Occurrences, Structure, Biosynthesis, and Health Benefits Based on Their Evidences of Medicinal Phytochemicals in Vegetables and Fruits. Volume 12

Noboru Motohashi, PhD (Editor)
Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose-shi, Tokyo, Japan

Series: Food and Beverage Consumption and Health, Biochemistry Research Trends
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Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Summary of these eight titles is made as follows: Chapter 1: Ginkgo biloba has long been used as a folklore medicine in China, India and these neighboring countries. Ginkgo biloba contains diverse phytochemicals such as terpene trilactones (bilobalide and ginkgolides A, B, C and J), flavonol glycosides, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, alkylphenols, simple phenolic acids, 6-hydroxykynurenic acid, 4-O-methylpyridoxine and polyprenols.

Gincholinic acid in ginkgo nuts showed very limited cytotoxicity and inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease activity to effectively suppress HIV infection; Chapter 2: Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) (Rei-shi) mycelia (MAK) can be expected to prevent or alleviate organ damage as a functional food; Chapter 3: Water soluble carotenoids of yellow plant pigment in saffron and gardenia are mainly crocetin (1) and its glycosyl ester. crocetin-MGE (3) was rapidly absorbed.

Crocetin-MGE (3) is rapidly and efficiently absorbed as such and is metabolized to crocetin (1); Chapter 4: Function of 3′-epirutein (3) in total xanthophyll feeding orally in rats has been evaluated. As a result, the dose-corrected Cmax and AUC0-24h of (3R,3’R,6’R)-lutein (1) appeared to be doubled in presence of 3’-epilutein (3).; Chapter 5: Green tea was examined for bilateral ovariectomized (estrogen deficient) postmenopausal rat model to affect memory, learning and cognition. Green tea showed to provide neuroprotection, and probably support neurogenesis for human health, from the perspective of histopathology; Chapter 6: Daily consumption of fruits is essential to have a daily healthy life.

However, it is hard to say that they are taking enough fruits because of expensive fruit, and their consciousness of health to their fruits. However, regular fruit intake is known to reduce the incidence of lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and so on. For this reason, the authors tried to prevent these lifestyle diseases by low cost unusual fruits in Africa; Chapter 7: Three kinds of vegetables inhabiting sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) were selected as plant-derived functional ingredients. As a result, three uncommon vegetables showed health benefits against measles, yawning, conjunctivitis, hypertension, liver dysfunction, ocular pain, ear pain, breast cancer and other diseases; Chapter 8: The fruit of the Annonacea family has been used as a folk medicine. The main functional ingredient in Annonacea is acetogenin and its analogs.

Acetogenins have been known for a wide range of effects such as antitumor action, antiparasitic action, antibacterial insecticidal action, immunosuppressive action and so on. These diverse effects of acetogenins have been suggested to be promising for the development of new drugs to treat various diseases such as lifestyle diseases.
(Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health)

Preface

Chapter 1. The Phytochemicals and Health Benefits of Ginkgo biloba
(Noboru Motohashi, Jyothirmayi Vadapalli, Robert Gallagher, Anuradha Vanam and Rao Gollapudi, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Noshio, Kiyose-shi, Tokyo, Japan, and others)

Chapter 2. Inhibitory Effects of a Water-Soluble Extract from Culture Medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Rei-Shi) Mycelia on Postprandial Blood Glucose Elevation
(Yasuhide Hibino, Shinya Kamiuchi and Mari Okazaki, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Keyakidai, Sakado-shi, Saitama, Japan)

Chapter 3. Rapid and Efficacious Adsorption of Crocetin Monogentiobiosyl Ester Following Oral Administration in Rats
(Thomas Eidenberger, University of Applied Science Upper Austria, Campus Wels, Stelzhamerstraße, Wels, Austria)

Chapter 4. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Epilutein, Lutein and Zeaxanthin Following Intravenous and Oral Administration in Rats
(Thomas Eidenberger and Marie Kosehira, University of Applied Science Upper Austria, Campus Wels, Stelzhamerstraße, Wels, Austria, and others)

Chapter 5. Green Tea Enhanced Post-Menopausal Memory/Learning (A Preclinical Study)
(Ahdab Bakhsh and Suhaila Mohamed PhD, Institute of bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, and others)

Chapter 6. Health Benefits of Fruits Grown in West Africa
(Olusola Olaitan Ayeleru, Opeolu Mayowa Ogundele, Dolapo Abimbola Oladiran, Sisanda Dlova, Olumide Franklin Afinjuomo, Eugénie Kayitesi, Williams Kehinde Kupolati, Anton Blencowe, Peter Apata Olubambi and Freeman Ntuli, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, Johannesburg, South Africa)

Chapter 7. Health Benefits of Some Selected Vegetables Grown in the Sub-Saharan African Region
(Olusola Olaitan Ayeleru, Dolapo Abimbola Oladiran, Opeolu Mayowa Ogundele, Sisanda Dlova, Olumide Franklin Afinjuomo, Eugénie Kayitesi, Williams Kehinde Kupolati, Anton Blencowe, Freeman Ntuli and Peter Apata Olubambi, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, Johannesburg, South Africa, and others)

Chapter 8. Ethonobotany, Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Effects of Annona’s Acetogenins: An Overview
(Olusola Olaitan Ayeleru, Opeolu Mayowa Ogundele, Dolapo Abimbola Oladiran, Sisanda Dlova, Eugénie Kayitesi, Williams Kehinde Kupolati, Anton Blencowe, Peter Apata Olubamb and Freeman Ntuli, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, Johannesburg, South Africa, and others)

Index

Keywords: Natural phytochemicals, Ginkgo biloba, Ganoderma lucidum (Rei-shi) mycelia, crocetin monogentiobiosyl ester, medicin, Pharmacokinetic profile of epilutein, lutein and zeaxanthin, Green-tea, fruits grown in West Africa, selected vegetables grown in the Sub-Saharan Africa, annona´s acetogenins

This volume also includes topics and other interests that are suitable for biological students, graduate students, university professors, researchers of pharmaceutical company laboratories aiming for drugs and drugs.

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