Palliative Care to the Cancer Patient: The Middle East as a Model for Emerging Countries

Michael Silbermann (Editor)
Middle East Cancer Consortium, Haifa, Israel

Series: Cancer Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatments
BISAC: SOC042000

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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In the Middle East, as in other countries in the developing world, there is now a wide acceptance that palliative care is an important public health issue that should be integrated into the mainstream of cancer care as well as other life-threatening diseases. Nowadays, it is recognized as a human right issue that patients and families have the right to receive this care.

The WHO defined palliative care as the active total care of the patient’s body, mind and spirit; whereby health care providers need to evaluate and alleviate the patient’s physical, psychological and social distress. Such care encompasses a broad, multidisciplinary approach that includes both the family and the community and is provided in a range of settings, from the hospital, to the community health center, to home.

This unique and timely book captures the progress and vision of many dedicated groups throughout the Middle East and the USA who have been working to advocate for and develop palliative care services in the region. Each of the book’s chapters describes the efforts and challenges professionals have been experiencing as they address the palliative care needs of patients with life-limiting illnesses. Each country’s specific chapter details the current state of palliative care services and describes the various approaches that led to the development of a range of services in hospital-based sites to community and home-based care services.

The newly established programs took place in advanced academic institutions as well as in the community where home-based models of care were found to be the most efficient and compatible with the resources available.

Each country describes the challenges and barriers that hindered palliative care from becoming fully integrated in comprehensive cancer care. One of the major barriers in most Middle Eastern countries is the lack of education and training among professionals involved in the care of cancer patients throughout the trajectory of their illness. The latter include the use of modern pain medications, communication capabilities and the lack of research to guide evidence-based approaches to care.

This book serves as an important resource of information on the development efforts to advance palliative care services in a region that attempts to catch up to the modern individualized care for patients suffering from life-limiting illnesses. The contributing authors are recognized leaders in their countries, who have been contributing to the field’s growth and development. The editor of this book provides a framework for capturing the growth of the field of palliative care that respects and represents the increasing importance of context and setting, as well as culture and resources.
This book is a significant contribution to the process of documenting the development of palliative care, and also a tribute to individuals and teams who had the vision and commitment to pioneer this new discipline in cancer care. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface
Michael Silbermann, D.M.D., Ph.D.

Chapter 1 - Palliative Care in Cyprus: Current Status (pp. 1-20)
Haris Charalambous, B.M., M.R.C.P., F.R.C.R., Barbara Pitsillides, R.G.N., M.Sc.Pall. and Sophia Nestoros, M.D., M.Sc.Pall. (Bank of Cyprus Oncology Center, Nicosia, Greece and others)

Chapter 2 - Palliative Care in Egypt: Awareness is the Problem (pp. 21-26)
Khaled Abdelhmeed Mostafa, M.D., Dipl. Card., Dipl. Q.M.H.C. (National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt)

Chapter 3 - Palliative Care in Iraq (pp. 27-38)
Salma Abbas Al-Hadad, M.D., Mazin Faisal Al-Jadiry, M.D. and Claudia Leftko (Children's Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad College of Medicine, Baghdad, Iraq and others)

Chapter 4 - Palliative Care in the Islamic Republic of Iran (pp. 39-52)
Maryam Rassouli, Ph.D., R.N. and Moosa Sajjadi, R.N. (Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Teheran, Iran and others)

Chapter 5 - Islamic Culture in the Middle East: A Glimpse into Illness and Death (pp. 53-64)
Lea Baider, Ph.D. and Gili Goldzweig, Ph.D. (Assuta Medical Center, Tel Aviv, and Tel Aviv-Yaffo Academic College, Tel Aviv, Israel)

Chapter 6 - Pediatric Palliative Care in Israel (pp. 65-76)
Sergey Postovsky, M.D. and Myriam Weyl-Ben-Arush, M.D. (Meyer Children's Hospital, Rambam Health Care Campus, the Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel)

Chapter 7 - Integrating Complementary Medicine in Cancer Supportive Care across the Middle East: Challenges and Opportunities (pp. 77-98)
Eran Ben-Arye, M.D. (Integrative Oncology Program, The Oncology Service Lin Medical Center, Clalit Health Services, Haifa and West Galilee District, the Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel)

Chapter 8 - Palliative Care at the End-of-Life for Cancer Patients in Israel: Services in the Community (pp. 99-110)
Ron Sabar, M.D., M.B.A., Elon Richman, B.Sc., Amit Ringel, B.A., Dov Rosenbaum, M.P.H. and Seema Biswas, M.B.B.S., M.Sc., F.R.C.S. (Sabar Clinics, and Ziv Medical Center, Safed, Israel and others)

Chapter 9 - Palliative Care in Jordan: Accomplishments and Challenges (pp. 111-124)
Mohammad Al-Qadire, R.N., Ph.D., Suha Omran, R.N., D.N.Sc. and Mona Tayyem, R.N., M.S.N. (Al-Bayet University, Mafraq, and Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan and others)

Chapter 10 - Palliative Care for Cancer Patients in Lebanon (pp. 125-140)
Michel Daher, M.D. and Ramzi R. Hajjar, M.D., A.G.S.F. (Saint George Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Balamand, Beirut, and American University of Beirut, Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon)

Chapter 11 - Moroccan Experience (pp. 141-154)
Mati Nejmi, M.D. and Leyla Hessissen, M.D. (National Center of Pain and Palliative Care, INO, Rabat, and Hospital of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Rabat, Morocco)

Chapter 12 - Palliative Care in Oman (pp. 155-164)
Zakiya Al-Lamki, M.B., Ch.B, DCH, MRCP, FRCP (UK), FRCPCH, FRCP and Shah Mohammed Wasifuddin, M.D., DCH, FRCPCH (College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, and the National Oncology Center, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman)
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Chapter 13 - Palliative Care in Pakistan (pp. 165-70)
Rehana Punjwani, R.N. and Muhammad Shamvil Ashraf, M.B.B.S. (DOW), DCH, MCPS, MRCP, FCPS (Children Cancer Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan)

Chapter 14 - Palliative Care in Palestine (pp. 171-182)
Mohamad Khlief, M.H.P.M. and Amal Dweib, B.S.N. (Al-Sadeel Society for Palliative Care, Bethlehem, Palestine)

Chapter 15 - Palliative Care in Sudan (pp. 183-192)
Nahla Gafer, M.D., Esther Walker, M.B.E., B.Sc. and Mohja Khair Allah, M.B.B.S. (Radiation and Isotope Center, Khartoum, Sudan and others)

Chapter 16 - Palliative Care to the Cancer Patient in Turkey (pp. 193-210)
Rejin Kebudi, M.D., Fatma Betul Cakir, M.D. and Murat Gultekin, M.D. (Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty and the Oncology Institute, Istanbul University, Istanbul; Bezmialem Vakif University Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, and Cancer Control Department, Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey)

Chapter 17 - Establishing a New Palliative Care Program in a University Hospital: Current Achievements and Challenges (pp. 211-222)
Kamer Mutafoğlu, M.D. (Centre for Palliative Care Implementation and Research, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey)

Chapter 18 - Palliative Care: A New and Emerging Paradigm (pp. 223-238)
Rab Razzak, M.D. and Thomas J. Smith, M.D., FACP, FASCO, FAAHPM (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA and others)

Chapter 19 - Efforts of the American Society of Clinical Oncology to Further Global Palliative Care (pp. 239-244)
Vanessa Eaton, M.I.M. and Doug Pyle, M.B.A. (Alexandria, VA, USA)

Chapter 20 - Involvement of the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) in Palliative Care and Educational Programs in the Middle East (pp. 245-256)
Carol Long, Ph.D., R.N., FPCN, Carlton Brown, Ph.D., R.N., AOCN, Kathleen Murphy-Ende, R.N., Ph.D., Psy.D., AOCNP, Susan Newton, R.N., M.S., AOCN, AOCNS, Catherine Glennon, R.N., MHS, NE-BC, OCN, Kate Shaughnessy Hankle, M.B.A., CVA and Barbara Lubejko, R.N., M.S. (Oncology Nursing Society, Pittsburgh, PA, USA and others)

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