Quark Matter: From Subquarks to the Universe


Hidezumi Terazawa (Author) – Midlands Academy of Business and Technology

Series: Physics Research and Technology
BISAC: SCI074000

The meaning of “quark matter” is twofold: It refers to 1) compound states of “subquarks” (the most fundamental constituents of matter), which quarks consist of, as “nuclear matter” to those of “nucleons” (the constituents of the nucleus), and 2) compound states of quarks that consist of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks, and which may be absolutely stable. Recently, both types of quark matter have become very intriguing subjects in physics and astronomy since the recently discovered Higgs boson may be taken as a composite object (possibly, a bound state of subquark-antisubquark pairs). Additionally, many recently observed compact stars have been considered as “strange stars” (stars consisting of quark matter). In this book, these subjects in physics and astronomy are discussed without requiring readers to comprehend mathematical details.

This book consists of three chapters. In Chapter One, quark matter and strange stars are discussed in detail. In Chapter Two, the unified subquark model of all fundamental particles (quarks, leptons, and gauge and Higgs bosons) and forces (strong, electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational forces) is discussed in detail. In Chapter Three, pregeometry, in which the general theory of relativity for gravity can be derived as an approximate theory at long distances, is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, special and general theories of “inconstancy” in pregeometry – in which fundamental physical constants may vary – are introduced. Finally, possible solutions to the most puzzling problem in current cosmology of dark energy and dark matter in the universe are presented.



Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Quark Matter and Strange Stars

Chapter 2. Composites of Subquarks as Quark Matter

Chapter 3. Dark Energy, Dark Matter, and Strange Stars




“Needless to say, the author is one of the founders and world leaders of the subquark model and the pregeometry. This book offers an excellent introduction to the theories with his comprehensive insights into the Universe, including ideas of strange stars and inconstancy of fundamental constants. The episodes on the famous Nobel Laureates, Abdus Salam and Andrei Sakharov with him are also interesting.” – Keiichi Akama, Co-recipient of the Gravity Research Foundation Award in 1982

“This is an interesting book written from a lofty view by Dr. Hidezumi Terazawa who makes his efforts to avoid complicated mathematics so much that other than specialists can follow whole things without any troubles. The author aims ambitiously to show the way of grasping our universe and peculiar phenomena in it from the standpoint of model of subquarks where every entity in the standard model of elementary particles as well as in the Einstein gravity should be composite state of subquarks, in contrast to the mainstream of the present way of thinking. Besides physics, the author includes valuable stories about Dr. Salam and Dr. Sakharov with him, for he was a rare and precious Japanese friend of them. Even only of these parts would be worth reading to those laypersons unfamiliar with physics.” – Yuichi Chikashige, Seikei University, Tokyo, Japan

“The aim of this book is to offer a comprehensive summary of subquark physics to every physicist. I appreciate the author’s effort to avoid complicated mathematics so that this book also appeals to anyone who is not an expert in physics but interested in physics. Especially, two episodes, respectively, focusing on personal relationships with the greatest physicists, Abdus Salam and Andrei Sakharov, known as Nobelists are easy to read and readers can imagine vivid circumstances surrounding the author including private communications. Their brilliant physics perspectives have been succeeded by the author who has indeed provided a theoretically as well as mathematically firm foundation of their physics. Furthermore, specific physics terms are concisely explained to get their meanings listed in the Dictionary sections. For physicists, this book presents a simple paradigm change in physics, which answers its often-raised many questions such as “Why cannot the standard model predict a particle’s mass?” and “How does gravity interact with quarks and leptons?” under a single new hypothetical principle, compositeness of not only quarks and leptons but also gauge bosons and graviton. Various predictions cover those on the weak and Higgs boson masses in the elementary particle physics to a time-varying cosmological constant in the cosmology. Detailed derivation processes of these predictions are not shown but basic mathematical expressions are displayed so that active readers can derive these predictions by manipulating their mathematical skills with the help of useful related references listed in the end of chapters. This book, rich in personal anecdotes and self-contained dictionaries, is recommended to any physicists and students who are interested in theoretical scenarios of subquarks and in interactions with great scientists. I enjoyed reading it as a comprehensive and unique introduction to subquark physics. Most interesting questions in the current particle physics and cosmology may not be scientifically answerable now but may need varieties of insights in physical phenomena to reach answers. Today’s main stream of such insights seems the way along superstrings for quarks and leptons, but epoch-making progress may not come by looking along a single line of sight. Subquark physics comes along another line of sight and you have seen the beautiful answers to some of the questions. You may develop scenarios equipped with more sophisticated and advanced mathematics to describe the compositeness of “elementary particles” even along superstrings of subquarks.” – Masaki Yasue, Tokai University, Tokyo, Japan

Keywords: quark matter, subquarks, strange stars, pregeometry, composite model of quarks and leptons, varying fundamental pysical constants, special and general theories of inconstancy

Audience: High school and college students who are interested in the frontiers in physics, university students in mathematics, chemistry, physics, and astronomy majors, and researchers in chemistry, physics, and astronomy

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