Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS): Mechanisms and Role in Health and Disease

Shannon Wilkerson (Editor)

Series: Chemistry Research and Applications
BISAC: SCI013010

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This compilation opens with a comprehensive review of heavy metals involves the unifying theme of electron transfer (ET), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) applied to toxicity, which often arises from pollution. The beneficial effect of antioxidants (AOs) supports the participation of oxidative stress. ROS are examined for their application to illnesses such as: cancer, cardiovascular diseases, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, neurodegenerative diseases and aging illnesses. Afterwards, the mechanisms of ROS generation in the skin, the roles of ROS in altering the skin and ROS elimination in the body are discussed. The etiology of osteoarthritis is discussed, including oxidative stress and the overproduction of ROS, which is responsible in intracellular signaling processes, chondrocyte senescence and apoptosis, extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation along with synovial inflammation and dysfunction of the subchondral bone. The authors examine how increased ROS production generates development of malignancy; ROS are formed in vivo and many are powerful oxidizing agents, capable of damaging DNA and other biomolecules. Additionally, ROS are well-recognized for their dual roles as both deleterious and beneficial species. They are produced in many normal and abnormal processes in humans, such as aging, joint diseases, and cancer.

Increased ROS production leads to tissue damage associated with inflammation and the overproduction of ROS results in oxidative stress, which can be an important mediator of damage to cell structures (membranes, lipids, proteins, and DNA). However, low/moderate levels of ROS can act as indispensable second messengers that have a beneficial effect on regulating several of radical cellular activities, including cell activation, proliferation, death, and gene expression. An outline of the present knowledge on the impact of mKATP opening on ROS production, and ROS signaling events triggered by mKATP opening is provided, in order to find a link between bioenergetic effects of mKATP channels functioning and multiple pathways of cytoprotection afforded by pharmacological mKATP channels openers. It is generally thought that mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a key end effector of cytoprotective signaling triggered by mKATP channels opening, which inhibition affords protection under metabolic stress conditions. Subsequently, a chapter is included focusing on the role of ROS in causing oxidative injury, as well as the depletion of ROS. Lastly, redox cycles of several benzene-diol derivatives are reported. The redox cycles can be constructed by benzene-diol compounds, the reduced form of benzoquinone, nicotinamide adenine-dinucleotide, and metal ions. The substituents of benzene-diols strongly affect the rates of their redox cycles.

Preface

Chapter 1. Mechanism of Heavy Metal Toxicity: Electron Transfer, Reactive Oxygen Species, Free Radicals, Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, and Redox Signaling
(Peter Kovacic, Ratnasamy Somanathan, and Marie-Caline Abadjian, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA, and others)

Chapter 2. Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Stress Involvement in Illnesses
(Peter Kovacic and Ratnasamy Somanathan, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA, and others)

Chapter 3. Reactive Oxygen Species and Aging Mechanism
(Wahyu Widowati, Reza Y Purwoko, Dwi Davidson Rihibiha, Rizal Rizal, Tri Suciati, Tjandrawati Mozef, Dian Ratih Laksmitawati, M. Aris Widodo, and Sutiman B. Sumitro, Faculty of Medicine, Maranatha Christian University, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, and others)

Chapter 4. Reactive Oxygen Species in Osteoarthritis
(Wahyu Widowati, Omat Rachmat, Robin Novriansyah, Tri Suciati, Dwi Davidson Rihibiha, Tjandrawati Mozef, Rizal Rizal, M. Aris Widodo, and Sutiman B Sumitro)

Chapter 5. Reactive Oxygen Species as Inducers and Inhibitors of Cancer
(Wahyu Widowati, Ahmad Faried, Indra Bachtiar, Harry Murti, Ervi Afifah, Seila Arumwardana, Dwi Davidson Rihibiha, Tjandrawati Mozef, Rizal Rizal, M. Aris Widodo, and Sutiman B. Sumitro, Faculty of Medicine, Maranatha Christian University, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia)

Chapter 6. The Role of ROS in Bone Metabolism Related Disease
(Jianmei Li, Fei Kang, Xiaoshan Gong, and Shiwu Dong, Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Army Military Medical University, Chongqing, China)

Chapter 7. Mitochondrial KATP Channels and ROS: Pathways of Cytoprotective Signaling
(Olga V. Akopova, Circulation Department, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, NAS of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine)

Chapter 8. The Role and Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species for Microbial Disease Control
(Heejeong Lee and Dong Gun Lee, School of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea)

Chapter 9. Redox Cycles of Benzenediol Derivatives Responsible for Hydrogen Peroxide Formation
(Kazutaka Hirakawa and Keisuke Sugimoto, Applied Chemistry and Biochemical Engineering Course, Department of Engineering, Graduate School of Integrated Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Johoku 3-5-1, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan)

Index

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