New Developments in Melatonin Research

Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, MD, PhD (Editor)
Institute of Biotechnology, Biomedical Research Center, Health Sciences Technology Park, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

Iryna Rusanova, PhD (Editor)
Institute of Biotechnology, Biomedical Research Center, Health Sciences Technology Park, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

Germaine Escames (Editor)

Series: Endocrinology Research and Clinical Developments, Biochemistry Research Trends
BISAC: MED027000

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Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Melatonin was discovered in 1958 and has been the object of study from many points of view, including its synthesis, features, functions and mechanisms of action in plants and animals. At present, there has been a tremendous amount of knowledge about this molecule. Initially considered a simple pineal neurohormone responsible for the regulation of the circadian rhythms of reproduction, it is now considered an outstanding molecule with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuromodulatory and cytoprotective properties. This book reviews the presence, mechanisms of action and regulation of melatonin in plants, vertebrates and mammals, including humans.

Clinical aspects of melatonin in human pathology are also covered. Among them, melatonin may be useful in the integrative aspects of cancer therapy either as a unique agent or in combination with other standard therapies. Administration of melatonin did not only show a promising role on the inhibition of numerous cancer pathways by its oncostatic properties, but also improved the quality of life and functional status in patients suffering from aggressive cancers, such as breast, prostate, colorectal, liver and pancreatic cancer.

Melatonin is becoming an important medication for improving ovarian function and its use might open new approaches to the management of various ovarian fertility problems. In this regard, some preliminary clinical trials have been performed for the use of melatonin in infertility, supporting a new application of the indoleamine in human infertility treatment.
Circadian rhythm disorders may yield a series of alterations including performance impairments and reduced cognitive skills, sleep/wake rhythm disruption, poor psychomotor coordination and headaches, among other symptoms. Based on all the considerations discussed in this book, melatonin appears as a highly attractive resource for restoring circadian balance and, thus, significantly helps to improve the quality of life of patients with this ocular disease, mood disorders, depression and bipolar disorders.

Besides the therapeutic value of melatonin, another interesting feature is supported from studies showing that melatonin administered with other drugs enhances melatonin’s protective effect as well as the known effect of the drug. Even when the drug itself induces deleterious effects, melatonin is capable of minimizing its side effects. The present review provides the progression of knowledge about the biochemical, pharmacological and molecular aspects of melatonin, emphasizing melatonin mechanisms of action and on new pharmacological formulations of melatonin using nanoemulsion technology for its sublingual administration. The book also collects evidence from many research laboratories with special emphasis on the clinical aspects and potential uses of melatonin in several diseases. In light of the new findings, the information provided in this book has huge importance for considering melatonin in clinical practice for a wide range of diseases, and also for the development of new selective agonists of receptors and intracellular targets of melatonin. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical )

Preface

Chapter 1: Roles of Melatonin in Humans and Plants
(Virginia Sarropoulou, Kortessa Dimassi-Theriou, Ioannis Therios, Laboratory of Pomology, Department of Horticulture, School of Agriculture,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece)

Chapter 2: Melatonin as a Circadian Hormone in Invertebrates
(Beatriz Fuentes-Pardo, Carolina Barriga-Montoya and Araceli de la O-Martínez, Laboratorio de Cronobiología, Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Circuito Interior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, México, D.F. México)

Chapter 3: The Scotophase Rise in Plasma Melatonin in Rana Tadpoles and Frogs comes from the Pineal Gland and the Eyes, whereas the Gut does not Appear to Contribute to Circulating Melatonin
(Mary L. Wright, Amy L. Wickett, Nils Pilotte, Lara Demoracski, Melanie Joy, Jill M. Bigos, and Shaun E. Richardson, Biology Department, College of Our Lady of the Elms, Chicopee, MA, USA, and others)
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Chapter 4: Development of Novel Melatoninergics as Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder Therapeutics
(King Hang Chan, Annie Suet Ting Cheung, Maurice Kwok Chung Ho and Yung Hou Wong, Biotechnology Research Institute, Molecular Neuroscience Center,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience,
Division of Life Science,The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China, and others)

Chapter 5: MT3: The Other Melatonin Binding Site
(Jean A. Boutin, Biotechnology, Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology
Institut de Recherches SERVIER, Chemin de Ronde, Croissy-sur-Seine, France)
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Chapter 6: Melatonin and the Metabolic Syndrome
(Eleonora S. Pagano, Pablo A. Scacchi Bernasconi, Roxana Reynoso, Pablo Scacchi and Daniel P. Cardinali, Departamento de Docencia e Investigación, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

Chapter 7: Melatonin and Their Protective Role on Oxidative Cell Damage: Interplay Between Oxidative Stress and Tumorigenesis
(Luiz Gustavo de Almeida Chuffa, Beatriz Aparecida Fioruci1, Fábio Rodrigues Ferreira Seiva, Department of Anatomy, IBB/UNESP, Univ Estadual Paulista, SP, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 8: The Importance of Melatonin in Ovaries of Higher Mammals
(Or Friedman, Raoul Orvieto, Benjamin Fisch, Ronit Abir, Infertility and IVF Unit, Beilinson’s Women Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, Petach Tikva, Israel, and others)

Chapter 9: Melatonin and Pregnancy
(Camila Souza de Oliveira Guimarães, Laura Penna Rocha, Juliana Reis Machado, Marlene Antônia dos Reis, Rosana Rosa Miranda Corrêa, Triângulo Mineiro Federal University, Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

Chapter 10: By Receptors, Binding Sites or Free Radical Scavenger Action: Is There a Pivotal Action Mechanism for Melatonin in Retinal Pathologies?
(Lucia de Fatima Sobral Sampaio, UFPA, ICB, Lab Biochemistry of the CNS Development, Federal do Pará University, Biological Sciences Institute, Belém, PA, Brazil)

Chapter 11: Therapeutic Benefit of Melatonin for Glaucoma
(Ruth E. Rosenstein, María C. Moreno, Pablo Sande, Magdalena Miranda, Marcos Aranda, María F. González Fleitas, Nicolás Belforte, Laboratory of Retinal Neurochemistry and Experimental Ophthalmology,
Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine/CEFyBO/,
University of Buenos Aires/CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

Chapter 12: Diurnal Expression of Vesicular Glutamate Transporters in the Rat Pineal Gland and its Relationship to Melatonin Secretion
(Sachine Yoshida, Haruo Nogami and Setsuji Hisano, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, and others)

Chapter 13: Melatonin in Bipolar Disorders
(Ana C. García Blanco, Pilar Sierra San Miguel, Lorenzo Livianos Aldana, Sergio Arqués Egea, and Luis Rojo Moreno, Servicio de Psiquiatría, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic la Fe, Valencia, Spain, and others)

Chapter 14: Nanoemulsion Technology for Sublingual Delivery of Melatonin: Characterization and Preliminary Data of Absorption
(A. Fratter, A. Semenzato, A. Casiraghi, P. Minghetti, Innovation Technology- R&D Department, Labomar Srl, Istrana (TV), Italy, and others)

Chapter 15: Therapeutic Potential of Melatonin Associated with other Drugs
(Alejandro Romero, Eva Ramos, Esther Parada, Javier Egea,Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain, and others)

Index

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