Optical Fibers: Technology, Communications and Recent Advances


Mário F. S. Ferreira (Editor)
Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

Series: Physics Research and Technology
BISAC: TEC011000

This book provides an overview of several topics concerning the design, fabrication, and application of optical fibers, namely in the areas of communication systems, sensing, and photonic devices development. It consists of ten chapters. The first two chapters are concerned with different kinds of problems that can affect the performance of advanced optical fiber communication systems. Chapter One describes the polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) phenomenon and discusses PMD-induced pulse broadening, as well as different compensation techniques, including the case of soliton transmission systems. Chapter Two provides a review of the main limitations imposed by nonlinear effects on the performance of both single-channel and multi-channel optical fiber communication systems.

Due to continued internet growth, the worldwide traffic demand for long-haul networks has nearly exhausted the capacity limits of conventional single-mode fiber. Space division multiplexing (SDM) technologies have become a promising approach to resolve this bandwidth crunch. Chapter Three presents an overview of the state-of-the-art SDM-based communications systems, considering both few-mode fibers (FMFs) and multicore fibers (MCFs). Chapter Four discusses several FMF-based nonlinear processes in the context of different optical communications and sensing applications.

Optical fibers have been used during the last decades to realize various types of photonic devices. Chapter Five presents a study of the performance of several fiber-based devices used in the areas of optical communications and sensing. Chapter Six provides a review of the cavity ring-down technique, which looks like a very promising technique and has been vastly employed in several areas of research.

Microstructured optical fibers (MOFs), also called photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), represent a new class of optical fibers that are characterized by the fact that fiber cladding presents an array of embedded air holes. They can offer different possibilities for the fiber optic sensing field, namely for the fabrication of fiber in-line modal interferometers (MIs). Chapter Seven describes the fabrication, operating principles and sensing applications of MOF-MIs. Chapter Eight discusses several phenomena concerning the ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond pulse propagation in gas-filled kagomé hollow-core PCFs, namely pulse compression, supercontinuum and UV light generation. Chapter Nine analyses the fundamentals of twisted clad guides, considering various forms of microstructured mediums. Finally, Chapter Ten provides a detailed review of the most recent developments in the field of nano-structured glass-based optical fibers fabrication. The application of such kinds of erbium and thulium doped phase-separated dielectric nano-particles-based fibers, as well as silicon nano-particles doped fibers towards the development of fiber lasers, optical amplifiers and broad band light sources is envisaged. (Imprint: Nova)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Impact of Polarization-Mode Dispersion in Optical Fiber Transmission Systems
Mário F. S. Ferreira (I3N-Institute of Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication, Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal)

Chapter 2. Limitations Imposed by Nonlinearities in Fiber-Optic Communications
Mário F. S. Ferreira (I3N-Institute of Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication, Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal)

Chapter 3. Space-Division Multiplexing in Fiber-Optic Transmission Systems
Gil M. Fernandes, Nelson J. Muga, and Armando N. Pinto (Department of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, University of Aveiro and Instituto de Telecomunicações, Aveiro, Portugal, and others)

Chapter 4. Few-Mode Fiber Nonlinearity for Optical Communications and Sensing Applications
Yi Weng and Zhongqi Pan (NEC Labs America Inc., Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA)

Chapter 5. The Study of the Performance of Photonics Components and Their Consequences in the Area of Optical Communication and Sensing
J. Neto, J. Sales, A. C. Ferreira, J. W.M. Menezes, G. F. Guimarães, and A. S.B. Sombra (Laboratory of Telecommunications and Materials Science and Engineering LOCEM, Department of Physics, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 6. A Brief Review of Fiber Cavity Ring-Down Technology
Regina Magalhães, Orlando Frazão and Susana Silva (INESC Porto and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal)

Chapter 7. Sensors Based on Microstructured Optical Fibers Modal Interferometers
Fei Xu, Yan-qing Lu, Zhen-xing Wu, Cheng Li and Sun-jie Qiu (College of Engineering and Applied Sciences and National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, P. R. China)

Chapter 8. Dispersive and Nonlinear Properties of Gas-Filled Kagomé Photonic Crystal Fibers
Silvia M. G. Rodrigues, Margarida M. V. Facão and Mário F. S. Ferreira (I3N-Institute of Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal)

Chapter 9. Twisted Clad Optical Guides: Concept, Features and Applications
P. K. Choudhury, Masih Ghasemi and M. A. Baqir (Institute of microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia)

Chapter 10. Nano-Engineering Optical Materials for Fiber Laser, Amplifier and Broad-Band Light Source: A Review
M. C. Paul, S. Das1, A. Dhar, M. Pal, A. V. Kir’yanov, Yu. O. Barmenkov, A. M. Martínez-Gamez, J. L. Lucio-Martínez, A. Arredondo-Santos, V. A. Kamynin, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. W. Harun, A.A. Latiff, and M. T. Ahmad (Fiber Optics and Photonic Division, CSIR-Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata, India, and others)


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