introductory Approach to the Kinetic Properties of Fungal Laccases
(Pankaj Kumar Chaurasia and Shashi Lata Bharati, P. G. Department of Chemistry, L. S. College, Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India, and others)

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