Quinoa: Cultivation, Nutritional Properties and Effects on Health

Pier Giorgio Peiretti (Editor)
Institute of Sciences of Food Production. Italian National Research Council, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Turin, Grugliasco, Italy

Francesco Gai (Editor)
Italian National Research Council (CNR), Grugliasco, Italy

Series: Food Science and Technology
BISAC: TEC012000

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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a pseudocereal of Andean origin that is becoming more and more popular in Europe, Asia and the United States of America because it is a good source of different nutrients, rich in antioxidant compounds and it offers an alternative to classical cereals in celiac diet because its seeds are gluten-free. Concerning its employment in food application, quinoa-derived products have been successfully employed in the preparation of different foods as fat/cream substitutes and to enhance the quality of baked foods. This book aims to review recent advances in the quinoa plant cultivation as well as the nutritional properties and effects on human health of quinoa-derived products.

Chapter One focuses on the morphophenological evaluation of different quinoa accessions collected all over the world and their agronomical performances tested both in the experimental field and open field trials.

In Chapter Two, the authors provide a description of the phenology, made on three different growing seasons, of a wide group of quinoa varieties, collected in different environments, in field conditions at the Peruvian central coast.

Chapter Three evaluates the antioxidative capacity and phenolic compounds content in the aerial part of the quinoa plant during its growth cycle in six progressive morphological stages from the early vegetative to the grain fill stage.

In Chapter Four, the authors determined the nutritional value and content of some bioactive compounds in different quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) and kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L.) ecotypes collected in Peru. Chapter Five describes the potential use of quinoa seed and plant in animal nutrition.

The authors of Chapter Six described the employment of the fermentation process to improve technological, nutritional and sensory quality of quinoa in order to obtain the fortification of conventional or novel foods.

The aim of chapter seven is to review the available studies on the use of quinoa as a bread making ingredient.

In Chapter Eight, the authors examined the quality characteristics of cereal-based foods enriched with quinoa flour and inulin with a different degree of polymerization in order to obtain new fortified breads and pasta with lowering glicemic index effect.

Chapter Nine evaluates studies carried out to develop healthier gluten-free products, considering sensory and technological aspects of quality to help promoting the quality of life for people who need to follow a gluten-free diet.

Chapter Ten critically reviews studies on the use of quinoa as a milk substitute on dairy products since it presents a good source of protein with a low glycemic index.

In Chapter Eleven authors proposed a novel icing system based on the use of an aqueous/ethanolic saponin-free quinoa extract to obtain improvement in the quality of both lean and fatty fish species during commercialization under chilled conditions.

Finally, nutritional implications of quinoa intake have been revised in Chapter Twelve.
(Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1. Quinoa Cultivation in Italy
(F. Damiani, M. Brunetti and E. Pannacci, Institute of BioSciences and Bioresources, National Research Council, Perugia, Italy, and others)

Chapter 2. Phenology and Degree Day in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Growing at the Peruvian Central Coast
(Luz Gomez-Pando, Carlos Quillatupa-Asteste, Vanessa Mendoza-Soto, María Carbajal-Caceda and Enrique Aguilar-Castellanos, Cereals and Native Grains Research Program, Agronomy Faculty, National Agrarian University La Molina, Lima, Peru)

Chapter 3. Changes in Antioxidative Capacity and Phenolic Compounds in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) Plant Extracts during Growth Cycle
(Francesco Gai, Pier Giorgio Peiretti, Magdalena Karamać and Ryszard Amarowicz, Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Italian National Research Council, Grugliasco, Italy, and others)

Chapter 4. Nutritional Value and Bioactive Compounds in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), Kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) and Kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L.)
(R. Repo-Carrasco-Valencia, S. Melgarejo-Cabello and J.M. Pihlava, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru, and others)

Chapter 5. Quinoa: Nutritive Quality of Seeds and Plants in Animal Nutrition
(Pier Giorgio Peiretti, Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Italian National Research Council, Grugliasco, Italy)

Chapter 6. Fermentation as a Tool to Improve Nutritional and Functional Quality of Quinoa
(Marco Montemurro, Erica Pontonio and Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy)

Chapter 7. Current Trends in Quinoa-Based Bread: Insights into Nutritional, Technological Quality and Sensory Properties
(Natália Manzatti Machado Alencar, Departamento de Biociências, Campus Baixada Santista, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brasil)

Chapter 8. Quality Characteristics of Cereal-Based Foods Enriched with Quinoa and Inulin
(Maria Grazia Melilli, Carla Sillitti, Amalia Conte, Lucia Padalino, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile, Rosaria Bognanni and Antonella Pagliaro, Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems in the Mediterranean, National Research Council, Catania, Italy, and others)

Chapter 9. Quinoa Applications in Gluten-Free Products
(Renata Puppin Zandonadi , Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho, Priscila Farage de Gouveia and Bernardo Romão de Lima, University of Brasilia, Nutrition Department, Brasília, Brasil)

Chapter 10. Quinoa Applications in Dairy-Free Products
(Priscila Farage, Luana Rincon, Renata Puppin Zandonadi and Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho, University of Brasilia, Nutrition Department, Brasilia, Brazil)

Chapter 11. Impact of a Saponin-Free Quinoa Extract on Microbial Spoilage in Chilled Lean and Fatty Fish
(José M. Miranda, Antonio Vega-Gálvez, Jorge Barros-Velázquez, and Santiago P. Aubourg, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science, School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain, and others)

Chapter 12. Nutritional Implications of Quinoa Intake
(Irene Dini, Pharmacy Department, Pharmacy Department, “Federico II” University, Naples, Italy

Index

Keywords: Quinoa, pseudocereals , nutritive value, antioxidative capacity, phenolic compounds, morphological stage, crop, seed, bioactive compounds, flavonoids, phytosterols, novel foods, gluten-free products, fortified pasta , glicemic index, milk replacer, chilled fish, saponin-free quinoa extract, beneficial effects.

The book could be of particular interest for agronomists, plant breeders, academic researchers and food technologist and nutritionists willing to have more knowledge on this topical issue. Concerning its employment in food application, quinoa-derived products have been successfully employed in the preparation of different foods as fat/cream substitutes and to enhance the quality of baked foods. This book aims to review recent advances in the quinoa plant cultivation as well the nutritional properties and effects on human health of quinoa-derived products.

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