Recollections of Pioneers in Xenotransplantation Research


David K. C. Cooper (Editor)
Xenotransplantation Program, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, US

Series: New Developments in Medical Research
BISAC: MED085070

There is a critical and continuing shortage of organs and cells from deceased human donors for the purposes of transplantation into patients with terminal organ failure. The use of organs and cells from pigs – i.e., cross-species transplantation, or xenotransplantation – could resolve this problem. Recollections of Pioneers in Xenotransplantation Research is a collection of reminiscences by surgeons and scientists who, over the past 50 years, have made major contributions to research into achieving successful transplantation of pig organs and cells into primates. It records the personal work of 22 researchers from North America, Asia, Europe, and Australasia who developed this field, which will have an immense impact on the future medical care of patients with such diverse conditions as heart and kidney failure, diabetes, corneal blindness, and Parkinson’s disease.

A pig organ transplanted into a human or nonhuman primate is rejected within minutes. To overcome this immunological barrier, pigs have been genetically-engineered to protect their tissues from the primate immune response. Today, life-supporting organs from pigs with up to six genetic modifications have functioned for more than a year in nonhuman primates, and the blood sugar of diabetic monkeys has been controlled for more than two years by the transplantation of insulin-producing pancreatic islet cells from pigs. Clinical trials of pig islet and corneal transplantation have already been undertaken, and trials of organ transplants are currently being planned.

The pioneering researchers who contributed to the early development of this field highlight their own roles, and record their personal recollections of the other scientists and surgeons with whom they collaborated. They do not confine themselves to the scientific progress they made, but comment on the roles of industry and academia in moving the field forward.

Recollections of Pioneers in Xenotransplantation Research will be of interest to physicians, scientists, and the lay person with an interest in transplantation or in the care of patients with life-threatening diseases, but also to those interested to understand the potential of genetic-engineering in science and medicine.

The book provides a historical record of the research that has contributed to an advance in medicine that has been called “the next great medical revolution.” Within a few years, this new form of therapy is likely to impact every family in the developed world.



Table of Contents


Chapter 1. The “Reemtsma Era”: Recollections of an Acolyte
(Mark A. Hardy, Columbia University, New York, NY, US)

Chapter 2. Observations on Early Xenograft: Tolerance Experiments and Concepts
(Roy Y. Calne, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK)

Chapter 3. The Next Great Medical Revolution: A Cardiac Surgeon’s Efforts to Develop Xenotransplantation
(David K. C. Cooper , Xenotransplantation Program, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, US)

Chapter 4. Xenotransplantation in Evolution
(Jeffrey L. Platt, Departments of Surgery and of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, US)

Chapter 5. The Xenotransplantation Effort in Minnesota
(Agustin P. Dalmasso, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, US)

Chapter 6. Conquering Complement with Transgenic Pigs 1985-1999: A Reminiscence
(David J. G. White, Schulich School of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, CA)

Chapter 7. Reminiscences of Xenotransplantation 25 Years Later
(Emanuele Cozzi, CORIT (Consortium for Research in Organ Transplantation), Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, Transplant Immunology Unit, Padua University Hospital, Padua, Italy)

Chapter 8. Antibodies, Gal and CD46: Our Contribution to the Field
(Ian F.C. McKenzie and Mauro S. Sandrin [with the assistance of Dale Christiansen], University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia)

Chapter 9. Personal Reflections on the Field of Xenotransplantation
(Richard N. Pierson III, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, US)

Chapter 10. Reminiscences of My Involvement in Xenotransplantation
(David H. Sachs, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, US)

Chapter 11. Contributions to Development of Xenotransplantation in Oklahoma and Nagoya
(Takaaki Kobayashi, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan)

Chapter 12. Reminiscences of Xenotransplantation Studies
(Shuji Miyagawa, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan)

Chapter 13. Memories and Reflections on Cell Xenotransplantation
(Robert B. Elliott, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand)

Chapter 14. A Journey in Xenotransplantation Science, from Mélies Illumination to Medical Wisdom at the Nantes Institute of Transplantation
(Jean-Paul Soulillou, INSERM U1064 and Nantes University, Nantes, France)

Chapter 15. Xenotransplantation: Over 25 Years of Engagement at the Interface between Academia and Industry
(Hendrik Jan Schuurman, SchuBiomed Consultancy BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands)

Chapter 16. Organisms Don’t Carry Passports
(Jay Fishman, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Transplant Center, Boston, MA, US)

Chapter 17. The Dawn of Xenotransplantation Research in Korea
(Curie Ahn, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea)

Chapter 18. Reminiscences about Xenotransplantation
(Chung-Gyu Park, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea)

Chapter 19. Xenotransplantation at and around Ludwig Maximilians University
(Bruno Reichart [with the assistance of Alexander Kind, Angelika Schnieke, Eckhard Wolf, Paolo Brenner and Michael Schmöckel], Walter-Brendel-Institute, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany)

Chapter 20. Clinical Xenotransplantation Trials and Scientific Achievements in Sweden
(Michael E. Breimer, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden)

Chapter 21. The Purposes and Accomplishments of the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Xenotransplantation (SACX) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999-2005
(Harold Y. Vanderpool, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, US)

Chapter 22. Xenotransplantation: The Official Journal of the International Xenotransplantation Association
David H. Sachs (Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, US) and David K.C. Cooper (Xenotransplantation Program, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, US)

Chapter 23. The Establishment of the International Xenotransplantation Association: The First Section of the Transplantation Society
David H. Sachs (Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, US) and David K.C. Cooper (Xenotransplantation Program, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, US)

Contributors List



American Journal of Transplantation – Reviewed by Brian I. Shaw, Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA

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