Pharmacogenomics in Latin America: Challenges and Opportunities


Series: Pharmacology – Research, Safety Testing and Regulation, Latin American Political, Economic, and Security Issues
BISAC: MED071000

Worldwide, adverse drug reactions are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients, as well as increased healthcare costs. Published data show that there are around 2 million adverse drug reactions, including 100,000 deaths, which are established as the fourth leading cause of mortality. This culminates an estimated cost of 136 billion dollars to the global healthcare system. However, these values are underestimated, because in many parts of the world there are no reliable records of pharmacovigilance. This is the case in Latin America, where the records of adverse reactions are still insufficient, and therefore it is not possible to properly establish the extent of its effects on public health. At the same time, treatment failure due to sub-therapeutic levels of drugs is not evaluated in healthcare systems, especially in Latin America, where the “importation” of dosages and results from clinical trials form the fundamental basis of the application and acquisition of pharmaceutical products. This is due mainly to current protocols, which assume that patients are a single entity; therefore, drugs effective and well-tolerated in some patients are equally effective in the rest. Clinical experience shows that drugs that work well in some patients are ineffective or cause adverse reactions in others, and may even prove fatal to intolerant patients.

The main objective of this book is to catalog the most relevant information concerning healthcare drug effects in Latin America. This could provide a huge benefit for Latin American patients, where it is estimated that there are plenty of side effects and treatment failure due to the “importation” of dosages and therapies regardless of population variability. It should encourage discussion and concern about the implementation and validation of pharmacogenomic testing and clinical guidelines for specific mixed populations of the region. It will also be valuable to demonstrate this research to health professionals (prescribers, insurers and regulators) in the region and the impact of pharmacogenomics on pharmacotherapy cost-effectiveness. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. The Incorporation of Clinical Guidelines of Pharmacogenomics in Latin America
Luis A. Quiñones and Ismael Lares-Asseff (Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis and Pharmacogenetics, Department of Basic-Clinical Oncology (DOBC), Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Chile, and others)

Chapter 2. Genetic Variability and Response to Drugs in Latin American Populations: Ethnicity and Ancestry
Idania Rodeiro Guerra and José Alfredo Herrera Isidrón (Pharmacology Department, Center of Marine Bioproducts, CEBIMAR, Environmental Agency, Havana, Cuba, and others)

Chapter 3. Pharmacogenomic Studies in Mexico, Central America and Cuba in Amerindians Groups: Clinical Applications and Toxicology
Ismael Lares-Asseff, Fausto Zaruma Torres and Claudia E. Bailón-Soto (National Polytechnic Institute-CIIDIR, Durango, Mexico, and others)

Chapter 4. Clinical Pharmacogenomics in South America
Juan Pablo Cayún, Carla Miranda, María Alejandra Lavanderos, Matías Martínez, Paula Escalante, Marcelo Suárez, Roberto Cerro, Christopher Sandoval, Leslie Cerpa, and Paulina Moreno (Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis and Pharmacogenetics (CQF), Department of Basic-Clinic Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Chile)

Chapter 5. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Pharmacogenomics: A Decompensated Ratio
Fabrício Rios-Santos, Cinthia Vila Nova Santana, Luiz Alexandre Magno, and Antonio Macho (Departamento de Ciências Básicas em Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 6. Pharmacogenomics, Regulatory Affairs and Public Health
Diadelis Remirez Figueredo (National Centre for Quality Control of Drugs, Cuba)

Chapter 7. Pharmacogenomics in Psychiatric Practice: Latin America Initiatives
Lina Ortiz L., Mauricio Moreno and Luis A. Quiñones (Department of Psychiatry, Clínica Las Condes, Santiago, Chile, and others)

Chapter 8. Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics: Clinical Applications in Latin America
Ángela M. Roco A., Luis A. Quiñones S. and Carla E. Miranda (Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis and Pharmacogenetics, Department of Basic-Clinical Oncology (DOBC), Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Chile, and others)

Chapter 9. Cancer Pharmacogenomic Studies in Latin America
Andrés López-Cortés, Santiago Guerrero and María Ana Redal (Biomedical Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad de las Americas, Quito, Ecuador, and others)

Chapter 10. Pharmacogenomics of Antiretroviral Therapy in Latin America
Nelson M. Varela and Fernando Bernal (Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis and Pharmacogenetics, Department of Basic-Clinical Oncology (DOBC), Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Chile, and others)

Chapter 11. Molecular Bases of Epileptogenesis and Multidrug Resistance in Refractory Epilepsy: Latin American Approaches
Lazarowski A. and Czornyj L. (INFIBIOC-School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry- University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and others)

Chapter 12. Pharmacoepigenomics of Cancer: Opportunities in Latin America
Germán R. Perez (Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Gammalab, Grupo Gamma SA, Argentina)

Chapter 13. Future Directions: Challenges, Opportunities and Limitations
Maria A. Redal and Luis A. Quiñones (Institute of Physiopathology and Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires. CDM Center of Molecular Diagnostic, Argentina, and others)

Editor’s Contact Information


Audience: Biomedical students and professionals (MD, Pharmacists, nurses, biochemist and others).
Pharmaceutical Industry
Health institutions, private and public.

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