Non-Communicable Diseases: Risk Factors in Lower Income Countries

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Joav Merrick, MD, MMedSci, DMSc – Professor of Pediatrics at the Division of Pediatrics, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Mt Scopus Campus, Jerusalem, Israel, Kentucky Children’s Hospital, University of Kentucky, Lexington, United States and Professor of Public Health at the Center for Healthy Development, School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, United States, the former Medical Director of the Division for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, Jerusalem and the Founder and Director of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Israel

Series: Public Health: Practices, Methods and Policies
BISAC: MED022000; MED078000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.52305/TWAE5031

Heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes can be described as non-communicable diseases and are now some of the leading causes of mortality around the world. These diseases result in huge burdens not only for the families involved, but also for society. In this book you will find information and discussion on cervical cancer screening, oral health status, intention to quit smoking, biological and behavioural NCD risk factors, yoga practice, low physical activity, dental service utilisation, dyslipidaemia, sedentary behaviour, soft drink consumption, non-work participation, undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, and undiagnosed, diagnosed and total hypertension in ten countries including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Bolivia, Ecuador, Eswatini, India, Jordan, Myanmar, and Tonga. It is hoped that findings from these papers may aid public policy and programmes for the prevention and control of non-communicable disease risk factors in lower income countries.

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Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Developmental issues of non-communicable diseases risk factors in lower income countries
Joav Merrick¹-⁴, MD, MMedSci, DMSc
¹National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Jerusalem, Israel
²Department of Pediatrics, Mt Scopus Campus, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
³Kentucky Children’s Hospital, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States
⁴Center for Healthy Development, School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA

Chapter 2.
Predisposing, enabling and need factors for cervical cancer screening among a national sample of women in Bangladesh
Chao Zhang¹, MD and Karl Peltzer²,³,*, PhD
¹Department of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin’s Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China
²Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
³Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

Chapter 3. Perceived oral health status among adultsin Mongolia: Prevalence and correlates of a national survey in 2019
Karl Peltzer, PhD
Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

Chapter 4. Prevalence and correlates of intention to quit smoking among Jordanians and Syrians in Jordan: Results of a national STEPS survey in 2019
Supa Pengpid, DrPH
Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Public Health, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa

Chapter 5. Prevalence and correlates of non-communicable disease risk factors among Jordanian and Syrian adults in Jordan
Karl Peltzer, PhD
Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

Chapter 6. Yoga practice and non-communicable disease risk factors among middle-aged and older adults in India
Karl Peltzer, PhD
Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

Chapter 7. Trends in low physical activity among adults in Bhutan: Prevalence and correlates of national cross-sectional surveys in 2007, 2014, and 2019
Supa Pengpid, DrPH
Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Public Health, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa

Chapter 8. Dental service utilisation in the general adult population in Eswatini: Results of a national STEPS survey
Busisiwe Ntuli, DrPH¹ and Supa Pengpid, DrPH¹,²
¹Department of Public Health, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa
²Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Chapter 9. Enabling, disabling and need factors for cervical cancer screening among women in Bhutan in 2019
Chao Zhang¹, MD and Karl Peltzer²,³, PhD
¹Department of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin’s Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China
²Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
³Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

Chapter 10.. High prevalence of dyslipidemia and associated factors among adults in a national survey in Myanmar
Supa Pengpid, DrPH
Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Public Health, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa

Chapter 11. Prevalence and correlates of sedentary behaviour among adults in Tonga: Trends of national cross-sectional surveys in 2004, 2011, and 2017
Supa Pengpid, DrPH
Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Public Health, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa

Chapter 12. The association between soft drink consumption and health risk behaviors among school-going adolescents in Bolivia
Zuchi Lkhamsuren¹, MSc, Karl Peltzer¹,², PhD, Passakorn Suanrueang³, PhD, and Lyen Krenz Yap¹, RPm, MSc
¹Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taiwan
²Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
³Department of Healthcare Administration Specialty in Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taiwan

Chapter 13. Non-communicable disease risk factors and non-work participation among older adults in India
Karl Peltzer, PhD
Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

Chapter 14. National cross-sectional data on undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults in Ecuador
Supa Pengpid, DrPH
Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Public Health, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa

Chapter 15. Predictors of undiagnosed, diagnosed and total hypertension among adults in Afghanistan
Ahmad Siyar Noormal¹, MD, MSc, PhD and Karl Peltzer²,³, PhD
¹Heidelberg Institute of Global Health, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
²Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
³Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

Chapter 16. Suicide attempt among school-based adolescents in Bolivia: Risk factors and gender differences
Lyen Krenz Yap¹, RPm, MSc, Karl Peltzer¹,², PhD, Zuchi Lkhamsuren¹, MSc, and Passakorn Suanrueang³, PhD
¹Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taiwan
²Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
³Department of Healthcare Administration Specialty in Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taiwan

About the Editor

About the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in Israel

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