Phytotherapy Approaches for Oral Ulcers Treatment

Ana Maria Trindade Gregio (Editor)
Pontifical Univ. Catholic of Parana, Brazil, College of Pharm. and Pharmaceutical, The Univ. of Toledo Health Science Campus, OH, USA

Patricia Vida Cassi Bettega (Editor)
Post-Graduation Student, School of Dentistry,
Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil

Mariana Rinaldi (Editor)
Post-Graduation Student, School of Dentistry,
Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil

Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues Johann (Editor)
Associate Professor and Chair, Program of Post-Graduation,
School of Dentistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná,
Curitiba, Brazil

Series: Pharmacology – Research, Safety Testing and Regulation
BISAC: MED071000

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Phytotherapy Approaches for Treatment of Mouth Ulcers is a book with updated and illustrated text with pictures and graphs that help to define, characterize and classify mouth ulcers. The most frequent oral mucosa lesions are the aphthous ulcerations with a prevalence of 4.6 to 30.6%. These can be defined as a fundamental lesion characterized by the absence of the epithelial tissue layer, which makes the subjacent conjunctive tissue unprotected and vulnerable to external aggressions. There are three main forms, the most common being the aphthous; these are small, rounded, defined ulcerations that are painful and heal in 10 to 14 days. The other form of recurrent aphthous ulceration is the type of deep, long aphthous that present a grayish yellow aspect, with the same period of duration and the patient frequently presents monthly lesions. They are also called herpetiform aphthous. A third form of recurrent aphthous ulceration are those distributed on the tongue dorsum; these are oral mucosa, but they are not located in the keratinized region.

The mouth ulcer healing process is very complex, being characterized by taking out the conned tissue, and replaced by a conjunctive tissue. The standard healing process can be divided into three stages: (1) inflamed stage; (2) proliferative stage of fibroblasts and blood vase; and (3) maturing stage and collagen remodeling.

All of these forms cause pain, discomfort and debilitate the patient, because it makes eating difficult and aggravates the clinical condition of inflammation. The exact reason for the appearance of these lesions remains obscure, but it may be affirmed that the contact of the oral mucosa tissues with physical agents capable of inducing trauma such as the edges of teeth, fractured crowns or defected restorations and maladapted orthodontic and prosthetic appliances or even the ingestion of acidic foods represent the main causes. Any medicinal strategy which anticipate or promote a closer remodeling to the physiological one is certainly desirable, because it would collaborate to reduce the discomfort and risk of later infection. The form of treatment indicated can vary depending on the professional and the period of the inflammatory cycle, and as therapy, antimicrobial compounds (terramycin, neomycin), non-steroid anti-inflammatory (derived from propionic acid), and steroid anti-inflammatory (triamcinolone -Oncilom-A®) agents may be used. Nevertheless, many patients that come to the dental offices with aphthous and stomatitis seek natural treatment for these afflictions. However, since the studies in this area are still at the developmental stage, an approach to prescription, posology and pharmacokinetics of these medicinal plants is needed, and this has led pharmacology, pharmacognosis, phytochemistry and microbiology entities to invest in research of new drugs with active principals of natural origin. Due to the importance of medicinal plants, studies about medicinal plants have been increased. Our objective in this book is to verify the classification, diagnosis, causes and treatment of mouth ulcers. Also, the anti-inflammatory and healing activity of Arnica montana, Chamomille recutita, and Zingiber oficinalle on the treatment of ulcer lesions, as well as observing the development of the repair process, are included. Furthermore, we have prepared a description about Traditional Chinese Medicine and mouth ulcer treatment. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Preface

Chapter 1. Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis
Mariana Rinaldi, Patrícia Vida Cassi Bettega, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio (Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics-Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR) Rua Imaculada Conceição, Curitiba, PR, Brazil)

Chapter 2. Healing Effect of Tincture of Arnica Montana on Ulcerated Oral Mucosal Lesions in Rats: Clinical and Histopathological Analysis
Thatiana Yumiko Sawada, Márcia Cristina Matsumoto Pedri Valença, Ana Cristina Pretto Pereira, Andréia Priscila Monteiro Barbosa, Mariana Rinaldi, Patrícia Vida Cassi Bettega, Maria Ângela Naval Machado, Antônio Adílson Soares de Lima, Luciana Reis de Azevedo, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio, Sérgio Aparecido Ignácio (DDS PUCPR, Professor of Dentistry Universidade Federal do Paraná (Universidade Federal do Paraná), and others)

Chapter 3. Effect of Zingiber Officinale and its Main Oleoresin Compounds on Inflammatory Cells in Ulcerated Lesions of The Oral Mucosa of Rat
Maria Cláudia Baggio Gomes, Michelle Moura de Farias, Mariana Rinaldi, Patrícia Vida Cassi Bettega, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio, Luciana Reis de Azevedo, Antônio Adílson Soares de Lima, Maria Ângela Naval Machado, Sergio Aparecido Ignácio (DDS PUCPR, Professor of Dentistry PUCPR, Professor of Dentistry UFPR (Universidade Federal do Paraná), and others)

Chapter 4. Use of Chamomile in the Repair of Mouth Ulcers in Young Rats
Eduardo Karam Saltori, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues Johann, Sergio Aparecido Ignácio, Arieli Carini Michels, Suelen Teixeira Luiz, Jéssika Uane Ziroldo, Fernanda Cristina Grossl, Mariana Rinaldi, Patrícia Vida Cassi Bettega, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio (Professor of Dentistry PUCPR, Professor Department of Statistics PUCPR, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 5. Contribution of Ethnopharmacology for the Mouth Ulcer Healing
Patrícia Maria Stuelp Campelo, Maria Fernanda Cordeiro Arruda, Luiz Fernando Bianchini, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro Rosa (Professor of Biochemistry PUCPR, BBiol, MSc PUCPR, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 6. TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine on Mouth Ulcer
Wenying Yan, Ana Maria Trindade Gregio, Wenying Yan (Nurse, Department of Surgery Nursing: The People's Hospital, Kaifa District Dezhou City, Shandong Province, China, and others)

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