Prevalence of phantom limb phenomenon and associated risk factors in patients with isolated traumatic lower limb amputations


Authors: Neetika Katiyar, Uttam Chand Saini, Kritika Sethi, Neha Suri, Himanshu Bhayana, and Mandeep Singh Dhillon
Page Range: 37-43
Published in: International Journal on Disability and Human Development, Volume 22 Issue 1
ISSN: 2191-1231

Table of Contents


Phantom limb pain/sensation is after amputation, which can have significant negative influences on quality of life. Most of the previous researches on the prevalence of phantom pain/sensation are from developed countries and there is lack of data from developing countries. We evaluated the prevalence of phantom limb pain (PLP), stump pain (SP), phantom limb sensation (PLS) and associated risk factors in major traumatic lower limb amputees in a developing country. Methods: Amputees who visited amputee clinic for follow-up after amputation during April 2018 to March 2019 were included in the study, relevant data was recorded on a pre-structured proforma. Results: The prevalence of phantom limb pain, phantom limb sensation and stump pain were 20%, 81.4%, and 64.3%, respectively. A significant association was seen between phantom limb pain and phantom limb sensation. The presence of phantom limb pain and phantom limb sensation was significantly associated with patients with neuroma (p = 0.03 and 0.00 respectively). Low socioeconomic group patients reported higher incidence of phantom limb sensation comparing to middle and higher socioeconomic group. Patients consuming alcohol were less likely to feel phantom limb sensation as compared to patients not consuming it (p = 0.014). Conclusion: The majority of lower limb amputees (92.9%) had to deal with at least one of the components of phantom limb phenomenon (Phantom limb sensation, phantom limb pain or stump pain) during first six months after amputation. There was significant positive association of PLS with neuroma and negative association with socioeconomic status and alcohol consumption.

Keywords: Amputation, lower limb, phantom limb, phantom limb phenomenon, traumatic injury

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