Quark Matter: From Subquarks to the Universe

Hidezumi Terazawa
Midlands Academy of Business and Technology

Series: Physics Research and Technology
BISAC: SCI074000

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The meaning of “quark matter” is twofold: It refers to 1) compound states of “subquarks” (the most fundamental constituents of matter), which quarks consist of, as “nuclear matter” to those of “nucleons” (the constituents of the nucleus), and 2) compound states of quarks that consist of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks, and which may be absolutely stable. Recently, both types of quark matter have become very intriguing subjects in physics and astronomy since the recently discovered Higgs boson may be taken as a composite object (possibly, a bound state of subquark-antisubquark pairs). Additionally, many recently observed compact stars have been considered as “strange stars” (stars consisting of quark matter). In this book, these subjects in physics and astronomy are discussed without requiring readers to comprehend mathematical details.

This book consists of three chapters: Chapter One: “Quark Matter and Strange Stars”, Chapter Two: “Composites of Subquarks as Quark Matter”, and Chapter Three: “Dark Energy, Dark Matter, and Strange Stars”. Their contents include the following: In Chapter One, quark matter and strange stars are discussed in detail. In Chapter Two, the unified subquark model of all fundamental particles (quarks, leptons, and gauge and Higgs bosons) and forces (strong, electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational forces) is discussed in detail. In Chapter Three, pregeometry, in which the general theory of relativity for gravity can be derived as an approximate theory at long distances, is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, special and general theories of “inconstancy” in pregeometry – in which fundamental physical constants may vary – are introduced. Finally, possible solutions to the most puzzling problem in current cosmology of dark energy and dark matter in the universe are presented. Between Chapters One and Two, episodes on Dr. Abdus Salam are added, as Dr. Salam was one of the founders of subquark models. Also, between Chapters Two and Three, episodes on Dr. Andrei Sakharov are added, as Dr. Sakharov was the founder of pregeometry.

Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1. Quark Matter and Strange Stars

Chapter 2. Composites of Subquarks as Quark Matter

Chapter 3. Dark Energy, Dark Matter, and Strange Stars

References

Index

“Needless to say, the author is one of the founders and world leaders of the subquark model and the pregeometry. This book offers an excellent introduction to the theories with his comprehensive insights into the Universe, including ideas of strange stars and inconstancy of fundamental constants. The episodes on the famous Nobel Laureates, Abdus Salam and Andrei Sakharov with him are also interesting.” - Keiichi Akama, Co-recipient of the Gravity Research Foundation Award in 1982

"This is an interesting book written from a lofty view by Dr. Hidezumi Terazawa who makes his efforts to avoid complicated mathematics so much that other than specialists can follow whole things without any troubles. The author aims ambitiously to show the way of grasping our universe and peculiar phenomena in it from the standpoint of model of subquarks where every entity in the standard model of elementary particles as well as in the Einstein gravity should be composite state of subquarks, in contrast to the mainstream of the present way of thinking. Besides physics, the author includes valuable stories about Dr. Salam and Dr. Sakharov with him, for he was a rare and precious Japanese friend of them. Even only of these parts would be worth reading to those laypersons unfamiliar with physics." - Yuichi Chikashige, Seikei University, Tokyo, Japan

"This book contains the author's research history of how to create new ideas such as Subquarks, Pregeometry and General Inconstancy, which were influenced by his close relationship to Abdus Salam and Andrei Sakharov, the greatest physicists of the 20th century. The readers can learn much about the imagination in Physics." - Masaki Yasue, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan

Keywords: quark matter, subquarks, strange stars, pregeometry, composite model of quarks and leptons, varying fundamental pysical constants, special and general theories of inconstancy

Audience: High school and college students who are interested in the frontiers in physics, university students in mathematics, chemistry, physics, and astronomy majors, and researchers in chemistry, physics, and astronomy

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