Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Sources, Antioxidant Properties and Health Benefits

Angel Catalá, PhD (Editor)
Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CONICET, CIC., La Plata, Argentina

Series: Nutrition and Diet Research Progress, Biochemistry Research Trends
BISAC: MED008000

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During the last four decades, the interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has greatly increased and the number of published studies is rising each year. The current impetus for this interest has mainly been the observation that PUFA and their metabolites have several physiological roles including energy provision, membrane structure, cell signaling and the regulation of gene expression. In addition, the observation that PUFA are targets of lipid peroxidation opens a new, important area of investigation. This new book presents and discusses current research on the biochemical diversity of the lipids and the fatty acids contained in various species of microalgae of marine and fresh water environments, the sources and synthesis of PUFA in macroalgae, the nutritional properties of algal PUFA and their potential for future dietary use, as well as the health implications of dietary algal PUFA (notably their effects on inflammatory disorders and brain development and function).

The current state of microalgal long-chain PUFA production for biotechnology is also presented. The sources and health effects of n-3 fatty acids, the validity and reliability of estimates of dietary intake of n-3 PUFA from different dietary questionnaires commonly used in population are analyzed. The influence of PUFA on membrane biophysical properties, focussing especially on their participation in the maintenance of membrane fluidity and in the generation of specialized lipid domains, the relationship between membrane properties and the functionality of certain membrane-associated proteins, and signaling events is also analyzed. Other chapters describe the behaviour of polyunsaturated fatty acids in nature with emphasis on biological membranes and the lipid peroxidation of n3 and n6 PUFA including a synopsis of identified effects of hydroxy-alkenals and oxidized phospholipids on cell signaling, from their intracellular production to their action as intracellular messenger, up to their influence on transcription factors and gene expression, as well as the factors affecting the overall cellular response to electrophilic lipids and electrophilic lipids as modulators of cell function.

The total synthesis of phytoprostanes, isoprostanes and neuroprostanes, their physiological roles and their use as biomarkers of oxidative stress in human as well as the formation of nitro-fatty acids, natural sources, anti-inflammatory properties and therapeutics is described. Lipid signals in haematopoeisis, roles in cell proliferation and fate are described. The role of long chain PUFA in the prevention and treatment of atopic diseases is provided. The association of high ù-6/ù-3 fatty acid ratio with risk of cardiovascular diseases as well as the effect of PUFA and their metabolites as cytoprotective, anti-mutagenic and anti-cancer molecules as well as the various fates of dietary PUFA as it relates to cancer development and progression is discussed. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical )

Preface

Chapter 1. Omega-3 and Omega-6 LC-PUFA from Photosynthetic Microalgae: Studies on Parietochloris incise and Nannochloropsis sp.
(Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Alexei Solovchenko, Dipasmita Pal, Zvi Cohen and Sammy Boussiba, The French Associates Institute for Dryland Agriculture and Biotechnologies, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, Israel, and others)

Chapter 2. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae as Potential Sources for Health and Disease
(Lionel Ulmann, Virginie Mimouni, Vincent Blanckaert, Virginie Pasquet, Benoît Schoefs and Benoît Chénais, Université du Maine, EA2160 Mer Molécules Santé, équipe MicroMar, Le Mans, France and Département de Génie Biologique, Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Laval, France)

Chapter 3. Algal-Derived Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Implications for Human Health
(Ruairi Robertson, Freddy Guihéneuf, Matthias Schmid, Dagmar B. Stengel, Gerald Fitzgerald, Paul Ross and Catherine Stanton, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Biosciences Department, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland, and others)

Chapter 4. Biomarkers of Intake and Status of Nutritional Omega 3 Fatty Acids
(M. Nissensohn and L. Serra-Majem, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, and others)

Chapter 5. Sources and Health Effects of Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids
(Connye N. Kuratko and Norman Salem Jr., Nutrition Science Advocacy, DSM Nutritional Lipids, Columbia, Maryland, USA)

Chapter 6. Phytoprostanes, Isoprostanes and Neuroprostanes: The Lovely Story of n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolites
(Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Aurélien de la Torre, Claire Cuyamendous, Valérie Bultel-Poncé, Alexandre Guy, Guillaume Reversat and Thierry Durand, Institut des Biomolecules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR - CNRS - University Montpellier I and II - ENSCM, Faculty of Pharmacy, Montpellier, France)

Chapter 7. Role of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Modulation of the Physical Properties of Biological Membranes
(Sandra Viviana Verstraeten, Department of Biological Chemistry, IQUIFIB (UBA-CONICET), School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina)

Chapter 8. Lipid Peroxidation of n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Their Impact on Membrane Structure and Cell Signaling
(Natalia S. Fagali and Angel Catala, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas, (INIFTA-CCT La Plata-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina)

Chapter 9. Association of High ω-6/ω-3 Fatty Acid Ratio with Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases
(Ram Singh, Miki Takunaga, Toru Takahashi, Elena Gerasimova, Fabien De Meester and Douglas Wilson, Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India, and others)

Chapter 10. Cardiovascular Health Benefits of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Mechanisms Beyond LDL-Cholesterol
(Mahinda Y. Abeywardena, CSIRO - Animal, Food & Health Sciences, Adelaide SA, Australia)

Chapter 11. Role of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Atopic Diseases
(Szimonetta Lohner and Tamas Decsi, University of Pécs, Department of Pediatrics, Péps, Hungary)

Chapter 12. Nitro Fatty Acids: Formation, Natural Sources, Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Therapeutics
(Homero Rubbo, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, General Flores, Montevideo, Uruguay)

Chapter 13. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolism and Cancer
(Janel Suburu, Haiqin Chen, Zhennan Gu and Yong Q. Chen, Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA, and others)

Chapter 14. Lipid Signals in Haematopoeisis: Roles in Cell Proliferation and Fate
(H. Anne Leaver and Dino Rotondo, Cell Biology R&D, SNBTS & Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh, UK, and others)

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