Principles and Practices of Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Monitoring: From Intensive Care to Home Care

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Antonio M. Esquinas, (Editor) – International Fellow AARC, Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia, Spain

Series: Medical Procedures, Testing and Technology

BISAC: MED058030; MED058070

Non-invasive ventilation is the delivery of oxygen via a face mask and is used in the treatment of respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, and other respiratory conditions. Because patients rely upon ventilation systems to breathe, it is essential to monitor patients’ respiratory function on an ongoing basis. However, this monitoring can prove to be difficult, particularly when patients receive ventilation treatment outside of the hospital and in their homes. As such, this book provides extensive detail concerning the monitoring of non-invasive mechanical ventilation systems in a variety of contexts.

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Preface

Chapter 1. Baseline Physiological Measurements: Respiratory Rate, Spontaneous Breathing, Respiratory Effort, and Work of Breathing
(Biljana Lazovic, Radmila Dmitrovic, Isidora Simonovic and Antonio M. Esquinas – Department of pulmonology, University Clinical Center “Zemun,” Belgrade, Serbia, et al.)

Chapter 2. Assessment of Respiratory Mechanics during Non-Invasive Ventilation
(Chiara Veneroni, Emanuela Zannin and Raffaele L. Dellacà – Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy)

Chapter 3. Basic Monitoring of Inspiratory/Expiratory Muscle Function and Assessment of Respiratory Muscle Weakness
(Guy W. Soo Hoo – Chief, Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Section, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Clinical Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA)

Chapter 4. Arterial Blood Gases. Basic Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatch Physiology. Applications for Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Monitoring
(Fotis Yerosimou and Eirinι Papageorgiou – Department of Anesthesiology, Cancer Hospital “Theageneio,” Thessaloniki, Greece, et al.)

Chapter 5. Dyspnea – Comfort – Compliance – Tolerance. Basic Physiology and Rationale Applications for Non-Invasive Ventilation Monitoring
(Giuseppe Fiorentino, Anna Annunziata and Rosa Cauteruccio – Unit of Respiratory Physiopathology, Monaldi Hospital, Naples, Italy)

Chapter 6. Mask Interface Interactions. Implications for Monitoring. Oronasal Mask versus Helmet. Rebreathing during Non-Invasive Ventilation
(Vijay Hadda and Sourabh Pahuja – Associate Professor, Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, et al.)

Chapter 7. Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure-BiPAP
(Cristina Lameirão and José Miguel Maia – Intensive Care Unit, Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal)

Chapter 8. Non-Invasive Neurally Adjusted Ventilator Assist (NAVA) Mode. Neurally Adjusted Ventilator
(S. Spadaro, M. Lazzeri and A. Fogagnolo – Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, Anesthesia and Intensive Care, University of Ferrara. Italy)

Chapter 9. Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal: Non-Invasive Ventilation
(Francesco Alessandri Federica Maldarelli, and Francesco Pugliese – Department of General Surgery Paride Stefanini, Sapienza University of Rome, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Italy)

Chapter 10. Mechanical Ventilators- Design Devices for Respiratory Monitoring. (Built-In Ventilator Software, Alarms and Recording Data). Unintentional Leaks, Patient Ventilator Synchrony.
(Avşar Zerman, Gül Gürsel and Antonio Esquinas – Kırşehir training and Research hospital, Kırşehir, Türkiye, et al.)

Chapter 11. Technology of Non- Invasive Ventilators. Intensive Care and Non- Intensive Care Devices. Bi-level Ventilators. Software- Algorithm. Leak Compensation. Performance. Airway Pressure Transducers, Flow Sensors
(Dr Harish Mallapura Maheshwarappa, Dr Shivangi Mishra and Jithin K Sreedharan – Department of Critical Care Medicine, Narayana Health City, Bengaluru, India, et al.)

Chapter 12. Airway Pressure Waveforms Analysis. Implications for Monitoring
(Carlo Ancona, Francesca De Marco, Gabriele Valli and Maria Pia Ruggieri – Emergency Department, San Giovanni Addolorata Hospital, Rome, Italy)

Chapter 13. Tidal Volume Waveform Analysis – Implications for Monitoring
(Gil Gonçalves, Daniela Costa Cardoso and Maria Inês Matias – Pulmonology Department, Centro Hospital e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal)

Chapter 14. Emergent Non-Invasive Ventilation Monitoring: Tidal Expiratory Flow Limitation Monitoring by the Forced Oscillation Technique and Its Role in Closed-Loop Ventilation
(Emanuela Zannin, Chiara Veneroni and Raffaele L. Dellacà – Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy)

Chapter 15. Air Flow Analysis. Implications for Monitoring Non-Invasive Ventilation
(Matthias H. Urban – Department for Internal and Respiratory Medicine, Klinik Floridsdorf, Vienna, Austria)

Chapter 16. Monitoring Leakage and Tidal Volume. Accuracy and Reliability during Non-Invasive Ventilation
(Kevin J. Eng, Tisha Wang and Igor Barjaktarevic – University of California Los Angeles, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, US)

Chapter 17. Weaning from Non-Invasive Ventilation. Key Practical Aspects
(Falcone Vito Antonio and Ravikanth Vydyula – Department of Intensive Respiratory Care Unit at S. Paolo Hospital of Bari, Italy, et al.)

Chapter 18. Monitoring Recommendations in Non-Invasive Ventilation Humidification and Airway Secretions
(Maria Esteves Brandão – Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto, Porto, Portugal)

Chapter 19. Monitoring Recommendations in Non-Invasive Ventilation Aerosol Therapy
(Yasmin M. Madney, Hadeer S. Harb, Haitham Saeed, and Mohamed E. A. Abdelrahim – Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt)

Chapter 20. Nurses – Respiratory Therapists. Non-Invasive Ventilation Monitoring Tools to Resolve Potential Adverse Effects and NIV Complications (Interface, Humidification, Ventilator Settings)
(Sara Lupone, Paola Nova and Elisabetta Roma – Respiratory therapist, Fondazione Serena, Centro Clinico Nemo, Milan, Italy, et al.)

Chapter 21. Assessment Effectiveness of Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation: Factor Related with Ventilation/Oxygenation/Adherence
(Maria Esteves Brandão – Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto, Porto, Portugal)

Chapter 22. Assessment Effectiveness of Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation: Factor Related with Ventilation/Oxygenation/Adherence
(Frédéric Duprez and Grégory Reychler – Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Critical Care Medicine, Epicura Hospital, Belgium and Laboratory of Motion, Condorcet School, Tournai, Belgium, et al.)

Chapter 23. Rebreathing During Non-Invasive Ventilation
(Flávio Marino and Patrícia Varela Ramos – M.D, Department of Intensive Care, Hospital Vila Franca de Xira, Lisbon, Portugal)

Chapter 24. Score/Index from Non-Invasive Ventilation Monitoring. Tools in Monitoring Patients Treated with Non-Invasive Ventilation
(Nicola Vargas, Loredana Tibullo, Francesco Maglione, Giovanni Verde and Francesco Diurno – Department of Emergency and critical care, Medicine Ward, San Giuliano Hospital, Naples, Italy, et al.)

Chapter 25. Oesophageal and Transdiaphragmatic Pressure Measurement: Implications for Monitoring
(Davide Bizzotto, Chiara Veneroni, Emanuela Zannin and Raffaele L. Dellacà – Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano University, Milan, Italy)

Chapter 26. Monitoring of Respiratory Mechanics: Use of Thoracoabdominal Bands during NIV
(Susana Sousa – Centro Hospitalar de Setúbal, Hospitais CUF Lisboa, Nova Medical School, Lisboa, Portugal)

Chapter 27. Lung and Heart Interactions-Echocardiography Assessment
(Jacobo Bacariza Blanco and Antonio Esquinas – Intensive care Unit – HGO-Almada –Portugal – EU, et al.)

Chapter 28. Noninvasive Technique – Echo Muscolar Diaphragm-Ultrasonography (DU) Function Measurement
(Edoardo Piervincenzi, Antonello Cantale, Alessandra G. Francesconi and Daniele Biasucci – Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy)

Chapter 29. Monitoring Oxygenation. Pulse-Oximetry. Tracings. Software- Algori̇thm. Diagnosi̇s and Management Oxygen Desaturations
(Zeynep Çınar – Anesthesiology and reanimation department, division of Intensive Care unit Gazi University Faculty of Medicine Ankara, Turkey)

Chapter 30. Non-Invasively Monitor Hypercapnia and Ventilation. End-Tidal Pco2 and Transcutaneous CO2 Measurement
(Gabriele Valli, Francesca De Marco, Carlo Ancona and Maria Pia Ruggieri – Emergency Department, San Giovanni Addolorata Hospital, Rome, Italy)

Chapter 31. Pulmonary Function Testing as an Assessment and Guide for Chronic Non-Invasive Ventilation. “Role of Pulmonary Function Test in NIV Monitoring.”
(Brian O’Brien, Mohanchandra Mandal and Pradipta Bhakta – Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland Intensive Care Unit, et al.)

Chapter 32. Radiology Evaluations / Non-Invasive Ventilation. Radiologic Measurement. Chest Computed Tomography (CT)
(Tullio Valente and Giuseppe Fiorentino – Department of Radiology, Azienda Ospedali dei Colli, Monaldi Hospital, Naples NA, Italy, et al.)

Chapter 33. Radiology Evaluations/ Non-Invasive Ventilation. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Regional Ventilation Monitoring; Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
(Gaetano Scaramuzzo, Stefano Sganga and Savino Spadaro – Department of Translational medicine and for Romagna, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy)

Chapter 34. Bilevel Positive Pressure Ventilation (BIPAP)
(Maurizio Marvisi, Sara Ramponi, Laura Balzarini, and Chiara Mancini – Department of Internal Medicine and Respiratory Diseases, Istituto Figlie di San Camillo, Cremona, Italy)

Chapter 35. Prehospital Transport Non-Invasive Ventilation. Non-Invasive Ventilation Monitoring
(Mohammed K. AlShehri – Respiratory Care Administration, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

Chapter 36. Intra-Hospital Transport. Non-Invasive Ventilation. Non-Invasive Ventilation Monitoring
(Alejandro Úbeda-Iglesias, Rosario A. Torcuato-Barrera and Alejandro Álvarez-Macías – Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Punta de Europa, Algeciras, Cádiz, Spain)

Chapter 37. Respiratory Monitoring Unit, Implication for Non-Invasive Ventilation
(Jayanta Kumar Mitra and Dona Saha – Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India)

Chapter 38. Monitoring Recommendations in Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure. Key Practical Issues
(Aslıhan Gürün Kaya, Aydın Çiledağ and Akın Kaya – Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Chest Diseases, Ankara, Turkey)

Chapter 39. Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation -Intrinsic-Peep/Hyperinflation
(Alba Naya, María del Pilar Carballosa and Sarah Heili-Frades – Department of Pulmonology, Intermediate Respiratory Care Unit, Fundación Jiménez Díaz Quirón Salud, CIBERES, REVA Network, Madrid, Spain)

Chapter 40. Neuromuscular Disorders. Quality of Life and Side Effects of Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
(Matteo Schisano, Anna Maddalena Parisi and Lucia Spicuzza – Respiratory Medicine Unit, A. O. U. “Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele,” Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy)

Chapter 41. Long-Term Monitoring. Restrictive Disorders/Chest Wall Disorders-Scoliosis
(Maria Xanthoudaki and Paschalis Steiropoulos – Department of Pneumonology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece)

Chapter 42. Long-Term Monitoring. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Sleep Related Breathing Disorders
(Vasileios Michailidis and Paschalis Steiropoulos – Department of Pneumonology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece)

Chapter 43. Long Term Monitoring Stable Hypercapnic COPD: Nocturnal Hypoventilation and Survival
(Jennifer Y. So and Montserrat Abad-Diaz – Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Maryland, US)

Chapter 44. Intraoperative and Postoperative
(Elisabet Guerra Hernández and Zoraya Hussein Dib González – Anaesthesiology Service, Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Doctor Negrín, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain)

Chapter 45. Nasal High Flow Oxygenation and Non-Invasive Ventilation and Conventional Oxygen Therapy in the Post-Extubation and Peri-Intubation Periods
(Karen E. A. Burns, David Granton, Dipayan Chaudhuri and Bram Rochwerg – Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, et al.)

Chapter 46. Monitoring Recommendations in Non-Invasive Ventilation: Neurological and Psychological Function
(Elisa Gouvêa Bogossian and Marco Fiore – Intensive Care Department, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, et al.)

Chapter 47. Non-Invasive Ventilation after Discharge from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Key Monitoring Recommendations. Feasible, Safe and Effective
(Lucia Spicuzza, Matteo Schisano and Anna Parisi – Respiratory Medicine Unit, A.O.U. “Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele,” Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy)

Chapter 48. Monitoring of Home Non-Invasive Ventilation: Health Care Costs, Safety and Efficacy
(Kevin Shayani and Bushra Mina – Department of Medicine, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY, US, et al.)

Chapter 49. Patient Education: Home Care Provider’s Recommendations for Non-Invasive Ventilation Monitoring
(Jithin K Sreedharan and Madhuragauri Shevade – Department of Respiratory Care, Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, et al.)

Chapter 50. Recommendations for Patient-Ventilator Non-Invasive Ventilation Monitoring: Impact on Hospital Admissions, Prevention of Readmissions and Clinical Outcomes
(Mohanchandra Mandal, Pradipta Bhakta and Brian O’Brien – Professor, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research/SSKM Hospital. Kolkata, West Bengal, India, et al.)

Index

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