Reduction Cd in Soil-Rice by Si: Theory and Practice

Vladimir V. Matichenkov, Ph.D. (Editor)
Institute of Basic Biological Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow, Russia

Xiao Wei (Editor)
Hunan Economic Geography Institute, Changsha, China

Series: Environmental Research Advances
BISAC: SCI026000

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Cd accumulation in rice grain is a world-wide problem because rice is the staple food of over half the world’s population. Over the past few decades, many authors have reported that Si-rich substances can mitigate the negative influence of Cd on the growth of various plants, including rice. The main aim of this research was to summarize the data from literature and the investigation to understand the mechanisms of the Si effect on the migration and transportation of Cd in the paddy soil-rice system.

This system was separated into two parts – the soil and the plant – and each part was studied separately. Si-rich soil amendments, Si fertilizers, and Si-based biostimulators were used in laboratory, greenhouse, and field tests. Several mechanisms of Si-Cd interactions in the soil-plant system (precipitation and sorption in soil, accumulation in roots and reduction Cd transport in apoplast and symplast of roots, stem and leaves), were investigated in detail and knowledge about these mechanisls were used for elaborating the practical recommendation. The field tests demonstrated that the use of Si-rich materials can reduce Cd in the rice grain by 50 to 90%, and other pollutants, including As, Cu, Hg, and Pb, by 40 to 95%. The combination of Ca- and Si-rich substances reinforced the reduction of Cd mobility and grain accumulation and is a prospective soil decontamination and food safety technology.

The foliar application of Se can also provide an additional reduction of Cd accumulation in the rice grain. Our field tests showed that the application of Si-rich substances makes it possible to reduce traditional NPK fertilizer application rates by 20 to 30% without reducing the rice yield. This effect will also reduce the amount of Cd entering the cultivated soil. The data from the tests provides a reason to strongly recommend the use of Si-rich materials for the reduction of Cd accumulation in rice grain. Si-rich materials can also be used to reduce Cd accumulation in fruits of other cultivated plants. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Foreword

Chapter 1. Cd Pollution of Cultivated Areas
(Wei Xiao, Zhang Pengbo, Liu Yuqiao, Xu Bo, Zhan Qiang, Li Hong, Zhao Dandan1, Elena Bocharnikova, John Campbell and Vladimir Matichenkov, Hunan Economic Geography Institute, Changsha, China, and others)

Chapter 2. The Effect of Si on Heavy Metal Mobility in the Soil-Plant System
(Vladimir Matichenkov, Elena Bocharnikova and John Campbell, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Pushchino, Russia, and others)

Chapter 3. Si-Cd Interaction in Artificial Systems and Laboratory Studies
(Hua Peng, Xionghui Ji, Wei Wei, Elena Bocharnikova, John Campbell and Vladimir Matichenkov, 1Institute of Agriculture Environment and Ecology, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science (HAAS), Changsha, China, and others)

Chapter 4. Regulation of Cd Mobility in the Soil Matrix by Si
(Saihua Liu, Hua Peng, Xionghui Ji, Elena Bocharnikova, John Campbell and Vladimir Matichenkov, Institute of Agriculture Environment and Ecology, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science (HAAS), Changsha, China, and others)

Chapter 5. The Regulation of Cd Transport in Rice Plants by Si
(Wei Wei, Hua Peng, Xionghui Ji, Elena Bocharnikova, John Campbell and Vladimir Matichenkov, Longping Branch, Hunan University, Changsha, China, and others)

Chapter 6. Cd-Si Interaction in an Artificial Soil-Plant System
(Saihua Liu, Hua Peng, Xionghui Ji, Elena Bocharnikova, John Campbell and Vladimir Matichenkov, Institute of Agriculture Environment and Ecology, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science (HAAS), Changsha, China, and others)

Chapter 7. Si-Cd Interactions in the Soil-Plant System during the First Stage of Rice Growth
(Saihua Liu, Hua Peng, Xionghui Ji, Elena Bocharnikova, John Campbell and Vladimir Matichenkov, Institute of Agriculture Environment and Ecology, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science (HAAS), Changsha, China, and others)

Chapter 8. Silicon Fertilization for Rice in Cd-Polluted Soils
(Wei Xiao, Zhang Pengbo, Liu Yuqiao, Xu Bo, Zhan Qiang, Li Hong, Zhao Dandan, Elena Bocharnikova, John Campbell and Vladimir Matichenkov, Hunan Economic Geography Institute, Changsha, China, and others)

Chapter 9. Complex Fertilization System for the Reduction of Cd in Rice: Ecological Aspects
(Wei Xiao, Zhang Pengbo, Liu Yuqiao, Xu Bo, Zhan Qiang, Li Hong, Zhao Dandan, Elena Bocharnikova, John Campbell and Vladimir Matichenkov, Hunan Economic Geography Institute, Changsha, China, and others)

Chapter 10. Complex Fertilization System for the Reduction of Cd in Rice: Economic Aspects
(Wei Xiao, Zhang Pengbo, Liu Yuqiao, Xu Bo, Zhan Qiang, Li Hong, Zhao Dandan, Elena Bocharnikova, John Campbell and Vladimir Matichenkov, Hunan Economic Geography Institute, Changsha, China, and others)

Conclusion

Index

Keywords: Silicon, cadmium, rice, pollution, remediation, soil, ecology

The book will be extremely important for scientists, ecologist and agronomists. Universities or scientific organizations, agricultural organizations (farms), governmental ecological and agricultural organization. Students.

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