Non-Market Valuation of Agriculture, Pasture and Forest Lands affected by Public or Private Investments: Scientific Monograph

$160.00

Majlinda Çakalli¹
¹Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania

Series: Agriculture Issues and Policies
BISAC: TEC003000

Infrastructure, energy or other large-scale public or private projects require acquisition, easement or rental of agriculture, pasture or forest land. Beside the specific country’s laws and regulations, investors have to follow various benchmarks applied by funding institutions as international standards. Together, these standards are designed to assure that adverse impacts on people, their rights, livelihoods, culture and environment are avoided or at least minimized, mitigated, offset and/or compensated. For these purposes, these projects are planned in remote rural areas, were there is a lack of land market because of limited transactions. A critical issue in this this process is a fair economic valuation of agriculture, pasture or forest land using non-marked based valuation methods for compensation purposes.
This scientific monograph proposes some simple yet solid methods to value agriculture, pasture or forest land which could be applicable by the local or central administration without necessarily requiring on complex methodologies requiring data which are generally not available. More importantly, such methodologies are also difficult to understand by the landowners making the public consultation process non-transparent. The methods applied have been tested with success in several large-scale projects involving acquisition, easement or rental of land parcels in different soil and climatic conditions belonging to thousands of owners. A series of template will help the valuators to integrate all the variables and standardize data presentation. It can serve as a reference to comply with land easement and acquisition strategies and aforementioned international standards, for example, the Performance Requirements of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), Performance Standards of the International Finance Corporation (IFC).

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Preface
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 The scope of this publication
1.2 Definitions and types of economic valuations
1.3 Compliance with international standards, European directives and regulations and country’s legal framework
1.4 Data collection
1.4.1 Maps
1.4.2 Cadaster data
1.4.3 Inventory data
1.4.4 Official data
1.4.5 Field trips
1.4.6 Development strategies and plans
1.4.7 Presentation of data
1.5 Choice of valuation method
1.5.1 Land valuation principles
1.5.2 Comparative selling method
1.5.3 Cost method
1.5.4 Income method
1.6 Legal basis for land use and valuation, expropriation and compensation
1.7 Valuation procedure
1.8 Evaluation of transaction costs
2. LAND SCATEGORIZATION
2.1 Categorization of agriculture land
2.1.1 Suitability of Agricultural Lands (SAL)
2.1.2 Land Agronomic Capatibility (LAC)
2.1.3 Adjustment of land categorization duration field trips
2.1.4 Agro-ecological and geographical categorization of land
2.1.5 Matrix by crossing categories of agricultural land
2.1.6 A note on agricultural land of residential interest
2.2 Categorization of pasture and forest land
3. LAND VALUATION
3.1 Calculation of agricultural land value
3.2 Calculation of forest and pasture land value
4. REPLACEMENT VALUES
4.1 Replacement values for crops
4.1.1 Replacement values for annual crops
4.1.2 Replacement values for perennial crops
4.2 Replacement values for timber and non-timber products from forests
4.2.1 Replacement values for forests species
4.2.2 Replacement values for non-timber species
5. EASEMENT (SERVITUDE)
5.1 Calculation of easement value
5.1.1 Buyer perception of land value affected by PPI project
5.1.2 Non-market valuation of easement for agricultural, pasture and forest land
5.2 Permitted and prohibited uses of land under easement
5.3 Integrating land reinstatement costs in the value of easement
5.3.1 Physical indicators related to land reinstatement
5.3.2 Crop indicators related to land reinstatement
6. COMPENSATION RATES FOR AGRICULTURAL LAND – A CROSS-COUNTRIES DATA ANALYSIS
6.1 Compensation rights
6.1.1 Orphan land
6.2 Cross-countries data survey
6.3 Agricultural land acquisition rates
6.4 Agricultural land easement rates
6.5 Agricultural land rental rates
6.6 Forest land acquisition rates
6.7 Forest land easement and rental rates
6.8 Pasture land acquisition rate
6.9 Pasture land easement and rental rates
7. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Index

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