Organophosphates: Detection, Exposure and Occurrence. Volume 2: Acute Exposure and Treatments

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Series
: Environmental Remediation Technologies, Regulations and Safety
BISAC: SCI026000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.52305/JYJG9225

Organophosphates are widely used nowadays. They have applications as pesticides, drugs, plasticizers, flame retardants or chemical warfare agents. Their acute toxicity is ascribed to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in the transmission of nerve impulses in animals. Their toxic effects are manifested by the accumulation of acetylcholine and can lead to paralysis or death. Organophosphates also inhibit the other enzymes playing important roles in various biochemical processes. Organophosphate poisoning therapy is based on the application of specific antidotes as well as non-specific and symptomatic procedures.

In this contribution, the authors overview the organophosphates’ impact on human health and the environment, their various applications, acute exposure and possible treatments. In Volume 1, special attention was given to the connection of organophosphate exposure to cancer, synaptic vulnerability and depression development. The current state of knowledge and the future perspectives regarding their use, regulations, fate in the environment, biomonitoring, routes of exposure and legislation are reviewed. The detection and remediation of organophosphates in the environment using ionic liquids, electrochemical oxidation, carbon materials and metal-organic frameworks are discussed in more detail. The applications of organophosphates as acaricides and flame retardants are also reviewed. Volume 2 is dedicated to the use of organophosphates as chemical warfare agents and nerve gases and intentional and unintentional exposure to them. The history of the organophosphorous nerve gases development is summarized. The routes of the exposure to organophosphate chemical warfare agents and their acute toxicity are also discussed. The special focus is on the medical countermeasures and support during acute respiratory distress in nerve agent poisoning and the conventional and new treatment options.

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Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Organophosphates as Chemical Warfare Agents
(Vladan Anićijević and Radovan Karkalić – Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia, et al.)

Chapter 2. Acute Respiratory Distress in Nerve Agent Poisoning. Part 1: Respiratory and Pulmonary Effects of Organophosphates and Nerve Agents
(Arik Eisenkraft and Avshalom Falk – The Institute for Research in Military Medicine, The Department of Military Medicine, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel)

Chapter 3. Acute Respiratory Distress in Nerve Agent Poisoning. Part 2: Medical Countermeasures and Medical Support
(Arik Eisenkraft and Avshalom Falk – The Institute for Research in Military Medicine, The Department of Military Medicine, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel)

Chapter 4. Emergency Managements of Acute Organophosphate Toxicity
(Ayşegül Bayır – Selçuk University Faculty of Medicine, Emergency Department, Konya, Türkiye)

Chapter 5 – New Treatment Options in Acute Organophosphate Toxicity
(Ayşegül Bayır – Selçuk University Faculty of Medicine, Emergency Department, Konya, Türkiye)

Index

Editor’s ORCID iD

Tamara Lazarević-Pašti – https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6220-2079

Additional information

Binding

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