Psychiatric and Mood Diseases and the Natural Compounds: An Approach to the Future Medical Tool

Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez (Editor)
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Seyed Mohammad Nabavi (Editor)
Baqiyatallah University of MedicalSciences, Tehran, Iran

Series: Psychiatry – Theory, Applications and Treatments
BISAC: MED105020

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Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Since different diseases and their associated pathogens became more resistant to the diverse drugs that have been synthesized or isolated from nature, certain ailments could be treated without generating side effects in current drugs. Cytotoxicity and cognitive and/or motor effects are consequences of the use of certain compounds that in its genealogy alter in a moderated way the treatment of the neurodegenerative diseases. Often, surgical interventions are an invasive alternative that determine whether the patient does or does not achieve the advances expected in reducing involuntary movements, such as Parkinson’s disease. Commercial and natural alternatives could help patients endure the psychological effects of movement and cognitive diseases.

At the present time, L-Dopa is used, for instance, as a commercial drug for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, since it can control the involuntary movements of the patient under a certain status. Although this nitrogen compound presents itself in low concentrations in some vegetables such as broad beans, porotos and ginkgo biloba, the continuous consumption of these foods does not assure that the abovementioned neurodegenerative disease is will recede, nor does it mean that its side effects will decrease.

Therefore, the search for new alternatives that generate mitigation and a better quality of life for patients requires us to check the last few contributions in studies on the motor/mental dysfunctions by using a new and novel medical tool that implies a better pharmacological potential without being discarded from the organism via low solubility in the blood; this potential is known as nanomedicine. Concerning its molecular structure, many drugs have great potential as chemical-therapeutic agents, however, due to its low polarity, these compounds are eliminated from the organism without crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which prevents the entrance of many psychotropic drugs.

In this sense, from the use of cannabinoids, flavonoids and nanomedicine, many authors have impelled their research in reducing the size of the “bundle” that contains the active compound from a medicine, diminishing its concentration and the side effects that accompany the drugs that are administered orally or injected. Even more so, the formation of a supramolecular framework from natural polymers – either chitosan or synthetic molecules such as poly--caprolactone (PCL) – has allowed the formation of nanoparticles with interesting physical-chemical properties, enables the delivery of the active compound in the appropriate site during a controlled release.
In this book, the authors compile a number of diverse contributions focused on the isolation, pharmacological evaluation and formulation of the carrier/drug system and generate, for the case of the nanoparticles, the same pharmacological effects in the people who endure CNS diseases. The advances and novel molecular tools to relieve the patient of the undesirable effects of the current drugs in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases are mentioned and discussed. These scientific achievements are the tip of the iceberg in terms of health improvement for the population due to these limiting diseases.

Preface

Chapter 1. Mood Disorders and Herbal Drug Therapy
Priyanka Dhiman, Neelam Malik, and Anurag Khatkar (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, M. D. University, Rohtak, India)

Chapter 2. Oxidative Stress and Inhibitors of a Monoamine Oxidase Compound Design Based on Natural Products: A Multitarget Strategy for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases
Marco Mellado (Departamento de Química, Universidad Técnico Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile)

Chapter 3. The Role of Cannabinoids in Eating Disorders
Anna Capasso, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez and Luca Rastrelli (Dipartimento di Farmacia, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, Fisciano, Italy)

Chapter 4. The Influence of Some Foods in Mood Regulation
Ana Sanches Silva, Dalia Sánchez-Machado, Jaime López-Cervantes, and Seyed Mohammad Nabavi (National Institute of Agrarian and Veterinary Research (INIAV), I.P., Rua dos Lágidos, Lugar da Madalena, Vairão, Vila do Conde, Portugal)

Chapter 5. Naringenin: A Neuroactive Flavonoid
Amit Lather, Sarita Khatkar, Anurag Khatkar and Sunil Sharma (Vaish Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Rohtak, India)

Chapter 6. Nanomedicine and Parkinson’s Disease: A Nanoparticle Medical Approach
Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Luca Rastrelli, and Eugenio Uriarte (Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Chemistry-Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and others)

Chapter 7. Alkaloids as MAO-A Inhibitors: Towards the Final Solution for Depression and Anxiety
Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Luca Rastrelli, José A. Fontenla, and Juan C. Araya (Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and others)

Chapter 8. Multitarget Drugs in Clinical Development for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment
Iria Torres Terán, Fernanda Rodríguez-Enríquez and Dolores Viña (CiMUS (Centro Singular de Investigación en Medicina Molecular e Enfermidades Crónicas), Santiago de Compostela, Spain)

Index

“The book is an excellent guide to provide evidence based knowledge on new therapeutic approach for Psychiatric and Mood Diseases based on natural compounds. Extensive coverage is given to natural molecules as well as foods with a role in these complex diseases. This book is an invaluable and reference guide for all mental health practitioners, including psychiatric, pharmaceutics, psychologists, nutritionists and mental health nurses. Editors are experts in the field and have invited recognized researchers to enrich the book with the pertinent contributions.” - Professor Dr. Ana Sanches Silva, National Institute of Health, Dr. Ricardo Jorge, I.P., Department of Food and Nutrition, Centro de Estudos de Ciência Animal (CECA), Universidade do Porto, Portugal

“Professor Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez has raised perfectly about the issues related to the disorders of mood and mental disturbances, amplified the versions of treatment used in practice and highlighted about the facts related with the natural compounds which may serve for the better and safe treatment of these problems. The promising results of the alternative treatment of mental problems has gained importance recently throughout the world, even the Ayurveda in India has highlighted about the cure of these problems using plant principles. The people from all parts of world need safe treatment of the various body disorders but they have usually no option with them, hence the efforts of author are appreciable to focus over the natural compounds specifically. Also, the book is relevant not only for the medical professionals but also for the people from all walks of life, especially the researchers working in field of phytochemistry/medicinal chemistry.” - Professor Dr. Anurag Khatkar, Laboratory of Preservation Science and Enzyme Inhibition Studies, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India

Keywords: Psychiatric diseases, Neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Mood dysfunction, Natural products

This book can be read by chemistry students in high school, undergraduate student in chemistry and pharmacy, and experts-researchers in the field of natural products and public health.

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