Post-Acute and Long Term Geriatric Care Clinical Advisor. Volume II

Jochanan E. Naschitz
The Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel and Geriatric Medical Center, Baitbalev, Nesher, Israel

Series: Geriatrics, Gerontology and Elderly Issues
BISAC: MED032000




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Changing demographics have resulted in the elderly constituting a more significant proportion of the population. Many older people will develop functional impairment and disability, necessitating either support at home or admission to long-term care facilities, rehabilitation centers, psychiatric institutions and hospices. Guidance in the clinical challenges that face the staff of such institutions is essential.

Clinical practice guidelines dealing with many of the prevalent conditions in long-term care facilities have been published by the American Medical Directors Association; these aim to educate staff, improve patient outcomes, decrease avoidable transfers and reduce costs. Yet, guidelines do not cater methodically to problems resulting from the complex situations seen in older patients with multiple comorbidities. Textbooks are also often deficient in providing a focused approach to conditions and issues that are of importance in geriatric long-term care.

The present manuscript (Volumes I and II) focuses on case management in geriatric long-term care. Concise recommendations are provided, addressing diagnostic issues and management strategies. We have adopted an approach of dividing recommendations into ‘‘do’’ and ‘’do not’’ categories in order to guide physicians and nurses in their approach to conditions encountered frequently, to help them recognize ‘’red flag’’ signals, and to highlight significant unusual situations. When fine-tuning of management is indicated, the text goes into specifics, such as details on nutrition, pharmacology, medication dosing, therapeutic procedures, and the recognition of adverse events. Recent progress, shifting evidence, controversial issues and uncertainties are pinpointed. Expert advice is provided.

It is hoped that this book might prove to be a worthy contribution to the medical field, enriching doctors and nurses committed to long-term geriatric care. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)


I. Chronic Disorders

Chapter 1. Depression

Chapter 2. Parkinson’s Disease

Chapter 3. Falls

Chapter 4. Osteoarthritis

Chapter 5. Osteoporosis and Fragility Fractures

Chapter 6. Other Prevalent Rheumatic Disorders in Elderlies

Chapter 7. Heart Failure

Chapter 8. Edema of the Legs

Chapter 9. Arterial Hypertension

Chapter 10. Ischemic Heart Disease

Chapter 11. Valvular Heart Disease

Chapter 12. Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Flutter

Chapter 13. Peripheral Arterial Disease

Chapter 14. Chronic Venous Disease

Chapter 15. COPD

Chapter 16. Chronic Cough

Chapter 17. Diabetes Mellitus

Chapter 18. Thyroid Disorders

Chapter 19. Dysphagia

Chapter 20. Postprandial Syndromes

Chapter 21. Fecal Impaction

Chapter 22. Chronic Diarrhea

Chapter 23. Chronic Kidney Disease

Chapter 24. Urologic Disorders

Chapter 25. Unintentional Weight Loss

Chapter 26. Oropharyngeal Disorders

Chapter 27. Eye Problems

Chapter 28. ENT Disorders

Chapter 29. Mini-Clinic in Dermatology

II. Therapeutic Procedures

Chapter 30. Paracentesis for Refractory Ascites

Chapter 31. Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

Chapter 32. Tracheostomy Care

Chapter 33. Colostomy Care

Chapter 34. Blood Transfusion

Chapter 35. Total Parenteral Nutrition


Chapter 1

Bentley SM, Pagalilauan GL, Simpson SA. Major depression.

Med Clin N Amer 2014;98:981-1005.
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Dybedal GS, Tanum L, Sundet K, Gaarden TL, Bjølseth TM. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression. Front Psychol. 2013 Jun 27;4:381.
Kvelde T, McVeigh C, Toson B, Greenaway M, Lord SR, et al. Depressive symptomatology as a risk factor for falls in older people: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013;61:694-706.
Messsinger-Rapport BJ. Geriatric updates; what parts of our practice to change, what to ‘think about.’ Cleavl Clin J Med 2012;79:347-353.
Saczynski JS, Rosen AB, McCammon RJ, Zivin KAB, Andrade SED, et al. Antidepressant use and cognitive decline: The Health and Retirement Study. Amer J Med 2015, in press.
Salzman D. Late-life depression and antidepressants. Am J Geriatr Psych 2015, in press.
Solomon DA, Leon AC, Maser JD, Truman CJ, Coryell W, Endicott J, et al. Distinguishing bipolar major depression from unipolar major depression with the screening assessment of depression-polarity (SAD-P). J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67: 434-442.
Unützer J, Park M. Older adults with severe, treatment-resistant depression. JAMA 2012;308:909-918.

Chapter 2

Ahlskog JE. Parkinson Disease Treatment in Hospitals and Nursing Facilities: Avoiding Pitfalls. Mayo Clin Proc 2014;89:997-1003.
Dunning CJR, George S, Brundin P. What’s to like about the prion-like hypothesis for the spreading of aggregated α-synuclein in Parkinson disease? Prion 2013;7:92-97.
Fernandes HH. 2015 Update on Parkinson disease 2015. Cleve Clin J Med 2015;82:563-568.
Hasnain M, Vieweg WVR, Baron MS, Beatty-Brooks M, Fernandez A, Pandurangi AK. Pharmacological management of psychosis in elderly patients with parkinsonism. Am J Med 2009;122:614-622.
Lees AJ, Hardy J, Revesz T. Parkinson's disease. Lancet 2009;373:2055-2066.
Lyons KE, Pahwa R. Outcomes of rotigotine clinical trials: effects on motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Neurol Clin 2013;31(Suppl):S51-59.
Mhatre PV, Vilares I, Stibb SM, Albert MV, Pickering L, et al. Wii fit balance board playing improves balance and gait in Parkinson disease. PM R. 2013 pii: S1934-1482(13)00310-9.
Nyholm D. Duodopa treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease: a review of efficacy and safety. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18:916-929.
Postuma RB, Aarsland D, Barone P, Burn DJ, Hawkes CH et al. Identifying prodromal Parkinson's disease: pre-motor disorders in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2012;27:617-626.
Stacy M. Physiotherapy intervention in Parkinson’s disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2012;345:e5004.
Yarnall A, Archibald N, Durn D. Parkinson's disease. Medicine 2012;40: 529–535.

Chapter 3

Amboni M, Barone P, Hausdorff JM. Cognitive contributions to gait and falls: evidence and implications. Mov Disord. 2013;28:1520-1533.
Barrett-Connor E, Nielson CM, Orwoll E, Bauer DC, Cauley JA; Osteoporotic Fractures in Med Study Group. Epidemiology of rib fractures in older men: osteoporotic fractures in men (MeOS) prospective cohort study. BMJ 2010;340:c1069.
Brewer ES, Reznikov B, Liberman RF, Baker RA, Rosenblatt MS, David CA, Flacke S. Incidence and predictors of intracranial hemorrhage after minor head trauma in patients taking anticoagulant and antiplatelet medication. J Trauma. 2011;70:E1-5.
de Vries OJ, Geeske Peeters MEE, Muller M, Knol DL, Danner SA, Bouter LM, Lips P. Multifactorial intervention to reduce falls in older people at high risk of recurrent falls. A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:1110-1117.
Garwood CL, Corbett TL. Use of anticoagulation in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation who are at risk for falls. Ann Pharmacother. 2008;42:523-532.

Haines TP, Hill A-M, Hill KD, McPhail S, Oliver D, et al. Patient education to prevent falls among older hospital inpatients. A randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2011;171:517-524.
Jung D, Shin S, Kim H. A fall prevention guideline for older adults living in long-term care facilities. Int Nurs Rev. 2014. doi: 10.1111/inr.12131.
Maurer MS, Cohen S, Cheng H. The degree and timing of orthostatic blood pressure changes in relation to falls in LTCF residents. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2004;5:233-238.
Montero-Odasso M, Verghese J, Beauchet O, Hausdorff JM. Gait and cognition: a complementary approach to understanding brain function and the risk of falling. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60:2127-2136.
Ooi WL, Hossain M, Lipsitz LA. The association between orthostatic hypotension and recurrent falls in LTCF residents. Am J Med. 2000;108:106-111.
Petitpierre NJ, Trombetti A, Carroll I, Michel JP, Herrmann FR. The FIM instrument to identify patients at risk of falling in geriatric wards: a 10-year retrospective study. Age Aging 2010;39:326-331.
Rapp K, Becker C, Cameron ID, Konig HH, Buchele G. Epidemiology of falls in residential aged care: analysis of more than 70,000 falls from residents of Bavarian LTCF. J Amer Med Dir Assoc 2012;13:187 e1-6.
Robinovitch SN, Feldman F, Yang Y, Schonnap R, Leung PM, Sarraf T, Sims-Gould J, Loughin M. Video capture of the circumstance of falls in elderly people residing in long-term care: an observational study. Lancet 2013;381:47-54.
Romero-Ortuno R, Cogan L, Foran T, Kenny RA, Fan CW. Continuous noninvasive orthostatic blood pressure measurements and their relationship with orthostatic intolerance, falls, and frailty in older people. J AMer Geriatr Soc 2011;59:655-665.
Scuteri A, Modestino A, Frattari A, Di Daniele N, Tesauro M. Occurrence of hypotension in older participants. Which 24-hour ABPM parameter better correlate with? J Geront Biol Sci Med Sci 2012;67:804-810.
Segev-Jacubovski O, Herman T, Yogev-Seligmann G, Mirelman A, Giladi N, et al. The interplay between gait, falls and cognition: can cognitive therapy reduce fall risk? Expert Rev Neurother. 2011;11:1057-1075.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Prevention of falls in community-dwelling older adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 2012;157:197-204.
Vu MQ, Weintraub N, Rubenstein IZ. Falls in the LTCF: are they preventable? J Amer Med Assoc 2004;5:401-406.

Chapter 4

Abdulla A, Adams N, Bone M, Elliott AM, Gaffin J, Jones D et al. Guidance on the management of pain in older people. Age Aging 2013;42 (Suppl 1):i1-57.
Argoff CE. Topical analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88:195-205.
Bennell KL, Hunter DH, Hinman RS. Management of osteoarthritis of the knee. BMJ 2012;345:e4934.
Carrington Reid M, Eccleston C, Pillemer K. Management of chronic pain in older adults. BMJ 2015;350:h532.
Chou R, Turner JA, Devine EB, Hansen RN, Sullivan SD, Blazina I, et al. The effectiveness and risks of long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain: a systematic review for a National Institutes of Health pathways to prevention workshop. Ann Intern Med 2015; published online 13 Jan.
Doherty M, Hawkey C, Goulder M. Gibb I, Hill N, Aspley S et al. A randomised controlled trial of ibuprofen, paracetamol or a combination tablet of ibuprofen/paracetamol in community-derived people with knee pain. Ann Rheu Dis 2011;70:1534–1541.
Hunter DJ. Viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis of the knee. N Engl J Med 2015; 372:1040-1047.
Kahan M, Mailis-Gagnon A, Wilson L, Srivastava A. Canadian guideline for safe and effective use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain. Clinical summary for family physicians. Part 1: general population. Canadian Family Physician 2011;57:1257-1266.
Moskovitz RQ. The 2012 ACR guidelines for osteoarthritis: Not a cookbook. Cleveland Clin J Med 2013; 80:26-32.
NICE clinical guideline 177.

Osteoarthritis. Care and management in adults. 2014.
Reid MC, Henderson CR Jr, Papaleontiou M, Amanfo L, Olkhovskaya Y, Moore AA, et al. Characteristics of older adults receiving opioids in primary care: treatment duration and outcomes. Pain Med 2010;11:1063-71.
Scarpignato C, Lanas A, Blandizzi C, Lems WF, Hermann M, et al. Safe prescribing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with osteoarthritis – an expert consensus addressing benefits as well as gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks. BMC Medicine 2015;13:55-75.
Stanos SP. Osteoarthritis guidelines: a progressive role for topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Multidiscip Heathc 2013;6:133-137.
Temple AR, Benson GD, Zinsenheim JR, Schweinle JE. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group trial of the long-term (6-12 months) safety of acetaminophen in adult patients with osteoarthritis. Clin Ther 2006;28:222-235.
Thorlund JB, Juhl CB, Roos EM, Lohmander LS. Arthroscopic surgery for degenerative knee: systematic review and meta-analysis of benefits and harms. BMJ 2015;350:h2747

Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Judd MG, Catton M, Hochberg MC, Wells G. Acetaminophen for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;1:CD004257.
Vincent TL, Watt Fe. Osteoarthritis. Medicine 2014;42:213-219.

Chapter 5

Assouline-Dayan Y, Chang C, Greenspan A, Shoenfeld Y, Gershwin ME. Pathogenesis and natural history of osteonecrosis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2002;32:94-124.
Bischoff-Ferrari HE, Willett WC, Orav EJ, Lips P, Meunier PJ, Lyons RA et al. A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:40-49.
Boyce BF, Smith L, Fogelman I, Johnston E, Ralston SH, Boyle IT. Focal osteomalacia due to low-dose biphosphonate therapy in Paget's disease. Lancet 1984;1:821-824.
Colon-Emeric CS, Mesenbrink P, Lyles KW et al. Potential mediators of the mortality reduction with zoledronic acid after hip fracture. J Bone Miner Res 2010;25:91-97.
Cummings S, Donaldson M, Palermo L et al. Efficacy of alendronate for reducing nonvertebral and clinical fractures by FRAX score. The American Society for Bone and Mineral Reseach: 31st Annual Meeting Abstract, 2009
Grossman JM, Gordon R, Ranganath VK, Deal C, Caplan L, Chen W et al. American College of Rheumatology 2010 recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2010;62:1515-1526.
Jarvinen LN. Michaelsson K, Aspenberg P, Sievanen H. Osteoporosis: the emperor has no clothes. J Intern Med 2015;277:662–673.
Messinger-Rapport BJ. Geriatrics update 2012: What parts of our practice to change and what parts to ‘think about.’ Cleveland Clin J Med 2012;79:347-353.
Ott SM. What is the optimal duration of biphosphonate therapy? Cleveland Clin J Med 2011;78: 619-630.
Papaioannou A, Santesso N, Morin SN, Feldman S, Adachi JD, et al. Recommendations for preventing fracture in long-term care. CMAJ 2015 [early relase article].

Parikh S, Brookhart MA, Stedman M, Avorn J, Mogun N, Solomon DH. Correlations of LTCF characteristics with prescription of osteoporosis medications. Bone 2011;48:1164-1168.
Pittman CD, Davis LA, Zeringue AL, Caplan L, Wehmeier KR et al. Myocardial infarction risk among patients with fractures receiving bisphosphonates. Mayo Clin Proc 2014;89:43-51.
Reid IR. Osteoporosis treatment: focus on safety. Eur J Intern Med 2013:24:691-697.
Rizzoli R, Akesson K, Bouxsein M, Kanis JA, Napoli N, Papapoulos S, Reginster J-Y, Cooper C. Subtrochanteric fractures after long-term treatment with bisphosphonates: a European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, and International Osteoporosis Foundation Working Group Report. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22:373-390.
Siris ES, Roodman GD. Paget’s disease of bone. In: Rosen C, ed. Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2012:335-343.
Talstone HR. Paget's disease of bone. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:644-650.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Osteoporosis: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Intern Med 2011;154:356-364.
Weinstein RS. Glucocorticoid-induced bone disease’s. N Engl J Med 2011;365:62-70.
Whitaker M, Guo J, Kehoe T, Benson G. Bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. Where do we go from here. N Engl J Med 2012;366:2048-2051.

Chapter 6

Armour R, Zhou L. Outcomes of statin myopathy after statin withdrawal. J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2013;14:103-109.
Banach M, Serban C, Sahebkar A, Ursoniu S, Rysz J et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 on statin-induced myopathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Mayo Clin Proc 2015;90:24-34.
Evans G. Identifying and treating the causes of neck pain. Med Clin N Am 2014;98:645–661.
Hansen KE, Hildebrand JP, Ferguson EE, Stein JH. Outcomes in 45 patients with statin-associated myopathy. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165:2671–2676.
Hawke F. Burns J. New evidence for stretching for preventing nocturnal cramps. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:1770-1771.
Hobson-Webb LD, Padua L, Martinoli C. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disease. Expert Opin Med Diagn. 2012;6:457-471.
Huddy K, Dhesi P, Thompson PD. Do the frequencies of adverse events increase, decrease, or stay the same with long-term use of statins? Curr Atheroscler Rep 2013;15:301.
Keith MW, Masear V, Amadio PC, Andary M, Barth RW, Graham B et al. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2009;17:397-405.
Keith MW, Masears V, Chung K, Maupin K, Andary M, et al. Diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2009;17:389-396.
Mackie SL, Pease CT. Diagnosis and management of giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica: challenges, controversies and practical tips. Postgrad Med J 2013;89:284–292.
Munson JC, Wahl PM, Daniel G, Kimmel SE, Hennessy S. Factors associated with the initiation of proton pump inhibitors in corticosteroid users. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2012;21:366-374.
Pipitone N, Salvarani C. Update on polymyalgia rheumatica. Eur J Intern Med 2013;24:583–589.
Salvarani C, Cantini F, Hunder GG. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis. Lancet 2008;372:234-245.
Suresh E, Wimataratna S. Proximal myopathy: diagnostic approach and initial. Management. Postgrad Med J 2013:131752

Waldman CW, Waldman SD, Waldman RA. Giant cell arteritis. Med Clin N Amer 2013;97:329–335.
Yoshida A, Okutsu I, Hamaka I. Comparison of clinical results between elderly and younger patients following endoscopic carpal tunnel release surgery for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Hand Surg 2013;18:59-61.

Chapter 7

Bart BA, Goldsmith SR, Lee KL, Givertz MM, O’Connor CM et al. Ultrafiltration in decompensated heart failure with cardiorenal syndrome. N Engl J Med 2012;367:2296-2304.
Basuray A, French B, Ky B, Vorovich E, Olt C et al. Heart Failure With Recovered Ejection Fraction: Clinical Description, Biomarkers, and Outcomes. Circulation 2014;129:2380–2238.
Bozornia B, Mather PJ. Current management of heart failure. When to refer to heart failure specialist and when hospice is the best option. Med Clin N Am 2015;99:863-876.
Chatterjee S, Bondi-Zoccal G, D’Ascenso F, Castagno D, Lichtstein E. Benefits of β blockers in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. BMJ 2013;346:f55.
Ewy GA. Digoxin: the art and science. Amer J Med 2015;128:1272-1274.
Felker MG, Lee KL, Bull DA, Redfield MM, Stevenson LW, Goldsmith SR, et al. Diuretic strategies in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. N Engl J Med 2011;364:797-805.
Fonarow GC, Albert NM, Curtis AB, Gheorghiade M, Liu Y., et al. Incremental reduction in risk of death associated with use of guideline-recommended therapies in patients with heart failure: a nested case-control analysis of IMPROVE-HF. J Am Heart Assoc 2012;1:16-26.
Houston BA, Kalathiva RJ, Kin DA, Zakaria S. Volume overload in heart failure. Mayo Clinic Proc 2015 (in press).
Jolob OMP. Evolving strategies for the use of spironolactone in cardiovascular disease. Eur J Intern Med 2013;24:303-309.
Jung M, Yeh AY, Pressler SJ. Heart failure and skilled nursing facilities: review of the literature. J Heart Failure 2012;18:854-871.
Lewis EF. End of life care in advanced heart failure. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2011;13:79-89.
Liu SS, Monti J, Kargbo HM, Athar MW, Parakh K. Frontiers of therapy for patients with heart failure. Amer J Med 2013;126:6-12.
Mujib M, Patel K, Fonarow GC, Kitzman DW, Zhang Y, Aban IB et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and outcomes in heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Amer J Med 2013;126:401-410.
Rose-Jones LJ, Bode WD, Gehi AK. Current approaches to antiarrhythmic therapy in Testani JM, Brisco MA, Kociol RD, Jacoby D, Bellumkonda L et al. Substantial discrepancy between fluid and weight loss during acute decompensated heart failure treatment. Amer J Med 2015 in press.
Silvet H, Hawkins LA, Jacobson AK. Heart rate control in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Congest Heart Fail 2013;19:25-28.
Smit MD, Van Gelder IC. New treatment options for atrial fibrillation: towards patient tailored therapy. Heart 2011;97:1796-1802.
Stucky MA, Goldberger ZD. Digoxin: its role in contemporary medicine. Postgrad Med J 2015;0:1–5. doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2014-132937.
Swedberg K, Young JB, Anand IS, Cheng S, Desai AS et al. Treatment of anemia with darbepoetin alfa in systolic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:1210-1219.
Tavazzi L, Swedberg K, Komajda M, Böhm M, Borer JS, et al. (SHIFT Investigators). Efficacy and safety of ivabradine in chronic heart failure across the age spectrum: insights from the SHIFT study. Eur J Heart Fail 2013;15:1296–303.
Turnbull FM, Abraira C, Anderson RJ, Byington RP, Chalmers JP, et al. Intensive glucose control and macrovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2009;52:2288-2298.
von Haeling S, Doehner W, Anker SD. Nutrition, metabolism, and the complex pathophysiology of cachexia in chronic heart failure. Cardiovasc Res 2007;73:298-309.
Weir DL, McAlister FA, Senthilselvan A, Minhas-Sandhu JK, Eurich DT. Sitagliptin use in patients with diabetes and heart failure: a population-based retrospective cohort study. JACC Heart Fail 2014;2:573-582.
Zhang S, Zhang L, Sun A, Jianh H, Qian J, Ge J. Efficacy of statin therapy in chronic systolic cardiac insufficiency: a meta-analysis. Eur J Intern Med 2011;22:478-484.

Chapter 8

Carlson JA. Lymphedema and subclinical lymphostasis (microlymphedema) facilitate cutaneous infection, inflammatory dermatoses, and neoplasia: A locus minoris resistentiae.

Clin Dermatol. 2014;32:599-615.
Cho S, Atwood JE. Peripheral edema. Am J Med. 2002;113:580-586.
De Leuw PW, Dees A. Fluid homeostasis in chronic obstructive lung disease. Eur Respir J Suppl 2003;46:33s-40s.
McLaughlin SA. Lymphedema: separating fact from fiction. Oncology (Williston Park). 2012;26:242-249.
Runyon BA. Management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis. Hepatology 2004;39:841-856.

Chapter 9

ACCF/AGA Expert Consensus Document on Hypertension in the Elderly. Circulation 2011;123:2434-2506.
Argulian E, Grossman E, Messerli FH. Misconceptions and facts about treating hypertension. Amer J Med 2015;128:450-455.
Butt DA, Mamdani M, Austin PC, Tu K, Gomes T, Glazier RH. The risk of hip fracture after initiating antihypertensive drugs in the elderly. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:1739-1744.
Cooper CJ, Murphy TP, Cutlip DE, Jamerson K, Henrich W, et al. Stenting and medical therapy for atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med 2014; 370:13-22.
Feldstein C, Weder AB. Orthostatic hypotension: a common, serious and underrecognized problem in hospitalized patients. J Amer Soc Hypertension 2012;6:27-39.
Fleg JL, Forman DE, Berra K, Bittner V, Blumenthal JA, et al. Secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in older adults: a scientific statement from the american heart association. Circulation. 2013;128:2422-2446.
Franklin SS, Thijs L, Hansen TW, Li Y, Boggia J, Kikuya M et al. Significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis using the international database on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to cardiovascular outcomes population. Hypertension 2012;59:564-571.
Grossman E, Messerli FH. Drug-induced hypertension: an unappreciated cause of secondary hypertension. Amer J Med. 2012;125:14-22.
Hennekens CH, Dalen JE. Aspirin in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease: past and current perspectives and future directions.

Amer J Medicine 2013;126, 373-378.
Jennings GLR, Touyz RM. Hypertension guidelines: more challenges highlighted.

Hypertension 2013;62:660-665.
Kleman M, Dhanyamraju S. DiFilippo W. Prevalence and characteristics of pseudohypertension in patients with “resistant hypertension.” J Am Soc Hypertens 2013;7:467-470.
Levine JJ. Exercise: a walk in the park? Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82:797-798.
Luetkens JA, Wilhelm K, Düsing R, Woitas RP, Thomas D, et al. Renal denervation: results of a single center cohort study. Rofo. 2014 Sep 4. [Epub ahead of print].
Muller M, Smulders YM, deLeeuw PW, Stehouwer CDA. Treatment of hypertension in the oldest old. A critical role for frailty? Hypertension. 2014; 63:433-441

. Campbell NRC, Berbari AE, Cloutier L, Gelfer M, Kenerson JG, et al. Policy statement of the World Hypertension League on noninvasive blood pressure measurement devices and blood pressure measurement in the clinical or community setting. J Clin Hypertens 2014; 16:320-322.
O’Brien E, Parati G, Stergiou G. What is the international consensus? Hypertension 2013;68:988-994.
Rossignol P, Cridlig J, Lehert P, Kessler M, Zannad F. Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events in hemodialysis: insights from FOSIDIAL. Hypertension 2012;60:339-346.
Stone NJ, Robinson J, Lichtenstein AH, Goff DC Jr, Lloyd-Jones DM, et al. Treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: synopsis of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Mar 4;160:339-343.
Strandberg TE, Kolehmainen L, Vuorio A. Evaluation and treatment of older patients with hypercholesterolemia: a clinical review. JAMA. 2014;312:1136-1144.
The SPRINT Research Group. A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med 2015; 373:2103-2116.

Chapter 10

Anderson JL, Adams CD, Antman EM, Bridges CR, Califf RM, Casey DE Jr et al. 2011 ACCCF/AHA focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Circulation 2011;123:e426-e579.
Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ (CNT) Collaboration. Vascular and upper gastrointestinal eff ects of non-steroidal anti-infl ammatory drugs: meta-analyses of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet 2013; 382: 769–779.
Deedwania PC, Carbajal EV. Medical therapy versus revascularization of chronic coronary syndrome and stable angina. Amer J Med 2011;124:681-688.Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Covas MI, Corella D, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med 2013;368:1279-90.
Fernandez G, Spatz ES, Jablecki C, Phillips PS. Statin myopathy: a common dilemma not reflected in clinical trials.

Cleveland Clin J Med 2011;78:393-403.
Fihn SD, Gardin JM, Abrams J, Berra K, Blankenship JC, Dallas AP et al. ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American College of Physicians, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation 2012;126:3097-3137.
Fleg JL, Forman DE, Berra K, Bittner V, Blumenthal JA, et al. Secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in older adults: a scientific statement from the American heart association. Circulation. 2013;128: 2422-2446.
Husted SE, Ohman EM. Pharmacological and emerging therapies in the treatment of chronic angina. Lancet 2015;386:691-701.
Levine JJ. Exercise: a walk in the park? Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82:797-798.
Malhotra A. Saturated fat is not the major issue. BMJ 2013;347:f6340.
McAUley PA, Artero EG, Sui X, Lee D-c, Church TS, Myers JN, Espana-Romero V, Blair SV. The obesity paradoxc Cardiorespiratory fitness, and coronary heart disease. Mayo Clin Proc 2012;87:443-451.
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Chapter 11

Adams DH, Rosenhek R, Falk V. Degenerative mitral valve regurgitation: best practice revolution. Eur Heart J 2010;31:1958-1966.
Barbanti M, Immè S, Grasso C. Transcatheter mitral valve repair: a brief review. EuroIntervention. 2015;11 Suppl W:W42-4. Reinöhl J, Kaier K, Reinecke H, Schmoor C, Frankenstein L et al. Effect of availability of transcatheter aortic-valve replacement on clinical practice. N Engl J Med 2015;373:2438-2447.
Biancari F, Schifano P, Pighi M, Vasques F, Juvonen T, Vinco G. Pooled estimates of immediate and late outcome of mitral valve surgery in octogenarians: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2013;27:213–219.
Brinkley MD, Gelfand EV. Valvular heart disease: classic teaching and emerging paradigms. Amer J Medicine 2013;126, 1035-1042.
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Messori A, Trippoli S, Biancari F. Early and intermediate survival after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 studies. BMJ Open 2013:3:pii:2001770.
Singh JP, Evans JC, Levy D, Larson MG, Freed LA, Fuller DL et al. Prevalence and clinical determinants of mitral, tricuspid, and aortic regurgitation (the Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 1999; 83:897-902.
The Task Force on the Prevention: Diagnosis, and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis (new version 2009). Eur Heart J 2009;30:2369-2413. Sarkar K, Sarkar M, Ussia GP. Current status of transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Med Clin N Amer 2015;99:805-833.

Chapter 12

Adam JR. Editorial: Improving the management of warfarin may be easier than we think. Circulation 2012;126:2277-2279.
Adam SS, McDuffie JR, Ortel TL, Williams JW Jr. Comparative effectiveness of warfarin and new oral anticoagulants for the management of atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:796–807.
Apostolakis S., Lane DA, Guo Y, Buller H, Lip GY. Performance of the HEMORR(2)HAGES, ATRIA, and HAS-BLED bleeding risk-prediction scores in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing anticoagulation: the AMADEUS (evaluating the use of SR34006 compared to warfarin or acenocoumarol in patients with atrial fibrillation) study. J Amer Coll Cardiol 2012;60:861-867.

Argulian E, Conen D, Messerli FH. Misconceptions and facts about atrial fibrillation. Amer J Med 2015;128:938-942.
Asencio LA, Huang JJ, Alpert JS. Combining antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapy (triple therapy): what are the risks and benefits? Amer J Med. 2014;127:579-585.
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Eisele R, Melzer N, Bramlage P. Perioperative management of anticoagulation. Chirurg. 2014;85:513-519.
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Thigpen JL, Limdi NA. Reversal of Oral Anticoagulation. Pharmacotherapy 2013; doi:10.1002/phar.1270.
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Chapter 13

Anderson JL, Halperin JL, Albert NM, Bozkurt B, Brindis RG, Curtis LH et al. Management of patients with peripheral artery disease (Compilation of 2005 and 2011 ACCF/AHA Guideline Recommendations). A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2013;127:1425-1443.
Burket MW. Drug-eluting stents are the default strategy for superficial femoral artery intervention now. Circulation. 2016;133:320-329.
Diener HC, Dethlefsen U, Dethlefsen-Gruber S, Verbeek P. Effectiveness of quinine in treating muscle cramps: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre trial. Int J Clin Pract. 2002;56:243–242.
Espeland MA, Regensteiner JG, Jaramillo SA, Gregg E, Knowler WC et al. Look AHEAD Study Group. Measurement characteristics of the ankle–brachial index: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes study. Vasc Med. Aug 2008;13:225–233.
Fowkes F, Leng GC. Bypass surgery for chronic lower limb ischaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;16:CD002000.
Hirsch AT, Criqui MH, Treat-Jacobson D, Regensteiner JG, Creager MA, et al. Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care. JAMA. 2001;286:1317-1324.
Ichihashi S, Kichikawa K. Role of the latest endovascular technology in the treatment of intermittent claudication. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2014;10:467-474.
Mascitelli L, Goldstein MR, Grant WB. Does vitamin D has a role in reducing the risk of peripheral artery disease? Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85:1058-1059.
McKinsey JF, Zeller T, Rocha-Singh KJ, Jaff MR, Garcia LA; DEFINITIVE LE Investigators. Lower extremity revascularization using directional atherectomy: 12-month prospective results of the DEFINITIVE LE study. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2014;7:923-933.
Olin JW, Sealove BA. Peripheral artery disease: current insight into the disease and its diagnosis and management. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85:678-692.
Radack K, Deck C. Beta-adrenergic blocker therapy does not worsen intermittent claudication in subjects with peripheral arterial disease: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med.1991;151:1769-1776.

Chapter 14

Ashby RL, Gabe R, Ali S, Adderley U, Bland JM, et al. Clinical and cost-effectiveness of compression hosiery versus compression bandages in treatment of venous leg ulcers (Venous leg Ulcer Study IV, VenUS IV): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2014;383:871-879.
Gloviczki P, Comerota AJ, Dalsing MC, Eklof BG, Gillespie DL, Gloviczki ML, et al. The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum. J Vasc Surg 2011;53(5 Suppl):2S-48S.
Jull AB, Arroll B, Parag V, Waters J. Pentoxifylline for treating venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD001733.
Nelson EA, Mani R, Vowden K. Intermittent pneumatic compression for treating venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Data Base Systematic Rev 2008;16;:CD001899.
O’Meara S, Al-Kurdi D, Ologun Y, Ovington LG, Martyn-St James M, et al. Antibiotics and antiseptics for venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database |Syst Rev. 2014;1:CD003557.
O'Meara S, Cullum NA, Nelson EA. Compression for venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Data Base Systematic Rev 2009;11:CD000265.
Thomas DR. Managing venous stasis disease and ulcers. Clin Geriatr Med 2013;29:415-424.

Chapter 15

Aaron SD. Management and prevention of exacerbations of COPD. BMJ 2014; 349 doi:
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Casaburi R, ZuWallack R. Pulmonary rehabilitation for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 2009;360:1329-1335.
Cazzola M, Rogliani P, Matera MG. Escalation and de-escalation of therapy in COPD: myths, realities and perspectives. Drugs. 2015;75:1575-1585.
Celli BR, Zuwallack RL. Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, 2015;105:1821-1831.e3.
Chung WS, Lai CY, Lin CL, Kao CH. Adverse respiratory events associated with hypnotics use in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based case-control study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94(27):e1110.
Criner GJ, Bourbeau J, Diekemper RL, et al. Prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD: American College of Chest Physician and Canadian Thoracic Society Guideline. Chest. 2015;147:894-942.
Ekström MP, Bornefalk-Hermansson A, Abernethy AP, Currow DC. Safety of benzodiazepines and opioids in very severe respiratory disease: national prospective study. BMJ. 201430;348:g445.
Fanning M, McKean M, Seymour K, Pillans P, Scott I. Adherence to guideline-based antibiotic treatment for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in an Australian tertiary hospital. Intern Medicine J 2014;44:903-910.
Foral PA, Malesker MA, huerta G, Hillemen DE. Nebulized opiods use in COPD. Chest 2004;125:691-694.
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Halvani A, Mohsenpour F, Nasiriani K. Evaluation of exogenous melatonin administration in improvement of sleep quality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Tanaffos. 2013;12:9-15.
Halvani A, Mohsenpour F, Nasiriani K. Evaluation of exogenous melatonin administration in improvement of sleep quality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Tanaffos. 2013;12:9-15.
Hasegawa W, Yamauchi Y, Yasunaga H, Sunohara M, Jo T, et al. Factors affecting mortality following emergency admission for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BMC Pulm Med. 2014 Sep 24;14:151.
Herth FJ, Eberhardt R, Gompelmann D, Ficker JH, Wagner M, et al. Radiological and clinical outcomes of using ChartisTM to plan endobronchial valve treatment. Eur Respir J 2013;41:302-308.
Ioachimescu OC. The intersection of obstructive lung disease and sleep apnea. CCMJ 2016;83:127-140.
Mackay AJ, Hurst JR. COPD exacerbations: causes, prevention, treatment. Med Clin N Am 2012;96:789-809.
McCarthy B, Casey D, Devane D, Murphy K, Murphy E, Lacasse Y. Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;2:CD003793.
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Pasteur MC, Bilton D, Hill AT, British Thoracic Society Bronchiectasis non-CF Guideline Group. British Thoracic Society guideline for non-CF bronchiectasis. Thorax 2010;65, Suppl 1:i1.
Rachmani R, Slavachevski I, Levi Z, Zadok B, Kedar Y, Ravid M. Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: reconsideration of traditional contraindications. Eur J Intern Med. 2002;13:428.
Roth T. Hypnotic use for insomnia management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sleep Med 2009;10:19-25.
Rutten FH, Zuithoff NPD, Hak E, Grobbee DE, Hoes AW. β-Blockers may reduce mortality and risk of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:880-887.

Singh S, Loke YK, Enright P, Furberg CD. Republished: pro-arrhythmic and pro-ischaemic effects of inhaled anticholinergic medications. Postgrad Med J. 2014;90:205-207.
Smallwood N, Le B, Currow D, Irwing L, Philip J. Management of refractory breathlessness with morphine in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Amer J Med Sci 2015;350: DOI: 10.1111/imj.12857.
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Woodruff PG. Double-edged sword? Arch Intern Med 2013;173:1184-1185.
Yawn BP. Differential assessment and management of asthma vs chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Medscape J Med. 2009;11:20.

Chapter 16

Al-Murib A, Brown AM, Raulli A, George C, Gander C, Forrester P, Gibson S. Evidence of pertussis clusters in three aged-care facilities in the former Macquarie Area Health Service. NSW Public Heralth Bull. 2008;19:157-160.
Cross JL, Elender F, Barton G, Clark A, Shepstone L, Blyth A et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness of manual chest physiotherapy techniques on quality of life at six months post exacerbation of COPD (MATREX): a randomised controlled equivalence trial. BMC Pulm Med 2012;12:33.
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Pavord ID, Chung KF. Management of chronic cough. Lancet 2008;371:1375-1384.
Polverino M, Polverinp F, Fasolino M, Ando F, Alfieri A, De Blasio F. Anatomy and neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc. Multidiscip Respir Med. 2012;7:5-13.
Ryan NM, Birring SS, Gibson PG: Gabapentin for refractory chronic cough: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2012, 380:1583–1589.
Terasaki G, Paauw DS. Evaluation and treatment of chronic cough. Med Clin N Am 2014;98:391–403.
Wang K, Birring SS, Taylor K, Fry NK, Hay AD, et al. Montelukast for postinfectious cough in adults: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2014;2:35-43.

Chapter 17

Alsahli M, Gerich JE. Hypoglycemia, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014;89:1564-1571.
American Diabetes Association (ADA). Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2013. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(Suppl 1):S11-S66.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes 2008. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(Suppl 1):S12-S54.
Aspinall SL, Zhao X, Good CB, Etone RA, Boresis J, Cox S et al. Intervention to decrease glyburide use in elderly patients with renal insufficiency. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2011;9:58-68.
Cooper-DeHoff RM, Gong Y, Handberg EM, Bavry AA, Denardo SC, et al. Tight blood pressure control and cardiovascular outcomes among hypertensive patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease. JAMA. 2010;304:61-68.
Currie CJ, Peters JR, Tynan A, Evans M, Heine RJ, Bracco OL et al. Survival as a function of HbA1c in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 2010;375:481-489.
Dros J, Wewerinke A, Bindels PJ, HC van Weert. Accuracy of Monofilament Testing to Diagnose Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review. Ann Fam Med 2009;7:555-558.
Duong JK, Roberts DM, Furlong TJ, Kumar SS, Greenfield JR, et al. Metformin therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease. Diabetes Obes Metab 2012;14:963-965.
Durso SC. Using clinical guidelines designed for older adults with diabetes mellitus and complex health status. JAMA. 2006;295:1935-1940.
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Ekstrom N, Schioler L, Svensson A-M, Eeg-Olofson K, Jonasson JM, Zethelius B, et al. Effectiveness and safety of metformin in 51675 patients with type 2 diabetes and different levels of renal function: a cohort study from the Swedish National Diabetes Register BMJ Open 2012;2:e001076.
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Munshi MN, Segal AR, Suhl E, Staum E, Desrochers L, et al. Frequent hypoglycemia among elderly patients with poor glycemic control. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171:362-364.
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Wu J-S, Yang T-C, Lu F-H, Wu C-H, Wang R-H, Chang C-J. Population-based study on the prevalence and risk factors of orthostatic hypotension in subjects with pre-diabetes and diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32:69-74.
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Chapter 18

Doyle MA, Lochnan HA. Pituitary hyperplasia: a complication of pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine. Int J Gen Med 2013;6:335-339.
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Klobo-Gwiezdzinska J, Wartofsky L. Thyrotropin blood levels, subclinical hypothyroidism, and the elderly patient. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:1949-1951.
Klubo-Gwiezdzinska J, Wartofsky L. Thyroid emergencies. Med Clin N Am 2012; 96:385-403.
Kuang XH, Zhang SY. Hyperthyroidism-associated coronary spasm: A case of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with thyrotoxicosis. J Geriatr Cardiol 2011;8:258-259.
Pasqualetti G, Tognini S, Poini A, Caraccio N, Monzani F. Is subclinical hypothyroidism a cardiovascular risk factor in the elderly? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013;98:2256-2266.
Vadiveloo T, Donnan PT, Murphy MJ, Leese GP. Age- and gender-specific TSH reference intervals in people with no obvious thyroid disease in Tayside, Scotland: the Thyroid Epidemiology, Audit, and Research Study (TEARS). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013; 98:1147.

Chapter 19

Amin MR, Belafsky PC. Cough and swallowing dysfunction. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2010;43:35-42.
ASGE Standards of Practice Committee, Ikenberry SO, Jue TL, et al. Management of ingested foreign bodies and food impactions. Gastrointest Endosc 2011;73:1085-1091.
Langmore SE, Grillone G, Elackattu A, Walsh M. Disorders of swallowing: palliative care. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2009;42:87-105.
Rofes L, Arreola V, Almirall J, Cabre M, Campins L, et al. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia and its nutritional and respiratory complications in the elderly. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2011; 2011: 818979.
Smith HA, Lee SH, O’Neil PA, Connolly MJ. The combination of bedside swallowing assessment and oxygen saturation monitoring of swallowing in acute stroke: a safe and humane screening tool. Age Ageing 2000;29:495-499.

Chapter 20

Aro P, Storskrubb T, Ronkainen J et al. Peptic ulcer disease in a general adult population: the Kalixanda study: a random population-based study. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163:1025-1034.
Camilleri M, Parkman HP, Shafi MA, Abell TL, Geson L. Clinical Guideline: Management of Gastroparesis Am J Gastroenterol 2013;108:18-38.
Chubineh S, Birk J. Proton pump inhibitors: the good, the bad, and the unwanted, Southern Medical Journal 2012;105:613-618.
Cizginer S, Ordulu Z, Kadayifci A. Approach to Helicobacter pylori infection in geriatric population. World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther. 2014;5:139-147.
Everett SM, Axon AT. Early gastric cancer in Europe. Gut 1997;41:142-150.
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Mancini SA, Angelo JL, Peckler Z, Philp FH, Farah KF. Pyloroplasty for refractory gastroparesis. Am Surg. 2015;81:738-746.
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Stanghellini V, Tack J. Gastroparesis: separate entity or just a part of dyspepsia? Gut. 2014;63:1972-1978.

Chapter 21

Bouras EP, Tangalos EG. Chronic constipation in the elderly. Gastroeneterol Clin 2009;38:463-480.
Gallagher P, O'Mahony D. Constipation in old age. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2009;23:875-887.
Ko CW, Sonneberg A. Comparing risks and benefits of colorectal cancer screening in elderly patients. Gastroenterology 2005;129:1163-1170.
Longstreth GF, Thompson WG, Chey WD, Houghton LA, Mearin F, Spiller RC. Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:1480-1491.
Meshkinpour H, Selod S, Movahedi H, Nami N, James N, Wilson A. Effects of regular exercise in management of chronic idiopathic constipation. Dig DIs Sci 1998;43:2379-2383.
Rao SS. Constipation: evaluation and treatment of colonic and anorectal motility disorders. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Amer. 2009;19:117-139.
Simmons SF, Schnelle JF. Effects of an exercise and scheduled-toileting intervention on appetite and constipation in LTCF residents. J Nutr Health Ageing 2004;8:116-121.

Chapter 22

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Fasano A, Catassi C. Celiac disease. N Engl J Med 2012;367:2419-2426.
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van Rheenen PF, Van de Vijver E, Fidler V. Faecal calprotectin for screening of patients with suspected inflammatory bowel disease: diagnostic meta-analysis. BMJ 2010;341: c3369.
Vilppula A, Collin P, Maki M, Luostarinen M, Krkrla I, Patrikainen H et al. Undetected coeliac disease in the elderly: a biopsy-proven population-based study. Dig Liver Dis 2008;40:809-813.
Volta U, Caio G, Stanghellini V, De Giorgio R. The changing clinical profile of celiac disease: a 15-year experience (1998-2012) in an Italian referral center. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:194.

Chapter 23

Abboud H, Henrich WL. Clinical practice. Stage IV chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:56-65.
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Cooper CJ, Murphy TP, Cutlip DE, Jamerson K, Henrich W et al. Stenting and medical therapy for atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med 2014;370:13-22.
Dasgupta I, Shroff R, Bennett-Jones D, McVeigh G, for the NICE. Hyperphosphataemia Guideline Development Group. Management of hyperphosphataemia in chronic kidney disease: summary of National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline. Nephron Clin Pract 2013;124:1-9.
Ekstrom N, Schioler L, Svensson A-M, Eeg-Olofsson K, Jonasson LM, et al. Effectiveness and safety of metformin in 51 675 patients with type 2 diabetes and different levels of renal function: a cohort study from the Swedish National Diabetes Register, BMJ Open 2012;2:e001076.
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Moss AH. Revised dialysis clinical practice guideline promotes more informed decision-making. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010;5:2380-2383.
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Russo E, Penno G, Del Prato S. Managing diabetic patients with moderate or severe renal impairment using DPP-4 inhibitors: focus on vildagliptin. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2013;6:161-170.
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Chapter 24

Aoun F, Marcelis Q, Roumeguère T. Minimally invasive devices for treating lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostate hyperplasia: technology update. Res Rep Urol. 2015;7:125-136.
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Hoffman RH. Screening for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2011;365:2013-2019.
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Palka MA. Evidenced based review of recommendations addressing the frequency ofchanging long-term indwelling urinary catheters in older adults. Geriatr Nurs. 2014;35:357-363.
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Chapter 25

Atkin W, Dadswell E, Wooldrge K, Krlj-Hans I, von Wagner C, Edwards R et al. Computed tomographic colonography versus colonoscopy for investigation of patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer (SIGGAR): a multicentre randomised trial Lancet 2013;381:1194-1202.
Chapman IM. Weight loss in older persons. Med Clin N Am 2011;95:579–593.
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Saunders J, Smith T, Stroud M. Malnutrition and undernutrition. Medicine 2011;39:45-50.

Chapter 26

Akpan A, Morgan R. Oral candidiasis. Postgrad Med J 2002;78:455-459.
Bergler W, Sadick H, Gotte K, Riedel F, Hormann K. Topical estrogens combined with argon plasma coagulation in the management of epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2002;111(3 Pt 1):222-228.
Chakera AJ, Vaidya B. Addison disease in adults: diagnosis and management. Amer J Med 2010;123:409-413.
Chatterjee S, Mehta S, Sherer JT, Aparasu RR. Prevalence and predictors of anticholinergic medication use in elderly LTCF residents with dementia: analysis of data from the 2004 National LTCF Survey. Drugs Aging 2010;27:987-997.
Desoutter A, Soudain-Pineau M, Munsch F, Mauprivez C, Dufour T, et al. Xerostomia and medication: a cross-sectional study in long-term geriatric wards. J Nutr Health Aging 2012;16:575-579.
Eisen D. Disorders of pigmentation in the oral cavity. Clin Dermatol 2000;18:579-587.
Gu Y, Williams M, Poh CF. How do I evaluate a patient with a swollen lip? J Can Dent Assoc. 2010;76:a92.
Kawar N, Gajendrareddy PK, Hart TC, Nouneh R, Maniar N, et al. Periodontal disease for the primary care physician. Dis Mon 2011;57:174-183.
Pajukoski H, Meurman JH, Halonen P, Sulkava R. Prevalence of subjective dry mouth and burning mouth in hospitalized elderly patients and outpatients in relation to saliva, medication, and systemic diseases. Oral Radiol Endod. 2001;92:641-649.
Youngs R. Discharge from the ear. BMJ 2014;349:g150.

Chapter 27

Caroll SC, Gaskin BJ, Danesh-Meyer HV. Giant cell arteritis. Clin Experiment Ophtalmol 2006;34:159-173.
Clinical Practice Guideline Expert Committee. Canadian Ophthalmological Society evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the periodic eye examination in adults in Canada. Can J Ophthalmol 2007;42:39-45.
Elliott DB, Hotchkiss J, Scally AJ, Foster R, Buckley JG. Intermediate addition multifocals provide safe stair ambulation with adequate 'short-term' reading. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2015, doi: 10.1111/opo.12236. [Epub ahead of print].
Geerling G, Tauber J, Baudouin C, Goto E, Matsumoto Y, et al. The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the subcommittee on management and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011; 52: 2050-2064.
Leibowitz HM. The red eye. N Engl J Med 2000;343:345-351.
Li J, Tripathi RC, Tripathi BJ. Drug-induced ocular disorders. Drug Safety 2008;31:127-141

Lord SR, Smith ST, Menant JC. Vision and falls in older people: risk factors and intervention wtrategies. Clin Geriatr Med 2010;26:569–581.
Robinett DA, Kahn JH. The physical examination of the eye. Emerg Med Clin N Am 2008;26:1-16.

Chapter 28

Black FO, Pesznecker S, Stallings V. Permanent gentamicin vestibulotoxicity. Otol Neurotol 2004;25:559-569.

Burton MJ, Doree C. Ear drops for the removal of ear wax. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;1:CD004326.
Conover K. Earache. Emerg Med Clin N Am 2013;31:413-442.
Guthrie RM. Diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis externa: an interdisciplinary update. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 1999;176:1-23.
Lee H, Kim J, Nguyen V. Ear infections otitis externa and otitis media. Prim Care Clin Office Pract. 2013


Lin FR, Yaffe K, Xia J, Xue QL, Harris TB,

et al. Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults.

JAMA Intern Med 2013;173:293-299.
Rosenfeld RM, Culpepper L, Doyle KJ, Grundfast KM, Hoberman A et al. Clinical practice guideline: otitis media with effusion. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;130:S95–118.
Rosenfeld RM, Singer M, Wasserman JM, Stinnett SS. Systematic review of topical antimicrobial therapy for acute otitis externa. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006; 134:S24-S48.
Walling AD, Dickson GM. Hearing loss in older adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85:1150-1156.

Chapter 29

Abbasi NR, Shaw HM, Rigel DS, Friedman RJ, McCarthy WH, et al. Early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. Revisiting the ABCD criteria. JAMA 2004;292:2771-2776.
Balatao A, Ballato N, Di Costanzo L, Ayala F. Contact sensitization in the elderly. Clin Dermatol 2011;29:24-30.
Berker D. Fungal nail disease. NEJM 2009; 360:2108-2116.
Bologna JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV. Dermatology, 3d Ed, Elsevier, 2012;21:335-356.
Davis MP, Frandsen JL, Walsh D, Andresen S, Taylor S. Mirtazapine for pruritus. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003;25:288-291.
Federici A, Federici G, Milani M. An urea, arginine and carnosine based cream (Ureadin Rx Db ISDIN) shows greater efficacy in the treatment of severe xerosis of the feet in Type 2 diabetic patients in comparison with glycerol-based emollient cream. A randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled trial. BMC Dermatol. 2012;12:16.
Kaya G, Saurat JH. Dermatoporosis: a chronic cutaneous insufficiency/fragility syndrome. Clinicopathological features, mechanisms, prevention and potential treatments. Dermatology 2007;215:284-294.
Kranke P, Bennett MH, Martyn-StJames M et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for chronic wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;4:CD004123.
Mascitelli L, Goldstein MR, Grant WB. Does vitamin D have a role in reducing the risk of peripheral artery disease? Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2010;85:1058-1059.
Ndip A, Ebah L, Mbako A. Neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers - evidence-to-practice. Int J Gen Med 2012;5:129-134.
Olin JW, Sealove BA. Peripheral artery disease: current insight into the disease and its diagnosis and management. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85:678-692.
Palfreyman S, Nelson EA, Michaels JA. Dressings for venous leg ulcers: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2007;335:244.
Palfreyman SJ, Nelson EA, Lochiel R, Michaels JA. Dressings for healing venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;3:CD001103.
Palfreyman SJ, Nelson EA, Lochiel R, Micjaels JA. Dressings for healing venous ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;CD00aa03.
Panuganti B, Tarbox M. Evaluation and management of pruritus and scabies in the elderly population. Clin Geriatr Med 2013;29:479–499.
Radack K, Deck C. Beta-adrenergic blocker therapy does not worsen intermittent claudication in subjects with peripheral arterial disease: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1769-1776.
Régnier-Rosencher E, Guillot B, Dupin N. Treatments for classic Kaposi sarcoma: a systematic review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 68:313-331.
Snyder B. Approach to the patient with drug allergy. Med Clin North Am 2010;94:665-670.
van Gent WB, Hop WC, van Praag MC, Mackaay AJ, de Boer EM, Wittens CH. Conservative versus surgical treatment of venous leg ulcers: a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial. J Vasc Surg. 2006;44:563-571.
Yosipovitch G, Bernhard JD. Chronic pruritus. N Engl J Med 2013;368:1625-1634.

Chapter 30

Gines A, Fernandez-Esparrach G, Monescillo A, Vila C, Domènech E, et al. Randomized trial comparing albumin, dextran 70 and polygeline in cirrhotic patients with ascites treated by paracentesis. Hepatology 1996;111:1002-1010.
Gines P, Arroyo V, Quintero E, Planas R, Bory F, et al. Comparison of paracentesis and diuretics in the treatment of cirrhotics with tense ascites: Results of a randomized study. Gastroenterology 1987;93:234-241.
Mandorfer M, Bota S, Schwabl P, Bucsics T, Pfisterer N, et al. Nonselective β blockers increase risk for hepatorenal syndrome and death in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology. 2014;146:1680-1690.e1.
Phillip V, Saugel B, Ernesti C, Hapfelmeier A, Schultheiß C, et al. Effects of paracentesis on hemodynamic parameters and respiratory function in critically ill patients. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:18.
Ruiz-del-Arbol L, Monescillo A, Jimenez W, Garcia-Plaza A, Arroyo V, Rodés J. Paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction: Mechanism and effect on hepatic hemodynamics in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1997;113:579-586.
Runyon BA. Introduction to the revised American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Practice Guideline management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis 2012. Hepatology. 2013;57:1651-1653.
Sersté T, Melot C, Francoz C, Durand F, Rautou PE, et al. Deleterious effects of beta-blockers on survival in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. Hepatology. 2010;52:1017-1022.
Sobhonslidsuk A. Current position of vasoconstrictor and albumin infusion for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome. World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther. 20156;6:28-31.
Thomsen TW, Shaffer RW, White B, Setnik GS. Paracenthesis. N Engl J Med 2006;355:e21.

Chapter 31

Boussarsar M, Thierry G, Jaber S, Roudot-Thoraval F, Lemaire F, Brochard L. Relationship between ventilatory settings and barotrauma in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2002;28:406-413.

Ceriana P, Carlucci A, Navalesi P, et al. Weaning from tracheotomy in long-term mechanically ventilated patients: feasibility of a decisional flowchart and clinical outcome. Intensive Care Med 2003; 29:845-848.
Gamloush M, O’Connor HH, White AC. Patient-ventilator interaction in the long-term acute-care hospital. Respiratory Care 2011; 56:207-213.
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Krishnan JA, Parce PB, Martinez A, Diette GB, Brower RG. Caloric intake in medical ICU patients: consistency of care with guidelines and relationship to clinical outcomes. Chest 2003;124:297-305.

MacIntyre NR, Cook DJ, Ely EW Jr, Epstein SK, Fink JB, Heffner JE, Hess D, Hubmayer RD, Scheinhorn DJ, American College of Chest Physicians, American Association Evidence-based guidelines for weaning and discontinuing ventilatory support: a collective task force facilitated by the American College of Chest Physicians; the American Association for Respiratory Care; and the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Chest 2001;120(6 Suppl):375S-395S.

MacIntyre NR, Epstein SK, Carson S, Scheinhorn D, Christopher K, Muldoon S, National Association for Medical Direction of Respiratory Care. Management of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation: report of a NAMDRC consensus conference. Chest 2005;128:3937-3954.

Mason: Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, 5th ed., Saunders, 2010.
Mietto C, Pinciroli R, Patel N, Berra L. Ventilator associated pneumonia: evolving definitions and preventive strategies. Respir Care. 2013;58:990-1007.
Parillo JE, Delliger RP. Critical care medicine: Principles of diagnosis and management in the adult. Fouth Edition, 2014:138-152.
Pisano G1, Calò PG, Tatti A, Farris S, Erdas E, et al. Surgical gastrostomy when percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is not feasible: indications, results and comparison between the two procedures. Chir Ital. 2008;60:261-266.
Ramirez P, Bassi GL, Torres A. Measures to prevent nosocomial infections during mechanical ventilation. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2012;18:86-92.
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Tobin MJ, Jubran A. Variable performance of weaning-predictor tests: role of Bayes' theorem and spectrum and test-referral bias. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32:2002-2012.
Vaughan JR1, Scott JS, Edelman DS, Unger SW. Tracheostomy. A new indication for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. Am Surg. 1991;57:214-215.

Chapter 32

Backman S, Bjorling G, Johansson UB, Lysdahl M, Markstrom A, et al. Material wear of polymeric tracheostomy tubes: a six-month study. Laryngoscope 2009; 119:657-664.
Caparros AC. Mechanical ventilation and the role of saline instillation in suctioning adult intensive care unit patients: an evidence-based practice review. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2014;33:246-253.
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Hess DR, Altobelli NP. Tracheostomy tubes. Respir Care 2014;59:956-971.
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White AC, Kher S, O’Connor HH. When to change a tracheostomy tube. Respiratory Care 2010;55:1069-1075.

Chapter 33

Rosenthal M, Rosenthal D: Stomal care. In: Wilmore D, Laurence Y, Cheung AH, et al. ed. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice, New York: WebMD Professional Publishing; 2003:1655-1670.
Sorrentino SA. Mosby’s Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Mosby Elsevier, St Louis, 2008, pp: 391-394.

Chapter 34

Bakdash S, Yazer MH. What every physician should know about transfusion reactions. CMAJ 2007;177:141-147.
Carson JL, Grossman BJ, Kleinman S, Tinmouth AT, Marques MB et al. Red blood cell transfusion: a clinical practice guideline from the AABB. Ann Intern Med 2012;157:49-58.
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ASPEN Board of Directors and the Clinical Guidelines Task Force, “Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients,” JPEN J Parenteral Enteral Nutr. 2002;26(1 Suppl):1-138.
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Gosmanov AR, Umpierrez GE. Management of hyperglycemia during enteral and parenteral nutrition therapy. Curr Diab Rep 2013;13:155-162.
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Jonker MA, Osterby KR, Vermeulen LC, Kleppin SM, Kudsk KA. Does low-dose heparin maintain central venous access device patency?: a comparison of heparin versus saline during a period of heparin shortage. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2010;34:444-449.
Kumpf VJ, Tillman EM. Home parenteral nutrition: safe transition from hospital to home. Nutr Clin Pract. 2012;27:749-57.
Lyons MG, Phalen AG. A randomized controlled comparison of flushing protocols in home care patients with peripherally inserted central catheters. J Infus Nurs 2014;37:270-281.
Olveira G, Tapia MJ, ocon J, Cabrejas-Gomez C, Ballesteros-Pomar MD et al. Parenteral nutrition-associated hyperglycemia in non-critically ill inpatients increases the risk of in-hospital mortality (multicenter study). Diabetes Care 2013;36:1061-1066.
Raman M, Gramlich L, Whittaker S, Allarf JP. Canadian home total parenteral nutrition registry: preliminary data on the patient population. Can J Gastroenterol 2007;21:643-648. Chopra V, Anand S, Hicker A, Buist M, Roegers MAM, et al. Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with peripherally inserted central catheters: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2013;382:311-325.
Wilson JD, Alred SC. Does prophylactic anticoagulation prevent PICC-related upper extremity venous thrombosis? A case-control study. J Infus Nurs. 2014;37:381-385.

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