Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs): Structure, Mechanisms of Action and Role in Health and Disease

Rodrigo B. Valenzuela (Editor)
Nutrition Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Casilla, Santiago, Chile

Series: Biochemistry Research Trends
BISAC: SCI007000




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Worldwide, the prevalence of chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, inflammatory (autoimmune) and neurodegenerative diseases, has shown a sharp increase. In the last 20 years, developing countries and the young population have presented the largest augment in the incidence of these diseases, which evidences that they are not only limited to developed countries nor the adult population. These pathologies have in common a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors.

In this context, several basic and clinical researches have demonstrated the relevance of the expression and activity of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as fundamental elements in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. PPARs are a family of transcription factors that control many cellular metabolic processes. PPAR isoform expression and activity is regulated in different tissues according to physiological processes (growth, development, and aging) and to pathological conditions (cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, hepatic diseases, among others). Also, different compounds such as drugs (fibrates), nutrients (long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids), and several natural bioactive compounds (polyphenols) are molecular regulators of PPARs expression and activity. Recent research has established the importance of the regulation of PPARs activity and their role in cell and tissue protection against injury (i.e., oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress).

This book is dedicated to reviewing the state of the art regarding PPARs regulation with an emphasis on molecular aspects underlying their effect in health and disease. Specifically, the participation of PPARs is discussed in insulin resistance, inflammation, NAFLD, DM2, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity, gastrointestinal disease, and neurological health and disease. Moreover, this book reviews how different molecules regulate the expression and activity of PPARs. Finally, the scientific information presented in this book pretends to contribute to a greater understanding of PPAR role in the prevention and treatment of different pathologies and metabolic alterations.


Chapter 1. PPARs as Potential Targets to Tackle Metabolic Impairments: From Insulin Resistance and Inflammation to NAFLD, DM2 and Cardiovascular Disease
(Vanessa Souza-Mello, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Isabele Bringhenti and Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcântara Gomes, Departamento de Anatomia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 2. The Role of PPARs (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors) in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
(Verónica Sambra1 and Claudia Vega, Nutrition Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile, and others)

Chapter 3. Influence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on Epigenetic Regulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPARs)
(Lissette Constanza Duarte Silva, Department of Nutrition, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile)

Chapter 4. PPAR and Diabetic Nephropathy
(Basfi-fer Karen and Pierart Camila, Nutrition Department, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile, and others)

Chapter 5. Cardiovascular Risk and PPARs: The Good Ones or the Bad Ones?
(Daniela Adjemian, MD, and Pamela Rojas, MD, Department of Surgery, Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile, and others)

Chapter 6. The Role of PPARs in Hypertension: Molecular and Clinical Views
(María Soledad Reyes and Karen Basfi-fer Obregon, Nutrition Department, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile)

Chapter 7. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) in the Physiology of Adipose Tissue and the Physiopathology of Obesity
(Alfonso Valenzuela B., Rodrigo Valenzuela B. and Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Chile, Chile, and others)

Chapter 8. PPARs and Obesity
(Alex Valenzuela M., Faculty of Medicine, Clínica Alemana - Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile)

Chapter 9. Peroxisome Profilerator-Activated Receptors in Skeletal Muscle Health, Aging and Metabolic Diseases
(José Luis Bucarey1and Alejandra Espinosa, Escuela de Medicina,Campus San Felipe, Universidad de Valparaiso, San Felipe, Chile, and others)

Chapter 10. The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) in Gastrointestinal Disease
(N. Gabriela Carrasco, Department of Nutrition, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile)

Chapter 11. Peroxisome-Proliferator Activated Receptor, Nutrition, Inflammation and Wound Healing
(Christine Kreindl Villagra, Nutrition Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile)

Chapter 12. PPARs Role in Neurological Health and Disease
(Sandra A. Soto-Alarcón and Rodrigo Valenzuela, PhD, Nutrition Department, Faculty of Medicine. University of Chile. Santiago, Chile, and others)

Chapter 13. Modulation of PPARs in Health and Disease: Role of Fatty Acids
(Macarena Ortiz, Francisca Echeverría, Rodrigo Valenzuela and Luis A. Videla, Nutrition and Dietetics School, Catholic University of Maule, Curicó, Chile, and others)

Chapter 14. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) Induced by Exercise: Implications in Health and Disease
(Nathalie Llanos R., Department of Nutrition, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile)

Chapter 15. Micronutrients as Regulatory Elements of PPARs
(Alvaro Pérez, PhD, and Manuel Ruz, PhD, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile)

Chapter 16. Bioactive Compounds as PPARs Ligands: Potential Health Effects
(Sixto Reyna and Francisca Echeverría, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Technical University of Manabí, Ecuador, and others)


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