Ochratoxin A: Biosynthesis, Detection and Biological Toxicity

Wentao Xu, PhD
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China

Series: Food Science and Technology
BISAC: TEC012000

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Ochratoxin is a kind of secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium. It mainly contains Ochartoxin A (OTA), Ochratoxin B (OTB), Ochratoxin C (OTC), 4-hydroxyochratoxin A and Otá, and among which OTA has the strongest toxicity. Ochratoxin exists widely in a variety of food products, such as wheat, corn, soybean, oats, barley, coffee beans, meat and cheese. Ochratoxin carries potential health-associated risks, and it has caused wide public concern in recent years.

This book has been written with the aim of helping investigators in this field by providing information about the production, isolation, purification and the toxic mechanism of OTA. This book consists of six chapters. Section I introduces the discovery and the classification of ochratoxin. Section II describes the biosynthesis and metabolism of OTA and the ways of OTA control. Section III deals with detection methods of OTA. In the last three sections, toxicities of OTA are the emphasis of this book. The kidney and the liver are the main target organs of OTA. Nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and other toxicities, such as intestinal metabolism toxicity and reproductive toxicity, are stated in section IV, V and VI, respectively. In these sections, methods of both traditional toxicology and molecular toxicology evaluation are applied to explore OTA-induced toxicity. Traditional toxicology describes the changes of OTA-induced toxicology indexes, containing blood biochemistry indexes and pathological parameters, and the molecular toxicology mainly focuses on the signaling pathways of its toxicity. A combinatorial approach encompassing miRNA, mRNA, and proteomic profiling and bioinformatics methods have also been used to study the molecule mechanisms. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1. Discovery and Distribution of Ochratoxin A

Chapter 2. Biosynthesis, Metabolism and Detoxification of Ochratoxin A

Chapter 3. Detecting Methods of Ochratoxin A

Chapter 4. Ochratoxin A -Induced Nephrotoxicity

Chapter 5. Ochratoxin A -Induced Hepatotoxicity

Chapter 6. Ochratoxin A -Induced Other Toxicities

Author's Contact Information

Index

“Mycotoxin contamination continues to threaten food safety worldwide. Ochratoxin A is a major fungal toxin targeting liver and kidney and produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species. How orchratoxin A counteracts normal physiology is not fully understood until a series of recent studies led and published by Dr. Wentao Xu. This book builds upon significant breakthroughs from these original studies employing most advanced sequencing and metabolic analyses that help to decipher the nature of toxicity at molecular and system-wide levels. Scientists, policy makers and general public will find this book an asset for understanding orchratoxin A toxicity.” - Dr. Wen-Hsing Cheng, Associate Professor, Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Health Promotion, Mississippi State University

“Mycotoxin contamination exists extensively in the grain worldwide. And among which, ochratoxin A seriously threatens human health and has various toxicological effects. This book focuses on the discovery, metabolism, biotoxicity of ochratoxin A, and represents the latest discoveries of its toxic mechanisms. The publication of Dr. Xu's new book is practically timely and academically significant. The team has been devoted themselves to ochratoxin A. And they have summarized some conclusions about the toxic mechanisms of OTA. The comprehensive monograph will provide a deeper insight to the public, so that more harm induced by ochratoxin A can be avoided.” - Professor Yunbo Luo, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University

“Mycotoxin contamination exists extensively in the grain worldwide. And among which, ochratoxin A seriously threatens human health and has various toxicological effects. This book focuses on the discovery, metabolism, biotoxicity of ochratoxin A, and represents the latest discoveries of its toxic mechanisms. The publication of Dr. Xu's new book is practically timely and academically significant. The team has been devoted themselves to ochratoxin A. And they have summarized some conclusions about the toxic mechanisms of OTA. The comprehensive monograph will provide a deeper insight to the public, so that more harm induced by ochratoxin A can be avoided.” - Professor Yunbo Luo, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University

Chapter 1

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Chapter 2

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Chapter 3

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Chapter 4

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Chapter 5

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Chapter 6

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Audience: Professional people:The publication is written for the researchers in the fields of food, animal science, medical science, agronomy, environmental protection and meteorology.
Nonprofessional people:Government official, the public, the consumers. The book can play a role in the science popularization and caution for them. And they can pay attention to the biotoxin especially OTA.

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