Oil Palm Shell: Lightweight Concrete and Structures

Mohammad Abdul Mannan
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, UNIMAS, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia

Series: Construction Materials and Engineering
BISAC: TEC005000

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Due to a high demand in construction and furniture industries worldwide, natural resources such as stones and wood as non-renewable resources are being depleted. Thus, researchers are focusing on renewable resources as alternative materials. As such, the utilisation of abundant solid wastes and byproducts, which are discharged from agriculture, industry and municipalities present an alternative to the conventional materials for the construction and furniture industries. These solid wastes and byproducts, when properly processed have shown to be effective and can readily meet design specifications. Agricultural solid wastes from oil palm distributors such as Oil Palm Shell (OPS) and Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), which are abundant in agro-based countries, present an interesting alternative to the conventional aggregate in lightweight concrete and artificial plank production, respectively.

At present, palm oil producing countries are Barkina Faso, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Colombia, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Liberia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Republic of Congo, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Venezuela and others.

In Malaysia, oil palm plantations cover over 5 million hectares, and annual production of OPS as solid waste from 450 oil palm mills is more than 6 million tons. This large amount of OPS as a renewable green aggregate can contribute to overcoming the over dependence on depletable resources for concrete production. The civil engineering projects are of a larger scale; they need sustainable materials in order to gain a greater momentum of growth. The major technical characteristics of OPS solid waste must be primarily understood before each particular use. Therefore, there is a need to highlight the importance of OPS to be used in the construction industry. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

About the Author

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. Solid Wastes in the Oil Palm Industry

Chapter 2. Properties of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight-Aggregate and Pre-Treatment

Chapter 3. Resistance Capacity of OPS Aggregate in Acid, Salt and Alkali Solutions

Chapter 4. Mix Design of OPS Concrete

Chapter 5. Engineering Properties of OPS Concrete

Chapter 6. Flexural Properties of Reinforced Concrete Beam Made with OPS Aggregates

Chapter 7. Flexural Behaviour of Precast RC Floor Panel Made with OPS Aggregates

Chapter 8. Long-Term Performances of Structures Built Using OPS Concrete

Chapter 9. Precast SIConSofa Block for Multifunctional Use

Chapter 10. IBS Concrete Products for a Water Village and Eco-Resort in Marine Environments

Index

Chapter 1

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30 (1). pp 111-118.
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6. pp. 40-49.

Chapter 2

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32, pp. 2143-2148.
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41. pp. 1239-1242.
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Chapter 3

[1] D.C.L. Teo. 2007. A study on structural lightweight concrete using Oil Palm Shell (OPS) aggregate. Ph.D. Thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah, Malaysia.
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[3] M.A. Mannan. 2001. A study on the use of Oil Palm Shell in Lightweight Concrete. PhD. Thesis. Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah, Malaysia.
[4] C.H. Ng. 2010. Studies on precast reinforced concrete floor panels using Oil Palm Shell aggregate. PhD. Thesis. Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah, Malaysia.
[5] D.C.L. Teo, M.A. Mannan, V.J. Kurian and C. Ganapathy. 2007. Lightweight concrete made from oil palm shell (OPS): structural bond and durability properties. Building and Environment.

42. pp 2614-2621.
[6] D.C.L. Teo, M.A. Mannan and V.J. Kurian. 2006. Flexural behaviour of reinforced lightweight concrete beams with oil palm shell (OPS). Journal of Advance Concrete Technology,

4(3), pp 459-468.
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30, pp 251-257.
[8] M.A. Mannan, J. Alexander, C. Ganapathy and D.C.L. Teo. 2006. Quality improvement of Oil Palm Shell (OPS) as coarse aggregate in lightweight concrete. Building and Environment.

41(9). pp1239-1242.
[9] D.C.L. Teo, M.A. Mannan and V.J. Kurian. 2006. Influence of site curing on bond properties of reinforced lightweight concrete. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice,

3(1). pp 9-19.
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39(4). pp 441-448.
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1(2), pp55-66.
[12] M.A. Mannan and C. Ganapathy. 2002. Engineering properties of concrete with OPS as aggregate. Construction and Building Materials.

16(1). pp 29-34.
[13] M.A. Mannan and C. Ganapathy. 2001. Mix design for oil palm shell concrete. Cement and Concrete Research.

31(9). pp1323-1325.
[14] M.A. Mannan and C. Ganapathy. 2001. Long-term strengths of concrete with oil palm shell as coarse aggregate. Cement and Concrete Research.

31(9). pp 1319-1321.
[15] M.M.U. Islam, K. H Mo, U.J Alengaram and M. Z Jumaat. 2015. Mechanical and fresh properties of sustainable oil plam shell lightweight concrete incorporating palm oil fuel ash. Journal of Cleaner Production, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.051.
[16] U.J. Alengaram, B.A. Al-Muhit, and M.Z Jumaat. 2013. Utilization of oil palm kernel shell as lightweight aggregate in concrete - a review. Construction and Building Materials.

38. pp 161-172.
[17] U.J. Alengaram, H. Mahmud, and M.Z. Jumaat. 2010. Comparison of mechanical and bond properties of oil palm kernel shell concrete with normal weight concrete. International Journal of the Physical Sciences.

5(8). pp 1231-1239.
[18] U.J. Alengaram, H. Mahmud, and M.Z. Jumaat. 2011. Enhancement and prediction of modulus of elasticity of palm kernel shell concrete. Materials & Design.

32 (4). pp 2143-2148.
[19] K.Y. Foong, U.J. Alengaram, M.Z. Jumaat and K.H. Mo. 2015. Enhancement of the mechanical properties of lightweight oil palm shell concrete using rice husk ash and manufactured sand. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A.

16(1). pp 59-69.

[20] K.H. Mo, U.J. Alengaram, M.Z. Jumaat, M.Y.J Liu and J. Lim. 2016. Assessing some durability properties of sustainable lightweight oil palm shell concrete incorporating slag and manufactured sand. Journal of Cleaner Production.

112(1). pp 763-770.
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91. pp297-304.
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50. pp 499-507.
[23] P. Shafigh, U.J. Alengaram, H. Mahmud and M.Z. Jumaat. 2013. Engineering properties of oil palm shell lightweight concrete containing fly ash. Materials & Design.

49. pp 613-621.
[24] P. Shafigh, M.Z. Jumaat and H. Mahmud. 2011. Oil palm shell as a lightweight aggregate for production high strength lightweight concrete. Construction and Building Materials.

25 (4). pp 1848-1853.
[25] S.A. Salam. 1982. Lightweight concrete made from palm oil shell aggregates and rice husk. Proceedings of A Regional Seminar. Universiti Putra Malaysia. Sept. 15-17. pp. 177-196.
[26] D.C. Okpala. 1990. Palm kernal shell as a lightweight aggregate in concrete. Building and Environment.

25(4). pp 291-296.
[27] H.B. Basri, M.A. Mannan and M.F.M. Zain. 1999. Concrete using waste oil palm shells as aggregate. Cement and Concrete Research.

29(4). pp 619-622.
[28] O.F. Okafor. 1988. Palm kernal shell as a lightweight aggregate for concrete. Cement and Concrete Research.

18(6). pp 901-910.
[29] C.H Ng, Z Ideris, S.P Narayanan, M.A Mannan, V.J Kurian. 2007, Engineering properties of oil palm shell (OPS) hybrid concrete for lightweight precast floor slab, Conventry University and UWM Center for By-products Utilization International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, UK, June 11-13.
[30] H. Mahmud, M.Z. Jumaat and U.J. Alengaram. 2009. Influence of sand/cement ratio on the mechanical properties of palm kernel shell concrete. Journal of Applied Sciences,

9(9). pp 1764-1769.
[31] U.J Alengaram, H. Mahmud and M.Z. Jumaat. 2010. Development of lightweight concrete using industrial waste material, palm kernel shell as lightweight aggregate and its properties. 2nd International Conference on Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering (ICBEE 2010). pp 277-281.
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27. pp 252-258.
[33] P. Shafigh, M.Z. Jumaat, H. Mahmud and U.J. Alengaram. 2013. Oil palm shell lightweight concrete containing high volume ground granulated blast furnace slag. Construction and Building Materials.

40. pp 231-238.
[34] M.Y.J. Liu, C.P. Chua, U.J. Alengaram and M.Z. Jumaat. 2014. Utiliozation of palm oil fuel ash as binder in lightweight oil palm shell geopolymer concrete. Advances in Materials Sciences and Engineering, doi:10.1155/2014/610274.

[35] J. Wu, G. Liang, D. Hui, Q. Deng, X. Xiong, Q. Qiu, J. Liu, G. Chu, G. Zhou and D. Zhang. 2016. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China. Science of the Total Environment.

544. pp 94-102.

[36] Ng Chee Hiong, N. S. V Kameswara Rao and M. A. Mannan. 2011. Precast C-channel floor for rural and estate housings. Malaysian Construction Research Journal MCRJ.

9(2).pp 63-72.
[37] B.H. Spratt. 1974. The structural use of lightweight aggregate concrete. Cement Concrete Association.
[38] FIP. 1983. FIP Manual of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete., 2nd edition. London. Surry University Press.
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BS EN 1097-2:1998). Testing aggregates. Method for determination of aggregate impact value (AIV).
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15. pp 969-978.

Chapter 4

[1] J. A. Rossignolo, M. V. C. Agnesini. 2004. Durability of Polymer-modified Lightweight Aggregate Concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites.

26(4). pp375 – 380.
[2] K. G. Babu, S. D. Babu. 2003. Behaviour of Lightweight Expanded Polystyrene Concrete Containing Silica Fume. Cement and Concrete Research.

33(5). pp755 – 762.
[3] K. Dhir, R. G. C. Mays, H.C. Chua. 1984. Lightweight Structural Concrete with Aglite Aggregate: Mix Design and Properties. The International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete.

6(4). pp249 – 261.
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[6] A. Short, W. Kinniburgh. 1978. Lightweight Concrete, 3rd edition. London. Applied Science Publishers Ltd.
[7] S. Mindess, J. F. Young, D. Darwin. 2003. Concrete. (2nd edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
[8] M. L. Ghambir. 1995. Concrete Technology. (2nd edition). New Delhi: Tata Mc-Graw Hill Publishing Company Limited.
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[10] D. F. Orchard. 1979. Concrete Technology, all volumes, 4th edition. London. Applied Science Publishers Ltd.
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31(9). pp1323 -1325.
[12] M. S. Shetty. 1993. Concrete Technology. India. S. Chand and Company ltd.
[13] M. Sidney, J. F. Young. 1981. Concrete. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Prentice-Hall Inc.
[14] M. A. Mannan. 2001. A study on the use of Oil Palm Shell in Lightweight Concrete. PhD. Thesis. Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
[15] M. L Gambhir. 2004. Concrete Technology, 3rd edition. India. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company limited.
[16] R. J. Salter. 1979. Highway Design and Construction. London. The Macmillan Press Ltd.
[17] Clarke John L. 1993. Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete. Blackie Academic & Professional- an Imprint of Chapman & Hall.
[18] B. H. Spratt. 1974. The structural use of lightweight aggregate concrete. Cement and Concrete Association.
[19] C. H. Ng. 2010, Studies on precast reinforced concrete floor panels using Oil Palm Shell aggregate. PhD. Thesis. Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
[20] H. Mahmud, M. Z Jumaat, U. J. Alengaram. 2009. Influence of Sand/Cement ratio on mechanical properties of palm kernel shell concrete. Journal of Applied Sciences.

9. pp. 1764-1769.
[21] ASTM C 494. Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.
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[24] ACI 613. 1959. Recommended Practice of Selecting Proportions for Structural Lightweight Concrete (ACI 613-59). ACI Manual of Concrete Practice. Detroit: American Concrete Institute.
[25] M. A. Mannan, C. Ganapathy. 2002. Engineering properties of concrete with oil palm shell as coarse aggregate. Construction and Building Materials.

16. pp 29-34.
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24(4). pp333 – 338.
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21(5). pp453 – 458.
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1(1). pp5 – 16.
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[34] Ng Chee Hiong, N. S. V Kameswara Rao and M. A. Mannan. 2011. Precast C-channel floor for rural and estate housings. Malaysian Construction Research Journal MCRJ.

9(2). pp 63-72.
[35] A. Sharmin, U. J. Alengaram, M. Z. Jumaat, S. M. A. Kabir, I. I. Bashar. 2015. Engineering properties of oil palm shell and palm oil clinker based geopolymer concrete. Revista Técnica de la Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad del Zulia (REV TEC FAC ING UNIV).

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[37] P. Shafigh, U. J. Alengaram, H. B. Mahmud, M. Z. Jumaat. 2013. Engineering properties of oil palm shell lightweight concrete containing fly ash. Materials and Design

49, pp. 617-621.
[38] M. M. U. Islam, K. H. Mo, U. J. Alengaram. 2016. Durability properties of sustainable concrete containing high volume palm oil waste materials. Journal of Cleaner Production.

137. pp. 167-177.
[39] K. H. Mo, T. S Chin, U. J. Alengaram, M. Z Jumaat. 2016. Material and Structural properties of waste –oil palm shell concrete incorporating ground granulated blast-furnace slag reinforced with low-volume steel fibres. Journal of Cleaner Production.

133. pp. 414-426.

Chapter 5

[1] M. L. Gambhir. 2004. Concrete Technology, 3rd edition. India. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company limited.
[2] M. A. Mannan. 2001. A study on the use of Oil Palm Shell in Lightweight Concrete. PhD Thesis. Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
[3] D. C. L. Teo. 2007. A study on structural lightweight concrete using Oil Palm Shell (OPS) aggregate. PhD Thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
[4] C. H. Ng. 2010, Studies on precast reinforced concrete floor panels using Oil Palm Shell aggregate. PhD Thesis. Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
[5] R. J. Salter. 1979. Highway Design and Construction. London. The Macmillan Press Ltd.
[6] O. Fidelis O. 1988. Palm kernel shell as a lightweight aggregate for concrete. Cement and Concrete Research.

18. pp. 901-910.
[7] D. C. Okpala. 1990. Palm kernel shell as a lightweight aggregate in concrete. Building and Environment.

25. pp. 291-6.
[8] M. A. Mannan, J. Alexander, C. Ganapathy, D. C. L. Teo. 2006. Quality improvement of oil palm shell (OPS) as coarse aggregate in lightweight concrete, Building and Environment

41 pp. 1239–1242.
[9] H. Mahmud, M. Z Jumaat, U. J. Alengaram. 2009. Influence of Sand/Cement ratio on mechanical properties of palm kernel shell concrete. Journal of Applied Sciences.

9. pp. 1764-1769.
[10] U. J. Alengaram, H. Mahmud, M. Z. Jumaat. 2011. Enhancement and prediction of modulus of elasticity of palm kernel shell concrete. Materials and Design.

32. pp. 2143-2148.
[11] P. Shafigh, U. J. Alengaram, H. B. Mahmud, M. Z. Jumaat. 2013. Engineering properties of oil palm shell lightweight concrete containing fly ash. Materials and Design.

49. pp. 617-621.
[12] J. Yahaghi, P. Shafigh, Z. C. Muda, S. B. Beddu. 2015. Influence of polypropylene fiber and hybrid fiber on mechanical properties of lightweight concrete. Journal of Civil Engineering Research.

5. pp. 17-20.
[13] M. M. U. Islam, K. H. Mo, U. J. Alengaram. 2016. Mechanical and fresh properties of sustainable oil palm shell lightweight concrete incorporating palm oil fuel ash. Journal of Cleaner Production.

115. pp. 307-314.
[14] J. L. Clarke. 1993. Structural lightweight aggregate concrete. Blackie Academic & Professional- an Imprint of Chapman & Hall.
[15] M. Sidney, J. F. Young. 1981. Concrete. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Prentice-Hall Inc.
[16] B. H. Spratt. 1974. The structural use of lightweight aggregate concrete. Cement and Concrete Association.
[17] S. Andrew, W. Kinniburgh. 1978. Lightweight Concrete, 3rd edition. London. Applied Science Publishers Ltd.
[18] O. Fidelis O. 1991. An investigation on the use of superplasticizer in palm kernel shell aggregate concrete. Cement and Concrete Research.

21. pp. 551-557.
[19] E. A. Olanipekun, K. O Olusola, O. Ata. 2006. A comparative study of concrete properties using coconut shell and palm kernel shell as coarse aggregates. Building and Environment.

41. pp. 297-301.
[20] U. J. Alengaram, M. Z. Jumaat, H. Mahmud. 2008. Ductility behaviour of reinforced palm kernel shell concrete beams. European Journal of Scientific Research.

23. pp.406-420.
[21] U. J. Alengaram, H. Mahmud, M. Z. Jumaat. 2010. Comparison of mechanical and bond properties of oil palm kernel shell concrete with normal weight concrete. International Journal of the Physical Sciences.

5. pp. 1231-1239.
[22] FIP. 1983. FIP Manual of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete, 2nd edition. London. Surry University Press.
[23] D. F. Orchard 1979. Concrete Technology, all volumes, 4th edition. London. Applied Science Publishers Ltd.
[24] A. M. Neville. 1981. Properties of Concrete, 3rd edition. Pitman.
[25] BS 8110-2: 1997. Structural Use of Concrete – Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. London: British Standards Institution.
[26] ACI 213R-87, 1994. Guide for Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete. ACI Manual of Concrete Practice. Detroit: American Concrete Institute.
[27] EN 1992-1-1. 2004. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures – Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings. European Committee for Standardization.
[28] A. M. Neville. 1999. Properties of Concrete. (4th edition). Malaysia: Longman.
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[30] A. A. A. Ali. 1984. Basic strength properties of lightweight concrete using agricultural wastes as aggregates, International Conference on Low-Cost Housing for Developing Countries, Roorkee, India. November, 1984.
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Chapter 6

[1] Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB); 2015. Oil palm planted area 2015. http://bepi.mpob.gov.my/images/area/2015/Area_summary.pdf: Retrieved on 14 July 2016.
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[3] Teo DCL, Mannan MA, Kurian VJ. Structural Performance of Lightweight Concrete. Proceedings of the Conference on Sustainable Building Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 11-13 April 2005: 254-258.
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Chapter 7

[1] ASTM C 494. Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.
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[3] BS1881. Part 116. Method for determination of compressive strength of concrete cubes. British Standard Institution. London.
[4] BS 8110-2: 1997. Structural Use of Concrete – Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. London: British Standards Institution.
[5] P. Gergely, and L. A. Lutz. 1968. Maximum Crack Width in Reinforced Flexural Members. Causes, Mechanism and Control of Cracking in Concrete. ACI SP-20. American Concrete Institute, Detroit, pp. 87-117.
[6] J. H. Bungey, S. G. Millard and M. G. Grantham. 2006. Testing of Concrete in Structures. (4th edition). New York: Taylor & Francis.
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122 (9): 989 – 997.
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133 (6): 834 – 843.
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102(3). pp. 462–471.
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[15] D. C. L. Teo, M. A. Mannan and V. J. Kurian. 2006. Structural concrete using Oil Palm Shell (OPS) as lightweight aggregate. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences.

30. pp 251-257.
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22(5):413 – 423.
[20] T. U. Mohammed, H. Hamada and T. Yamaji. 2003. Relation between Strain on Surface and Strain over Embedded Steel Bars in ASR Affected Concrete Members, Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology.

1(1). pp76 – 88.
[21] BS EN13747. 2005. Precast concrete products – Floor plates for floor systems, London: British Standard Institution.
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[24] K. S. Elliott. 2006. Precast concrete structures, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
[25] Smorgon Steel Group. 2004. Humeslab Technical Manual, Australia.
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29(4). pp 619-622.
[27] M. A. Mannan and C. Ganapathy. 2001. Long-term strengths of concrete with oil palm shell as coarse aggregate, Cement and Concrete Research.

31(9). pp 1319-1321.
[28] H. B. Basri, M. A. Mannan, M. F. M. Zain and M. N. Islam. 2002. Effect of curing conditions on the properties of OPS-concrete, Building and Environment.

37(11). pp 1197–1171.
[29] M. A. Mannan and C. Ganapathy. 2002. Engineering properties of concrete with oil palm shell as coarse aggregate, Construction and Building Materials,

16 (1). pp 29-34.
[30] M. A. Mannan and C. Ganapathy. 2004. Concrete from an agricultural waste-oil palm shell (OPS), Building and Environment.

39 (4). pp 411-418.
[31] M. A. Mannan, J. Alexander, C. Ganapathy and D. C. L. Teo. 2006. Quality improvement of oil palm shell (OPS) as coarse aggregate in lightweight concrete, Building and Environment.

41 (9). pp 1239-1242.
[32] D. C. L. Teo, M. A. Mannan and V. J. Kurian. 2005. Utilisation of solid waste Oil Palm Shell (OPS) in concrete production. Proceedings of the International Conference on Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.
[33] The Occupational Safety and Health Service. 2002. Approved Code of Practice for The Safe Handling, Transportation and Erection of Precast Concrete. Department of Labour, Wellington, New Zealand.
[34] Deha Transport Anchor System. 2003. Technical Information KKT 03-E, HALFEN-DEHA, Germany. 2003. Table 15.
[35] D. C. L. Teo, M. A. Mannan and V. J. Kurian. 2006. Structural Concrete Using Oil Palm Shell (OPS) as Lightweight Aggregate, Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences.

30. pp 251-257.
[36] C. O. Orangun. 1967. The Bond Resistance between Steel and Lightweight-Aggregate (Lytag) Concrete, Building Science.

2. pp 21-28.
[37] N. Chitharanjan, R. Sundararajan and P. D. Manoharan. 1988. Development of Aerocrete: A new lightweight high strength material. The International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete.

10. pp 27-38.
[38] C. H. Ng, Z. Ideris, S. P. Narayanan, M. A. Mannan and V. J. Kurian. 2007. Engineering Properties of Oil Palm Shell (OPS) Hybrid Concrete for Lightweight Precast Floor Slab, Coventry University and UWM Centre for By-Products Utilization, International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies. UK.
[39] American Concrete Institute. 2002. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-02) and Commentary (ACI 318R-02). American Concrete Institute. Farmington Hills, MI.
[40] C. H. Goodchild. 1997. Economic Concrete Frame Elements. Berks: British Cement Association.
[41] P. W. Matthew and D. H. Bennett. 1990. Economic Long Span Concrete Floors. Berks: British Cement Association.
[42] C. E. Reynolds and J. C. Steedman. 1992. Examples of the Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings to BS8110. (4th edition). NewYork: Taylor & Francis.
[43] K. Baskaran and C. T. Morley. 2004. A New Approach to Testing Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab. Magazine of Concrete Research.

56(6). pp 367 – 374.
[44] K. S. Elliot. 2006. Precast concrete structures. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington.
[45] Code of practice for precast concrete construction. 2016. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Hong Kong.

[46] C. H. Ng, N. S. V. K. Rao and M. A. Mannan. 2011. Precast C-channel floor for rural and estate housings, Malaysian Construction Research Journal.

9(2). pp 63-72.
[47] D. C. L. Teo. 2007. A study on structural lightweight concrete using oil palm shell (OPS) aggregate, PhD Thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, UMS, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
[48] ACI 318-05M. 2005. Metric Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete & Commentary, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice. Detroit: American Concrete Institute.
[49] National Building Code: Part VI Structural Design, Section 7: Prefabrication and System Building, Bureau of Indian Standards.
[50] Research Report. 2009. Semi-precast lightweight flooring slab using OPS, CIDB Project no. LPIPM: CREAM/UPP04-02-10-04-11. Part-2, Precast floor using normal weight concrete by Doh Shu Ing. Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
[51] S. Mindess and J. F. Young. 1981. Concrete. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
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[53] J. Alexanderson. 1972. Strength losses in heat cured concrete, Swedish Cement and Concrete Research, Institute of Technology, Proc. No. 43 (Stockholm).
[54] T. K. Erdem, L. Turanli and T. Y. Erdogan. 2003. Setting Time: An Important Criterion to Determine the Delay Period Before Steam Curing of Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research.

33. pp 741 – 745.
[55] A. M. Neville. 1999. Properties of Concrete. (4th edition). Malaysia: Longman.
[56] Erdogdu S. and Kurbetci S. 1998. Optimum heat treatment cycle for cements of different type and composition. Cement Concrete Research.

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1595–1604.
[57] BS 8110-1: 1997. Code of practice for design and construction: British Standards Institution.
[58] Precast Flooring Federation. 2007. Code of Practice: For the Safe Erection of Precast Concrete Flooring and Associated Components. Leicester: Precast Flooring Federation.
[59] K. S. Elliott. 2002. Precast Concrete Structures. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
[60] K. S. Elloitt. 2001. Precast Concrete Floors: The Future, Concrete, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5379/is_200110/ai_n21479794/. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
[61] K. S. Elliott. 1996. Multi-storey Precast Concrete Framed Structures. London: Blackwell Science Ltd.
[62] PCI Design Handbook. (5th edition). 1999. Precast and Prestressed Concrete. Chicago, IL, 1999.
[63] EN 1992-1-1. 2004. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures – Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings. European Committee for Standardization.
[64] R. Bunn, D. Simpson and S. White. 2004. Services Integration with Concrete Buildings: Guidance for A Defect-Free Interface, BSRIA/The Concrete Society, Multiplex Medway Ltd.
[65] M. A. Mansur and K. H. Tan. 1999. Concrete Beams with Openings: Analysis and Design, United States of America: CRC Press LLC.
[66] ACI 302. 2004. Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction (ACI 302.1R-04). ACI Manual of Concrete Practice. Detroit: American Concrete Institute.
[67] C. Lutz. 2002. Prestressed Hollow-core Concrete Slabs – Problems and Possibilities in Fastening Techniques. Otto-Graf-Journal.

13. pp 53- 64.
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Chapter 8

[1] Research Report. 2001. Reinforced concrete slab made of OPS (Oil Palm Shell) concrete, Grant no. PP010/2000. Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
[2] Oil Palm in Malaysia-E-tawau, www.etawau.com/OilPalm/OilPalm.htm. Retrieved on 25 October 2016.
[3] Research Reports. 2004. Low cost house using OPS lightweight concrete, Grant no. B-03-02-02-PR/007 and Housing for low-income families in East Malaysia, Grant no. British council, Malaysia. no. HEL 1205. Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
[4] MS1525: 2007, Malaysian Standard, Code of practice on energy efficiency and use of renewable energy for non-residential building, first revision.
[5] R.W.Steiger, M.K. Hurd, 1978, Lightweight insulating concrete for floors and roof decks, Concrete Construction.

23(7). pp 411-422.
[6] H. DJamila 2006. www.eco-web.com/edi/060927.html. Retrieved on 20 April 2016.
[7] Research Report. 2009. Semi-precast lightweight flooring slab using OPS, CIDB Project no. LPIPM: CREAM/UPP04-02-10-04-11. Part-3. Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

Chapter 9

[1] Research Report. 2006. Performance of concrete made from agricultural and industrial solid wastes and by-products, IRPA research grant no. 03-02-10-0033-EA0031, Part-3. Precast blocks for retaining wall. Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
[2] N. S. V. Kameswara Rao,

Foundation Design: Theory and Practice, Publisher: Wiley, ISBN: 978-0-470-82534-1.
[3] Prof. Stephen A. Nelson.

Slope Stability, Triggering Events, Mass Movement Hazards, Natural Disasters. Tulane University. Retrieved on 6 April 2016.
[4] Bujang B. K. Huat, Faisal HJ. Ali, T. H. Low. 2006. Water infiltration characteristics of unsaturated soil slope and its effect on suction and stability, Geotechnical & Geological Engineering. 2006. 24(5). pp 1293-1306.

Chapter 10

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