Religion and Spirituality for the Healthcare Provider

Benjamin R. Doolittle, MD
Combined Internal Medicine & Pediatrics Residency Program, Yale University School of Medicine, CT, USA

Series: Religion and Spirituality
BISAC: REL106000




Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:



There is compelling evidence that religious involvement and spiritual attitudes are beneficial to health. Religious involvement has been associated with increased lifespan, improved mood, improved coping with illness, and lower blood pressure and cholesterol. And yet, there is a “religiosity gap” between patients and their healthcare providers. Patients often have strong religious and spiritual attitudes that influence their perspective on health. Healthcare providers are often ill-equipped to address these issues.

Religion and Spirituality for the Healthcare Provider seeks to close that gap. Scholarly in scope, but approachable to all healthcare providers, Dr. Doolittle addresses the salient studies that explore the intersection of religion and health. He gives guidance about common challenges faced by healthcare providers: end of life issues, chronic illness, mental health, mindfulness and religious diversity. He also tackles controversies with the changing, complex role religion plays in modern society.

Dr. Doolittle is an internal medicine-pediatrics physician on the faculty of Yale Medical School. In addition, he is an ordained minister with active involvement in the urban church. (Imprint: Nova)


Chapter 1. Why Religion Matters in Medicine

Chapter 2. Controversy and Challenge in Religion and Health

Chapter 3. Religion in Modern Society

Chapter 4. Religion and Health Outcomes

Chapter 5. The Biology of Religion and Spirituality

Chapter 6. The Spiritual Lives of Children

Chapter 7. Spirituality and the Coping of Chronic Disease

Chapter 8. Health and Healing Among Non-Christians

Chapter 9. Religion, Spirituality, and the End of Life

Chapter 10. Religion, Spirituality, and Psychosis

Chapter 11. Interventional Prayer, Distance Healing, and Other Tests of Faith

Chapter 12. The Personal Journey

Chapter 13. Future Directions

About the Author


Chapter 1

Koenig, H., King, D., & Carson, V. B. (2012). Handbook of religion and health. Oxford, UK: Oxford university press.
Koenig, H. G. (2000). Religion and medicine I: historical background and reasons for separation. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 30(4), 385-398.
O’Connor, S., & Vandenberg, B. (2005). Psychosis or faith? Clinicians’ assessment of religious beliefs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(4), 610.

Chapter 2

D’souza, R., & George, K. (2006). Spirituality, religion and psychiatry: its application to clinical practice. Australasian psychiatry, 14(4), 408-412.
Dawkins, R. (2008). The god delusion. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Ehman, J. W., Ott, B. B., Short, T. H., Ciampa, R. C., & Hansen-Flaschen, J. (1999). Do patients want physicians to inquire about their spiritual or religious beliefs if they become gravely ill? ArcHIVes of Internal Medicine, 159(15), 1803-1806.
Hill, P. C., Pargament, K. I. (2003). Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality: implications for physical and mental health research. American Psychologist, 58(1), 64 –74.
Horton, P. C. (1974). The Mystical Experience: Substance of an Illusion, American Psychoanalytic Association Journal 22:(2): 364-380.
James, W. (1902). The varieties of religious experience: A study of human nature. New York: Random House.
Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., Costello, J., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., McLaughlin, K. A., ... & Merikangas, K. R. (2012). Severity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication adolescent supplement. ArcHIVes of general psychiatry, 69(4), 381-389.
Koenig, H. G. (2002). An 83-year-old woman with chronic illness and strong religious beliefs. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(4), 487–493.
LaRocca-Pitts, M. A. (2009). FACT: Taking a spiritual history in a clinical setting. Journal of health care chaplaincy, 15(1), 1-12.
Larson, D. B., Mansell, E., Pattison, M. D., Blazer, D. G., Omran, A. R., & Kaplan, B. H. (1986). Systematic Analysis of Research on Religious Variables. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1(43), 329.
Lisee, C. (2012 July 13). “God particle” discover ignites debate over science and religion. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 1st, 2016 from gJQAOpaWiW_story.html.
Lo, B., Snyder, L. (1999). Discussing palliative care with patients. Annals of Internal Medicine. 130(9); 772-775.
Mandell, A. J. (1980). Toward a psychobiology of transcendence: God in the brain (pp. 379-464). New York: Springer.
Miller, W. R., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American psychologist, 58(1), 24.
National Ambulatory Medical Survey 2008 Survey Tables; Center for Disease Control, Mental Health Work Group, 4770 Buford Hwy, NE MS K-51, Atlanta, Ga. 30341-3717.
Osler, W. (1910). The faith that heals. British Medical Journal. 1:1470-72.
Pargament, K. I., Koenig, H. G., Tarakeshwar, N. (2000). Negative religious coping predicts mortality among the medically ill. In: Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, 2000. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Pargament, K. I., Tarakeshwar, N., Ellison, C. G., & Wulff, K. M. (2001). Religious coping among the religious: The relationships between religious coping and well-being in a national sample of Presbyterian clergy, elders, and members. Journal for the scientific study of religion, 40(3), 497-513.
Powell, L. H., Shahabi, L., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Religion and spirituality: Linkages to physical health. American psychologist, 58(1), 36.
Shahabi, L., Powell, L. H., Musick, M. A., Pargament, K. I., Thoresen, C. E., Williams, D., Underwood, L., Ory, M. A. (2002). Correlates of self-perceptions of spirituality in American adults. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 59-68.
Shafranske, E. P. (1996). Religious beliefs, affiliations, and practices of clinical psychologists.
Shanafelt, T. D., Boone, S., Tan, L., Dyrbye, L. N., Sotile, W., Satele, D., ... & Oreskovich, M. R. (2012). Burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance among US physicians relative to the general US population. ArcHIVes of internal medicine, 172(18), 1377-1385.
Tai‐Seale, M., McGuire, T. G., & Zhang, W. (2007). Time allocation in primary care office visits. Health services research, 42(5), 1871-1894.
Ward, L. C. (1995). Religion and Science Are Mutually Exclusive, American Psychologist, 50(7), 542-543.
Weaver, A. J., Samford, J. A., Larson, D. B., Lucas, L. A., Koenig, H. G., & Patrick, V. (1998). A systematic review of research on religion in four major psychiatric journals: 1991-1995. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 186(3), 187-189.

Chapter 3

Bergin, A. E., & Jensen, J. P. (1990). Religiosity of psychotherapists: A national survey. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 27(1), 3.
Campbell, T., A. (2014). Glory days? The myth of the mainline. The Christian Century, 131(14), 11-13.
Crabtree, S. (2010). Religiosity Highest in World’s Poorest Nations, retrieved February 10th, 2016 from
Gallup. (2014, December 12). Seven in 10 Americans are very or moderately religious, Retrieved February 10th, 2016 from 159050/seven-americans-moderately-religious.aspx?utm_source=religion &utm_medium=search&utm_ campaign=tiles.
Gallup. (2015). Religion. Retrieved February 10th, 2016 from http://www.,
Maugans, T. A., & Wadland, W. C. (1991). Religion and family medicine: a survey of physicians and patients. Journal of Family Practice, 32(2), 210-214.
Newport, F. (2014). Three Quarters of America Identify as Christian, retrieved February 1st, 2016, from AND_SOCIAL_TRENDS&g_medium = topic&g_campaign = tiles.
Newport, F. (2016). New Hampshire Now Least Religious State, retrieved February 1st, 2016, from topic&g_campaign = tiles.
Thuma, S., Bird, W. (2015). Recent Shifts in America’s Largest Protestant Churchs: Megachurches 2015 Report, Leadership Network and Hartford Institute.

Chapter 4

Ano, G. G., & Vasconcelles, E. B. (2005). Religious coping and psychological adjustment to stress: A meta‐analysis. Journal of clinical psychology, 61(4), 461-480.
Ardelt, M. (2003). Effects of religion and purpose in life on elders’ subjective well-being and attitudes towards death. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 14(4), 55–77.
Armstrong, B., Van Merwyk, A. J., & Coates, H. (1977). Blood pressure in Seventh-day Adventist vegetarians. American Journal of Epidemiology, 105(5), 444-449.
Asser, S. M., & Swan, R. (1998). Child fatalities from religion-motivated medical neglect. Pediatrics, 101(4), 625-629.
Benson, H., Marzetta, B., Rosner, B., & Klemchuk, H. (1974). Decreased blood-pressure in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients who regularly elicited the relaxation response. The Lancet, 303(7852), 289-291.
Comstock, G. W., & Partridge, K. B. (1972). Church attendance and health. Journal of chronic diseases, 25(12), 665-672.
Cotton, S., Zebracki, K., Rosenthal, S. L., Tsevat, J., Drotar, D., (2006). Religion/spirituality and adolescent health outcomes: a review, Journal of Adolescent Health. 38, 472-480
Donovan, N., & Halpern, D. (2002). Life satisfaction: The state of knowledge and implications for government, analytical paper. London: Strategy Unit.
Ellison, C. G., & Levin, J. S. (1998). The religion–health connection: Evidence, theory, and future directions. Health Education and Behavior, 25(6), 700–720.
Ferraro, K. F. (1998). Firm believers? Religion, body weight, and well-being. Review of Religious Research, 224-244.
Fraser, G. E. (1999). Diet as primordial prevention in Seventh-Day Adventists. Preventive medicine, 29(6), S18-S23.
Friedlander, Y., Kark, J. D., Kaufmann, N. A., & Stein, Y. (1985). Coronary heart disease risk factors among religious groupings in a Jewish population sample in Jerusalem. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 42, 511–521.
Friedlander, Y., Kark, J. D., & Stein, Y. (1987). Religious observance and plasma lipids and lipoproteins among 17-year-old Jewish residents of Jerusalem. Preventive Medicine, 16, 70–79.
Helliwell, J. F., & Putnam, R. D. (2005). The social context of well-being. In F. A. Huppert, N. Baylis, & B. Kevern (Eds.), The science of well-being (pp. 435–460). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hummer, R. A., Rogers, R. G., Nam, C. B., Ellison, CB. (1999). Religious involvement and US adult mortality, Demography, 36(2):273-85.
Kim, K. H. C. (2007). Religion, weight perception, and weight control behavior. Eating Behaviors, 8(1), 121-131.
Koenig, H. G., George, L. K., Hays, J. C., Larson, D. B., Cohen, H. J., & Blazer, D. G. (1998). The relationship between religious activities and blood pressure in older adults. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 28(2), 189-213.
Larson, D. B., Koenig, H. G., Kaplan, B. H., Greenberg, R. S., Logue, E.,& Tyroler, H. A. (1989). The impact of religion on men’s blood pressure. Journal of Religion and Health, 28, 265–278.
McCullough, M. E., Hoyt, W. T., Larson, D. B., Koenig, H. G., & Thoresen, C. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. Health psychology, 19(3), 211.
Manchanda, S. C., Narang, R., Reddy, K. S., Sachdeva, U., Prabhakaran, D., Dharmanand, S., ... & Bijlani, R. (2000). Retardation of coronary atherosclerosis with yoga lifestyle intervention. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 48(7), 687-694.
McIntosh, D. N., & Spilka, B. B. (1990). Religion and physical health: The role of personal faith and control beliefs. In M. L. Lynn, & D. O. Moberg (Eds.), Research on the social scientific study of religion (Vol. 2, pp. 167–194). Greenwich: JAI Press.
Oman, D., & Reed, D. (1998). Religion and mortality among the community-dwelling elderly. American Journal of Public Health, 88(10), 1469-1475.
Patel, C., Marmot, M. G., Terry, D. J., Carruthers, M., Hunt, B., & Patel, M. (1985). Trial of relaxation in reducing coronary risk: Four year follow up. British Medical Journal, 290, 1103–1106.
Pargament, K. I., Koenig, H. G., Tarakeshwar, N., & Hahn, J. (2001). Religious struggle as a predictor of mortality among medically ill elderly patients: A 2-year longitudinal study. ArcHIVes of internal Medicine, 161(15), 1881-1885.
Rouse, I. L., Armstrong, B. K., & Beilin, L. J. (1982). Vegetarian diet, lifestyle and blood pressure in two religious populations. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 9(3), 327-330.
Smith, T. B., McCullough, M. E., & Poll, J. (2003). Religiousness and depression: evidence for a main effect and the moderating influence of stressful life events. Psychological bulletin, 129(4), 614.
Steffen, P. R., Hinderliter, A. L., Blumenthal, J. A., & Sherwood, A. (2001). Religious coping, ethnicity, and ambulatory blood pressure. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 523–530.
Strawbridge, W. J., Shema, S. J., Cohen, R. D., & Kaplan, G. A. (2001). Religious attendance increases survival by improving and maintaining good health behaviors, mental health, and social relationships. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23(1), 68-74.
Timio, M., Lippi, G., Venanzi, S., Gentili, S., Quintaliani, G., Verdura, C., ... & Timio, F. (1997). Blood pressure trend and cardiovascular events in nuns in a secluded order: a 30-year follow-up study. Blood Pressure, 6(2), 81-87.
Van Wagoner, N., Mugavero, M., Westfall, A., Hollimon, J., Slater, L. Z., Burkholder, G., Raper, J., & Hook, E. W. (2014). Church attendance in men who have sex with men diagnosed with HIV is associated with later presentation for HIV care. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 58(2), 295-299.
Wallace, J. M., & Forman, T. A. (1998). Religion’s role in promoting health and reducing risk among American youth. Health Education & Behavior, 25(6), 721-741.
Wanyama, J., Castelnuovo, B., Wandera, B., Mwebaze, P., Kambugu, A., Bangsberg, D. R., & Kamya, M. R. (2007). Belief in divine healing can be a barrier to antiretroviral therapy adherence in Uganda. Aids, 21(11), 1486-1487.
Williams, D. R., & Sternthal, M. J. (2007). Spirituality, religion and health: Evidence and research directions. Medical Journal of Australia, 186(10), 47–50.

Chapter 5

Azari, N. P., Nickel, J., Wunderlich, G., Niedeggen, M., Hefter, H., Tellmann, L., ... & Seitz, R. J. (2001). Neural correlates of religious experience. European Journal of Neuroscience, 13(8), 1649-1652.
Borg, J., Bengt, A., Soderstrom, H., Farde, L. (2003). The serotonin system and spiritual experiences. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 1965–9.
Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S. F., ... & Sheridan, J. F. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic medicine, 65(4), 564-570.
Di Sclafani, V., Tolou-Shams, M., Price, L. J., & Fein, G. (2002). Neuropsychological performance of individuals dependent on crack–cocaine, or crack–cocaine and alcohol, at 6 weeks and 6 months of abstinence. Drug and alcohol dependence, 66(2), 161-171.
Fenwick, P. (2001). The neurophysiology of religious experience. In: Clarke I, ed. psychosis and spirituality: exploring the new frontier. (pp. 15-26) London: Whurr Publishers Ltd.
Frasure-Smith, N., Lesperance, F., & Talajic, M. (1995). The impact of negative emotions on prognosis following myocardial infarction: is it more than depression?. Health Psychology, 14(5), 388.
Jevning, R., Anand, R., Biedebach, M., & Fernando, G. (1996). Effects on regional blood flow of transcendental meditation. Physiology and Behavior, 59, 399–402.
Kang, D. H., Davidson, R. J., Coe, C. L., Wheeler, R. E., Tomarken, A. J., & Ershler, W. B. (1991). Frontal brain asymmetry and immune function. Behavioral Neuroscience, 105, 860–869.
King, D. E., Mainous, A. G., & Pearson, W. S. (2002). C-reactive protein, diabetes, and attendance at religious services. Diabetes Care, 25(7), 1172-1176.
Koenig, H. G., Cohen, H. J., George, L. K., Hays, J. C., Larson, D. B., & Blazer, D. G. (1997). Attendance at religious services, interleukin-6, and other biological parameters of immune function in older adults. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 27, 233–250.
Lazar S. W., Kerr C. E., Wasserman R. H., Gray J. R., Greve D. N., Treadway M. T., McGarvey M., Quinn B. T., Dusek J. A., Benson H., Rauch S. L., Moore C. I., Fischl B., (2005). Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness, Neuroreport, 16 (17), 1893-1897.
McNamara, P. (2002). The motivational origins of religious practices. Zygon, 37, 143–160.
McNamara, P., Andresen, J., & Gellard, J. (2003). Relation of religiosity and scores on fluency tests to subjective reports of health in older individuals. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 13, 259–271.
Newberg A. B., Iversen J., (2003). The neural basis of the complex mental task of meditation: neurotransmitter and neurochemical considerations, Medical Hypotheses, 61: 2, 282-291.
Pietrini, P. (2003). Toward a biochemistry of mind? American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 1907–8.
Saver, J. L., & Rabin, J. (1997). The neural substrates of religious experience. The neuropsychiatry of limbic and subcortical disorders, 195-207.
Thomas, A. G., Vornov, J. J., Olkowski, J. L., Merion, A. T., & Slusher, B. S. (2000). N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase converts N-acetylaspartylglutamate from a neuroprotectant to a neurotoxin. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 295(1), 16-22.
Walton, K. G., Pugh, N. D., Gelderloos, P., & Macrae, P. (1995). Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: Preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine mechanism. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 1, 263–283.

Chapter 6

Blum, R. W., & Nelson-Mmari, K. (2004). The health of young people in a global context. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(5), 402-418.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2006). Leading Causes of Death Among Adolescents Aged 15-19, 2006, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Retrieved on February 1st, 2016 from:
Cotton, S., Larkin, E., Hoopes, A., Cromer, B. A., & Rosenthal, S. L. (2005). The impact of adolescent spirituality on depressive symptoms and health risk behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 36(6), 529.
Cotton, S., Zebracki, K., Rosenthal, S. L., Tsevat, J., Drotar, D., (2006). Religion/spirituality and adolescent health outcomes: a review, Journal of Adolescent Health. 38, 472-480
Dalby, J., Hayon, R., & Carlson, J. (2014). Adolescent pregnancy and contraception. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 41(3), 607-629.
Freedman, D. S., Dietz, W. H., Srinivasan, S. R., & Berenson, G. S. (1999). The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics, 103(6), 1175-1182.
Gallup, G. H., & Bezilla, R. (1992). The religious life of young Americans. Princeton, NJ: George H. Gallup International Institute.
Greening, L, Stoppelbein, L. (2002). Religiosity, attributional style, and social support as psychosocial buffers for African American and White adolescents’ perceived risk for suicide. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 32(4), 404 –17.
Hines, P. M., Boyd-Franklin, N. (1996) Ethnicity and Family Therapy, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Hodge, D. R., Cardenas, P., Montoya, H. (2001). Substance use: spirituality and religious participation as protective factors among rural youths. Social Work Research 25(3), 153–62.
Holder, D. W., DuRant, R. H., Harris, T. L., Daniel, J. H., Obeidallah, D., & Goodman, E. (2000). The association between adolescent spirituality and voluntary sexual activity. Journal of adolescent health, 26(4), 295-302.
Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., & Merikangas, K. R. (2001). Mood disorders in children and adolescents: an epidemiologic perspective. Biological psychiatry, 49(12), 1002-1014.
Lammers, C., Ireland, M., Resnick, M., Blum, R. (2000). Influences on adolescents’ decision to postpone onset of sexual intercourse: a survival analysis of virginity among youths aged 13 to 18 years. Journal of Adolescent Health, 26, 42– 8.
Mulye, T. P., Park, M. J., Nelson, C. D., Adams, S. H., Irwin, C. E., & Brindis, C. D. (2009). Trends in adolescent and young adult health in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(1), 8-24.
Must, A., & Strauss, R. S. (1999). Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders, 23.
Ollendick, T. H., Grills, A. E., & Alexander, K. L. (2001). Fears, worries, and anxiety in children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Epidemiology, risk factors and treatment, 1-36.
Pearce, M. J., Little, T. D., & Perez, J. E. (2003). Religiousness and depressive symptoms among adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32(2), 267-276.
Pendleton, S. M., Cavalli, K. S., Pargament, K. I., & Nasr, S. Z. (2002). Religious/spiritual coping in childhood cystic fibrosis: A qualitative study. Pediatrics, 109(1), e8-e8.
Regnerus, M. D. (2003). Religion and positive adolescent outcomes: A review of research and theory. Review of Religious Research, 394-413.
Resnick, M. D., Harris, L. J., Blum, R. W. (1993). The impact of caring and connectedness on adolescent health and well-being. Journal of Paediatric and Child Health, 29, S3–9 (suppl 1).
Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., ... & Ireland, M. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm: findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. Jama, 278(10), 823-832.
Rew, L., Thomas, N., Horner, S. D., Resnick, M. D., & Beuhring, T. (2001). Correlates of recent suicide attempts in a triethnic group of adolescents. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33(4), 361-367.
Rew, L., & Wong, J. (2006). A systematic review of associations among religiosity/spirituality and adolescent health attitudes and behaviors, Journal of Adolescent Health, 38:433-442.
Ritt-Olson, A., Milam, J., Unger, J. B., Trinidad, D., Teran, L., Dent, C. W., & Sussman, S. (2004). The protective influence of spirituality and “health-as-a-value” against monthly substance use among adolescents varying in risk. Journal of Adolescent Health, 34(3), 192-199.
Smith, C., Denton, M. L., Faris, R., & Regnerus, M. (2002). Mapping American adolescent religious participation. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 597-612.
Smith, C., Denton, M. L., (2005). Soul Searching: The Religious and Spiritual Lives of American Teenagers. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Spilka, B., Zwartjes, W. J., Zwartjes, G. M., (1991). The role of religion in coping with childhood cancer. Pastoral Psychology, 39(5), 295–304.
Stern, R. C., Canda, E. R., & Doershuk, C. F. (1992). Use of nonmedical treatment by cystic fibrosis patients. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13(7), 612-615.
Tebbi, C. K., Mallon, J. C., Richards, M. E., Bigler, L. R. (1987). Religiosity and locus of control of adolescent cancer patients. Psychological Reports, 61(3), 683–96.
Wallace, J. M., Brown, T. N., Bachman, J. G., & LaViest, T. A. (2003). Religion, race, abstinence from drug use among American adolescents. Institute for Social Research.

Wallace, J. M., Forman, T. A. (1998). Religion’s role in promoting health and reducing risk among American youth [Special issue: public health and health education in faith communities]. Health Education Behavior, 25(6), 721– 41.
Wills, T. A., Yaeger, A. M., Sandy, J. M. (2003). Buffering effect of religiosity for adolescent substance use. Psychololgy of Addictive Behaviors, 17(1), 24 –31.
Wright, L. S., Frost, C. J., & Wisecarver, S. J. (1993). Church attendance, meaningfulness of religion, and depressive symptomatology among adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22(5), 559-568.

Chapter 7

Bowie, J. V., Ensminger, M. E., & Robertson, J. A. (2006). Alcohol-use problems in young black adults: effects of religiosity, social resources, and mental health. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(1), 44-53.
Desmond, D. P., & Maddux, J. F. (1981). Religious programs and careers of chronic heroin users. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 8(1), 71-83.
Dunn, M. S. (2005). The relationship between religiosity, employment, and political beliefs on substance use among high school seniors. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 49(1), 73.
Ford, J., & Kadushin, C. (2002, June). Between sacral belief and moral community: A multidimensional approach to the relationship between religion and alcohol among whites and blacks. In Sociological Forum (Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 255-279). Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers.
Haley, K. C., Koenig, H. G., & Bruchett, B. M. (2001). Relationship between private religious activity and physical functioning in older adults. Journal of Religion and Health, 40(2), 305-312.
Ironson, G., Stuetzle, R., & Fletcher, M. A. (2006). An increase in religiousness/spirituality occurs after HIV diagnosis and predicts slower disease progression over 4 years in people with HIV. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(S5), S62-S68.
Johnson, B. R., Larson, D. B., & Pitts, T. G. (1997). Religious programming, institutional adjustment and recidivism among former inmates in prison fellowship programs. Justice Quarterly, 14, 145-166.
Keefe, F. J., Affleck, G., Lefebvre, J., Underwood, L., Caldwell, D. S., Drew, J., et al., (2001). Living with rheumatoid arthritis: The role of daily spirituality and daily religious and spiritual coping. The Journal of Pain, 2(2), 101-110.
Koenig, H. G. (2002). Religion, congestive heart failure, and chronic pulmonary disease. Journal of Religion and Health, 41(3), 263-278.
Koenig, H., George, L. K., Larson, D. B., Cohen, H. J., & Blazer, D. G. (1998). The relationship between religious activities and blood pressure in older adults. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 28, 189-213.
Kremer, H., Ironson, G., Kaplan, L., Stuetzele, R., Baker, N., & Fletcher, M. A. (2015). Spiritual coping predicts CD4-cell preservation and undetectable viral load over four years. AIDS Care, 27(1), 71-79.
Lorenz, K. A., Hays, R. D., Shapiro, M. F., Cleary, P. D., Asch, S. M., & Wenger, N. S. (2005). Religiousness and spirituality among HIV-infected Americans. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 8(4), 774-781.
McNulty, K., Livneh, H., & Wilson, L. M. (2004). Perceived uncertainty, spiritual well-being, and psychosocial adaptation in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Rehabilitation Psychology, 49(2), 91.
Miller, W. R. (1998). Researching the spiritual dimensions of alcohol and other drug problems. Addiction, 93(7), 979-990.
Newlin, K., Melkus, G. D., Tappen, R., Chyun, D., & Koenig, H. G. (2008). Relationships of religion and spirituality to glycemic control in Black women with type 2 diabetes. Nursing research, 57(5), 331-339.
Rippentrop, A. E., Altmaier, E. M., Chen, J. J., Found, E. M., & Keffala, V. J. (2005). The relationship between religion/spirituality and physical health, mental health, and pain in a chronic pain population. Pain, 116(3), 311-321.
Ruoff, G. E. (1996). Depression in the patient with chronic pain. Journal of Family Practice, 43(6), S25-S25.
Szaflarski, M., Neal Ritchey, P., Leonard, A. C., Mrus, J. M., Peterman, A. H., Ellison, C. G., McCullough, M. E., & Tsevat, J. (2006). Modeling the effects of spirituality/religion on patients’ perceptions of living with HIV/AIDS. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(S5), S28-S38.
Turner, J. A., & Clancy, S. (1986). Strategies for coping with chronic low back pain: relationship to pain and disability. Pain, 24(3), 355-364.
Yi, M. S., Mrus, J. M., Wade, T. J., Ho, M. L., Hornung, R. W., Cotton, S., ... & Tsevat, J. (2006). Religion, spirituality, and depressive symptoms in patients with HIV/AIDS. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(S5), S21-S27.

Chapter 8

Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2006). Happiness, health, and religiosity: Significant relations. Mental Health. Religion and Culture, 9(1), 85–97.
Abdel-Khalek, A. M., & Naceur, F. (2007). Religiosity and its association with positive and negative emotions among college students from Algeria. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 10(2), 159–170.
Abdel-Khalek AM (2007b), Religiosity, happiness, health, and psychopathology in a probability sample of Muslim adolescents, Mental Health, Religion, and Culture, 10(6):571-583.
Al-Kandari, Y. Y. (2003). Religiosity and its relation to blood pressure among selected Kuwaitis. Journal of Biosocial Science, 35, 463–472.
Benson, H., Malhotra, M. S., Goldman, R. F., Jacobs, G. D., & Hopkins, P. J. (1990). Three case reports of the metabolic and electroencephalographic changes during advanced Buddhist meditation techniques. Behavioral Medicine, 16(2), 90-95.

Clarfield, A. M., Gordon, M., Markwell, H., & Alibhai, S. M. (2003). Ethical Issues in End‐of‐Life Geriatric Care: The Approach of Three Monotheistic Religions—Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(8), 1149-1154.
Craig, M. A., & Richeson, J. A. (2014). On the precipice of a “Majority-Minority” America perceived status threat from the racial demographic shift affects white Americans’ political ideology. Psychological science, 25, 6:1189-1197.
Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S. F., ... & Sheridan, J. F. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic medicine, 65(4), 564-570.
Francis, L. J., Katz, Y. J., Yablon, Y., & Robbins, M. (2004). Religiosity, personality, and happiness: A study among Israeli male undergraduates. Journal of Happiness Studies, 5(4), 315-333.
Gallup. (2015). Religion. Retrieved February 10th, 2016 from http://www.
Friedlander, Y., Kark, J. D., Kaufmann, N. A., & Stein, Y. (1985). Coronary heart disease risk factors among religious groupings in a Jewish population sample in Jerusalem. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 42(3), 511-521.
Friedlander, Y., Kark, J. D., & Stein, Y. (1986). Religious orthodoxy and myocardial infarction in Jerusalem—a case control study. International journal of cardiology, 10(1), 33-41.
Goldsand, G., Rosenberg, Z. R., & Gordon, M. (2001). Bioethics for clinicians: 22. Jewish bioethics. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 164(2), 219-222.
Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis. Journal of psychosomatic research, 57(1), 35-43.
Higuchi, Y., Kotani, Y., Higuchi, H., & Minegishi, Y. (1998). Immune capability changes during zazen. Journal of International Society of Life Information Science, 16, 46–47.
Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003, March/April). The true clash of civilizations. Foreign Policy, 135, 67–75.
Jamal, M., & Badawi, J. (1993). Job stress among Muslim immigrants in North America: Moderating effects of religiosity. Stress Medicine, 9, 145–151.
Johnson, Todd M.; Grim, Brian J. (2013). The World’s Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 34–37.
Kark, J. D., Shemi, G., Friedlander, Y., Martin, O., Manor, O., & Blondheim, S. H. (1996). Does religious observance promote health? Mortality in secular vs religious kibbutzim in Israel. American Journal of Public Health, 86(3), 341-346.
Lewis, C. S. (2014). God in the Dock. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
Miller, B. S. (1988). The Bhagavad-Gita (translation). New York, NY: Bantam Books.
Nagamia, H. F. (2003). Islamic medicine history and current practice. Journal of the International Society for the history of Islamic medicine, 2, 19-30.
Pew Research Center, (2012 December 15). The Global Religious Landscape, December 18th, 2012, Retrieved on April 15th, 2015 from,
Rassool, G. H. (2000). The crescent and Islam: healing, nursing and the spiritual dimension. Some considerations towards an understanding of the Islamic perspectives on caring. Journal of advanced nursing, 32(6), 1476-1484.
Ratanakul P. (2004) Buddhism, Health and Disease, Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 15, 162-4.
Reibel, D. K., Greeson, J. M., Brainard, G. C., & Rosenzweig, S. (2001). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health-related quality of life in a heterogeneous patient population. General hospital psychiatry, 23(4), 183-192.
Smith, R. D. (1980). Avicenna and the Canon of Medicine: a millennial tribute. Western Journal of Medicine, 133(4), 367.
Shemesh, A., & Elkana, Y. (2000). Adjusted Mortality Rates and Socio-Economic Indices in Israeli Localities. Jerusaelm: Ministry of Health (Hebrew).
Shmueli, A., & Tamir, D. (2007). Health behavior and religiosity among Israeli Jews. The Israel Medical Association journal: IMAJ, 9(10), 703-707.
Snyder, M., Goldbourt, U., Medalie, J. H., Neufeld, H. N., & Oron, D. (1978). A lower incidence of myocardial infarction among religious Jews than among irreligious Jews. Torah Mada, 8:35–44.
Syed, I. B. (2003). Spiritual medicine in the history of Islamic medicine. Journal of International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine—JISHAM, 2, 45-49.
Tiliouine, H., Cummins, R. A., & Davern, M. (2009). Islamic religiosity, subjective well-being, and health. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12(1), 55-74.
Tessler, M. (2003). Arab and muslim political attitudes: stereotypes and evidence from survey research. International Studies Perspectives, 4, 175–180.
Weaver, A. J., Vane, A., & Flannelly, K. J. (2008). A review of research on Buddhism and health: 1980–2003. Journal of health care chaplaincy, 14(2), 118-132.
Whitman, S. M. (2007). Pain and suffering as viewed by the Hindu religion. The Journal of Pain, 8(8), 607-613.
Wig, N. N. (1999). Mental health and spiritual values. A view from the East. International Review of Psychiatry, 11(2-3), 92-96.

Chapter 9

Coward, D. D. (1990). The lived experience of self-transcendence in women with advanced breast cancer. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3(4), 162-169.
Daaleman, T. P., & Frey, B. (1998). Prevalence and patterns of physician referral to clergy and pastoral care providers. ArcHIVes of Family Medicine, 7(6), 548.
Daaleman, T. P., & VandeCreek, L. (2000). Placing religion and spirituality in end-of-life care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(19), 2514-2517.
Dow, K. H., Ferrell, B. R., Leigh, S., Ly, J., & Gulasekaram, P. (1996). An evaluation of the quality of life among long-term survivors of breast cancer. Breast cancer research and treatment, 39(3), 261-273.
Emanuel, E. J., Daniels, E. R., Fairclough, D. L., & Clarridge, B. R. (1998). The practice of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the United States: adherence to proposed safeguards and effects on physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(6), 507-513.
Kaczorowski, J. M. (1989). Spiritual well-being and anxiety in adults diagnosed with cancer. Hospice Journal, 5:105-116.
Kaldjian, L. C., Jekel, J. F., & Friedland, G. (1998). End‐of‐life decisions in HIV‐positive patients: the role of spiritual beliefs. Aids, 12(1), 103-107.
McClain, C. S., Rosenfeld, B., & Breitbart, W. (2003). Effect of spiritual well-being on end-of-life despair in terminally-ill cancer patients. The Lancet, 361(9369), 1603-1607.
McClain-Jacobson, C., Rosenfeld, B., Kosinski, A., Pessin, H., Cimino, J. E., & Breitbart, W. (2004). Belief in an afterlife, spiritual well-being and end-of-life despair in patients with advanced cancer. General hospital psychiatry, 26(6), 484-486.
Meier, D. E., Emmons, C. A., Wallenstein, S., Quill, T., Morrison, R. S., & Cassel, C. K. (1998). A national survey of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 338(17), 1193-1201.
Nelson, C. J., Rosenfeld, B., Breitbart, W., & Galietta, M. (2002). Spirituality, religion, and depression in the terminally ill. Psychosomatics, 43(3), 213-220.
Pargament, K. I., Ensing, D. S., Falgout, K., Olsen, H., Reilly, B., Van Haitsma, K., & Warren, R. (1990). God help me:(I): Religious coping efforts as predictors of the outcomes to significant negative life events. American journal of community psychology, 18(6), 793-824.
Portenoy, R. K., Coyle, N., Kash, K. M., Brescia, F., Scanlon, C., O’Hare, D., ... & Foley, K. M. (1997). Determinants of the Willingness to Endorse Assisted Suicide: A Survey of Physicians, Nurses, and Social Workers. Psychosomatics, 38(3), 277-287.
Puchalski, C. M. (2002). Spirituality and end-of-life care: a time for listening and caring. Journal of palliative medicine, 5(2), 289-294.
Reed, P. G. (1987). Spirituality and well‐being in terminally ill hospitalized adults. Research in nursing & health, 10(5), 335-344.
Rodin, G., Zimmermann, C., Rydall, A., Jones, J., Shepherd, F. A., Moore, M., ... & Gagliese, L. (2007). The desire for hastened death in patients with metastatic cancer. Journal of pain and symptom management, 33(6), 661-675.
Smith, E. D., Stefanek, M. E., Joseph, M. V., Verdieck, M. J., Zabora, J. R., & Fetting, J. H. (1994). Spiritual awareness, personal perspective on death, and psychosocial distress among cancer patients: An initial investigation. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 11(3), 89-103.

Chapter 10

Appelbaum, P. S., Robbins, P. C., & Roth, L. H. (1999). Dimensional approach to delusions: comparison across types and diagnoses. American Journal of Psychiatry.
Booth, J., & Martin, J. E. (1998). Spiritual and religious factors in substance use, dependence, and recovery. In: Koenig HG, ed. Handbook of religion and mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 175–99.
Clark, R. A. (1980). Religious delusions among Jews. American journal of psychotherapy, 34, 62-71.
Clarke, I. (2010). Psychosis and spirituality: The discontinuity model. Psychosis and Spirituality: Consolidating the New Paradigm, Second Edition, 101-114.
Dantas, C. D. R., Pavarin, L. B., & Dalgalarrondo, P. (1999). Symptoms of religious content on psychiatric patients. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 21(3), 158-164.
Farr, C. B., & Howe, R. L. (1932). The influence of religious ideas on the etiology, symptomatology and prognosis of the psychoses: with special reference to social factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 88(5), 845-865.
Freud S. (1930). Civilization and its Discontents. London: Leonard & Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press.
Freud S. (1934). The Future of an Illusion. London: L. & Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-analysis.
Getz, G. E., Fleck, D. E., & Strakowski, S. M. (2001). Frequency and severity of religious delusions in Christian patients with psychosis. Psychiatry Research, 103(1), 87-91.
Grof, C., & Grof, S. (1991). The stormy search for the self: A guide to personal growth through transformational crises. Los Angeles, California: JP Tarcher.
Group For The Advancement Of Psychiatry. (1976). Mysticism: Spiritual Quest or Psychic Disorder? Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, New York.
Hale, A. S., & Pinninti, N. R. (1994). Exorcism-resistant ghost possession treated with clopenthixol. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 386-8.
Horton, P. C. (1974). The Mystical Experience: Substance of an Illusion, American Psychoanalytic Association Journal 22:(2): 364-380.
Johns, L. C., Nazroo, J. Y., Bebbington, P., & Kuipers, E. (2002). Occurrence of hallucinatory experiences in a community sample and ethnic variations. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 180(2), 174-178.
Kemp, S., & Williams, K. (1987). Demonic possession and mental disorder in medieval and early modern Europe. Psychological medicine, 17(01), 21-29.
Kendler, K. S., Liu, X. Q., Gardner, C. O., McCullough, M. E., Larson, D., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Dimensions of religiosity and their relationship to lifetime psychiatric and substance use disorders. American journal of psychiatry, 160(3), 496-503.
Koenig, H. G., Larson, D. B., & Larson, S. S. (2001). Religion and coping with serious medical illness. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 35(3), 352-359.
Lukoff, D., Lu, F., & Turner, R. (1992). Toward a more culturally sensitive DSM-IV: Psychoreligious and psychospiritual problems. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 180(11), 673-682.
Mandel, A. J., (1980). Towards a psychobiology of transcendence: God in the brain. In: “The Psychobiology of Consciousness,” J. M. Davidson & R. J. Davidson (eds), Plenum, New York, pp 39-464.
Menezes Jr, A. D., & Moreira-Almeida, A. (2009). Differential diagnosis between spiritual experiences and mental disorders of religious content. ArcHIVes of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo), 36(2), 75-82.
Menezes Jr, A., & Moreira-Almeida, A. (2010). Religion, spirituality, and psychosis. Current psychiatry reports, 12(3), 174-179.
Mohr, S., Borras, L., Rieben, I., Betrisey, C., Gillieron, C., Brandt, P. Y., ... & Huguelet, P. (2010). Evolution of spirituality and religiousness in chronic schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorders: a 3-years follow-up study. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 45(11), 1095-1103.
Mohr, S., Brandt, P. Y., Borras, L., Gilliéron, C., & Huguelet, P. (2006). Toward an integration of spirituality and religiousness into the psychosocial dimension of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry. 163, 1952-1959.
Mohr, S. M., & Huguelet, P. (2004). Spirituality and religious practices among people suffering from schizophrenia in ambulatory care in Geneva. European Psychiatry, 19, 93S-93S.

Murphy, M. A. (2000). Coping with the spiritual meaning of psychosis. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 24(2), 179-83.
Ohayon, M. M. (2000). Prevalence of hallucinations and their pathological associations in the general population. Psychiatry research, 97(2), 153-164.
Persinger, M. A. (2001). The neuropsychiatry of paranormal experiences. The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 13, 515-524.
Peters, E., Day, S., McKenna, J., & Orbach, G. (1999). Delusional ideation in religious and psychotic populations. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38(1), 83-96.
Pfeifer, S. (1999). Demonic attributions in nondelusional disorders. Psychopathology, 32(5), 252-259.
Salzman, M. (2000). Lying awake. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Saver, J. L., & Rabin, J. (1997). The neural substrates of religious experience. The neuropsychiatry of limbic and subcortical disorders, 195-207.
Sidgwick, H., Johnson, A., Myers, F. W., Podmore, F., & Sidgwick, E. M. (1894). Report on the Census of Hallucinations. In Proceedings of the society for psychical research, 10(26), 25-394.
Sims, A. (2009). Is Faith Delusion?: Why religion is good for your health. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Siddle, R., Haddock, G., Tarrier, N., & Faragher, E. B. (2002). Religious delusions in patients admitted to hospital with schizophrenia. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 37(3), 130-138.
Slater, E., & Beard, A. W. (1963). The schizophrenia-like psychoses of epilepsy. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 109(458), 95-112.
Stompe, T., Friedman, A., Ortwein, G., Strobl, R., Chaudhry, H. R., Najam, N., & Chaudhry, M. R. (1999). Comparison of delusions among schizophrenics in Austria and in Pakistan. Psychopathology, 32(5), 225-234.
Tateyama, M., Asai, M., Kamisada, M., Hashimoto, M., Bartels, M., & Heimann, H. (1993). Comparison of schizophrenic delusions between Japan and Germany. Psychopathology, 26(3-4), 151-158.
Tien, A. Y. (1991). Distribution of hallucinations in the population. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 26(6), 287-292.
Turner, R. P., Lukoff, D., Barnhouse, R. T., & Lu, F. G. (1995). A Culturally Sensitive Diagnostic Category in the DSM-IV. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 183(7), 435-444.
Verghese, A., John, J. K., Rajkumar, S., Richard, J., Sethi, B. B., & Trivedi, J. K. (1989). Factors associated with the course and outcome of schizophrenia in India. Results of a two-year multicentre follow-up study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 154(4), 499-503.
West, D. J. (1948). A mass observation questionnaire on hallucinations. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 34(644-645), 187-195.

Chapter 11

Bacovcin, H. (1978). The Way of a Pilgrim, And, the Pilgrim Continues His Way: A New Translation. New York: An Image Book, Doubleday Publishing.
Benson, H., Dusek, J. A., Sherwood, J. B., Lam, P., Bethea, C. F., Carpenter, W., ... & Drumel, D. (2006). Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer (STEP) in cardiac bypass patients: a multicenter randomized trial of uncertainty and certainty of receiving intercessory prayer. American heart journal, 151(4), 934-942.
Byrd, R. C. (1988). Positive therapeutic effects of intercessory prayer in a coronary care unit population. Southern medical journal, 81(7), 826-829.
Collipp, P. J. (1969). The efficacy of prayer: a triple-blind study. Medical times, 97(5), 201-204.
Harris, W. S., Gowda, M., Kolb, J. W., Strychacz, C. P., Vacek, J. L., Jones, P. G., ... & McCallister, B. D. (1999). A randomized, controlled trial of the effects of remote, intercessory prayer on outcomes in patients admitted to the coronary care unit. ArcHIVes of Internal medicine, 159(19), 2273-2278.
Krucoff, M. W., Crater, S. W., Gallup, D., Blankenship, J. C., Cuffe, M., Guarneri, M., ... & Pichard, A. (2005). Music, imagery, touch, and prayer as adjuncts to interventional cardiac care: the Monitoring and Actualisation of Noetic Trainings (MANTRA) II randomised study. The Lancet, 366(9481), 211-217.
Lawrence, B. (2007). Practicing the Presence of God: A Modernized Christian Classic. Brewster, MA: Paraclete Press.
Lincoln, A., & Sebald, H. (1950). The Emancipation Proclamation. Washington DC: National ArcHIVes and Records Service, General Services Administration.
Masters, K. S., Spielmans, G. I., & Goodson, J. T. (2006). Are there demonstrable effects of distant intercessory prayer? A meta-analytic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 32(1), 21-26.
May, G. G. (2009). The dark night of the soul. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Chapter 12

Centor, R. M., Morrow, R. W., Poses, R. M., Vega, C. P. (2012 November 13). Doc burnout -- worse than other workers.’ Medscape Roundtable in Primary Care, Retrieved on February 20th, 2013 from, www.medscape. com/viewarticle/774013.
Cusma, K., Rosenbaum, S. (2014 August 18). NYU medical grad jumps to his death from dorm roof. New York Post. Retrieved on February 5th, 2016 from
Deloitte Center for Health Solutions. (2013). Survey of US Physicians – Physician perspectives about health care reform and the future of the medical profession. Retrieved on February 5th, 2015 from https://www2.
Doolittle, B. R., Windish, D. M., & Seelig, C. B. (2013). Burnout, coping, and spirituality among internal medicine resident physicians. Journal of graduate medical education, 5(2), 257-261.
Epstein, R. M. (1999). Mindful practice. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(9), 833-839.
Hatch, R. L., Burg, M. A., Naberhaus, D. S., & Hellmich, L. K. (1998). The spiritual involvement and beliefs scale: Development and testing of a new instrument. Journal of Family Practice, 46(6), 476-487.
Lindeman, S., Laara, E., Hakko, H., & Lonnqvist, J. (1996). A systematic review on gender-specific suicide mortality in medical doctors. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 168(3), 274-279.
Lloyd, S., Streiner, D., & Shannon, S. (1994). Burnout, depression, life and job satisfaction among Canadian emergency physicians. The Journal of emergency medicine, 12(4), 559-565.
Remen, R. N. (2001). Recapturing the soul of medicine. Western Journal of Medicine, 174(1), 4.
Shanafelt, T. D., Boone, S., Tan, L., Dyrbye, L. N., Sotile, W., Satele, D., ... & Oreskovich, M. R. (2012). Burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance among US physicians relative to the general US population. ArcHIVes of internal medicine, 172(18), 1377-1385.
Shapiro, S. L., Astin, J. A., Bishop, S. R., & Cordova, M. (2005). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for health care professionals: results from a randomized trial. International Journal of Stress Management, 12(2), 164.
Sullivan, P., & Buske, L. (1998). Results from CMA’s huge 1998 physician survey point to a dispirited profession. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 159(5), 525-528.
Velez, N., Cohen, S. (2014 August 22). Medical intern plunges to death off tower in NYC. New York Post. Retrieved on February 5th, 2016 from
Warde, C. M., Moonesinghe, K., Allen, W., & Gelberg, L. (1999). Marital and parental satisfaction of married physicians with children. Journal of general internal medicine, 14(3), 157-165.
Weiner, E. L., Swain, G. R., Wolf, B., & Gottlieb, M. (2001). A qualitative study of physicians’ own wellness-promotion practices. Western Journal of Medicine, 174(1), 19-23.
Wurster, C. F. (1992). The descendency of the educated class. Western Journal of Medicine, 156:438.

Chapter 13

Balboni, T., Balboni, M., Paulk, M. E., Phelps, A., Wright, A., Peteet, J., ... & Prigerson, H. (2011). Support of cancer patients’ spiritual needs and associations with medical care costs at the end of life. Cancer, 117(23), 5383-5391.
Flannelly, K. J., Emanuel, L. L., Handzo, G. F., Galek, K., Silton, N. R., & Carlson, M. (2012). A national study of chaplaincy services and end-of-life outcomes. BMC palliative care, 11(1), 10.
Koenig, H., King, D., & Carson, V. B. (2012). Handbook of religion and health. Oxford, UK: Oxford university press.
Osler, W. (1909). The principles and practice of medicine. New York: Appleton and Company.
Pew Research Center, The Global Religious Landscape, December 18th, 2012, Retrieved on April 15th, 2015 from, 12/18/global-religious-landscape-exec/.
Phelps, A. C., Maciejewski, P. K., Nilsson, M., Balboni, T. A., Wright, A. A., Paulk, M. E., ... & Prigerson, H. G. (2009). Religious coping and use of intensive life-prolonging care near death in patients with advanced cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(11), 1140-1147.
Rubin’s, G. (2009). The happiness project, New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Williams, J. A., Meltzer, D., Arora, V., Chung, G., & Curlin, F. A. (2011). Attention to inpatients’ religious and spiritual concerns: predictors and association with patient satisfaction. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(11), 1265-1271.

If you have any questions or comments with regards to this book, please fill out the form below. Thank you!

You have not viewed any product yet.