Natural Fibers: Properties, Mechanical Behavior, Functionalization and Applications



Series: Materials Science and Technologies

BISAC: TEC021000

Natural fibers – both lignocellulosic and protein – are renewable and biodegradable. They are characterized by good air permeability, hygroscopicity, and do not release harmful substances. They have been well-known to mankind for more than 9,000 years.
Most of the lignocellulosic fibers from plants and animals such as cotton, flax, hemp, jute, kenaf, sisal, ramie, curaua, pineapple, bamboo, coir, sheep, alpaca wool and silk can be extracted, processed, modified, functionalized, and used in the production of textiles (woven, knitting, nonwoven, technical, and 3D textiles), and as reinforcement for more environmentally friendly composites.

Special treatment and functionalization methods such as degumming, enzymes, ultrasounds, plasmas, coronas, liquid ammonia, flame retardant treatments and protection against biodeterioration provide new promising features and properties for all natural fibers. The production of natural fibers is expected at the level of about 40 million tons/year in the middle of the 21st century. Global fiber production was 95 million tons in 2015 and it is estimated to grow 3% annually, reaching 122 million tons in 2025.

Some natural fibers are susceptible to dyeing by natural dyestuffs, UV resistant and can be easily protected against flammability. Natural fibers and fabrics after special functionalization by MOFs (Metal-organic Frameworks), POMs (Polyoxymetalates) and dendritic polymers will play an important role in the near future not only in defense and military apparels, but in very effective filter materials as well.

The book contains (in eleven chapters with eleven sub-chapters) topics about:
-Cotton as a dominant natural fiber; the novel challenge for bast fibers; flax and hemp; breeding and cultivation of flax in China (the biggest processor of flax and hemp in the world); new emerging sources of lignocellulosic fibers, i.e., curaua and Daphnopsis fasciculata fibers from South America; the role of apparels based of natural fibers in human physiology; bioengineering as a driving force in natural fibers’ stabilization and production growth; chemical and biochemical functionalization and finishing of natural fibers, including treatment by dendritic polymers; and alpaca fiber production, characteristics and use.

-Composites based on natural fibers; bio-based composites; poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(lactic acid)/oil palm fiber composites; plant fibers: renewable reinforcing fillers in polyolefins biocomposites; and use of palm fibers reinforced in polymer matrices.
-Natural lignocellulosic raw materials as both a source of nanocellulosic fibers and of further information about natural fibers.

The book presents the latest research data about new and emerging areas of natural fibers in the scope of production, processing and its applications. (Imprint: Nova)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Cotton Dominant Natural Fibre: Production, Properties and Limitations in Its Production
Mihaela Dochia and Monica Pustianu (“Aurel Vlaicu” University of Arad, Research Development Innovation in Technical and Natural Science Institute, Arad, Romania, and others)

Part I. Bast Fibers

Chapter 2. A New Challenge For Flax and Hemp Bast Fibers
Ryszard M. Kozlowski and Malgorzata Muzyczek (Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poznan, Poland)

Chapter 3. Breeding and Cultivation of Flax in China
Wang Yu Fu and Wang Hui (Institute of Bast Fiber Crops(IBFC), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, China)

Part II. New Emerging Sources of Lignocellulosic and other Natural Fibers

Chapter 4. Curaua Fibers: The Queen of the Fibers
Alcides Lopes Leao, Ivana Cesarino, Isaac Stringueta Machado and Ryszard Kozlowski (Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 5. Ethnobotany and Natural Fibers in Brazil: Preliminary Studies of Daphnopsis Fasciculata for Textile Applications
Adriana Yumi Sato Duarte, Rayana Santiago de Queiroz, Regina Aparecida Sanches and Franco Giuseppe Dedini (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Integrated Systems – State University of Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil)

Chapter 6. New Emerging Sources of Other Lignocellulosic Fibers
Ryszard M. Kozlowski, Maria Mackiewicz-Talarczyk and Jorge Barriga Bedoya (Institute of Natural Fibres & Medicinal Plants, Poznan, Poland)

Chapter 7. Natural Lignocellulosic Raw Material as a Source of Nanocellulosic Fibres
Simona Gavrilaş, PhD and Ryszard M. Kozlowski, PhD (Faculty of Food Engineering, Tourism and Envinronmental Protection, ”Aurel Vlaicu” University of Arad, Arad, Romania, and others)

Chapter 8. Alpaca Fiber: Production, Characteristics and Use
Anna Morales Villavicencio (Department of Animal Science, Warsaw University of Live Science, Poland)

Chapter 9. Bioengineering as a Driving Force in Natural Fibres Stabilization and Production Growth
Milena Szalata, PhD, Joanna Makowiecka and Karolina Wielgus, PhD (Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Natural Fibres & Medicinal Plants, Poznan, Poland)

Chapter 10. The Role of Apparels Based on Natural Fibres: Flax in Human Physiology and Health
Malgorzata Zimniewska and Izabella Krucinska (Institute of Natural Fibers & Medicinal Plants, Department of Innovative Textile Technologies, Poznan, Poland, and others)

Part III. Chemical and Biochemical Functionalization of Natural Fibers

Chapter 11. Trends in Functionalization and Finishing Processes of Natural Lignocellulosic Fibers
Ryszard M. Kozlowski and Malgorzata Muzyczek (Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, Poznan, Poland)

Chapter 12. Functionalization of Natural Fibers by Dendritic Polymers
Somaye Akbari and Sima Shakoorjavan (Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran)

Part IV. Composites on Base of Natural Fibers

Chapter 13. Bio-Based Composites
Roger M. Rowell (Professor Emeritus, Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA)

Chapter 14. Poly(ε-Caprolactone)/Poly(Lactic Acid)/Oil Palm Fiber Composites: Properties, Mechanical Behavior and Applications
Akos Noel Ibrahim, Mat Uzir Wahit and Onn Hassan (School of Science and Technology, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, The Federal Polytechnic P.M.B, Zamfara, Nigeria, and others)

Chapter 15. Plant Fibers: Renewable Reinforcing Filler in Polyolefin Bio-Composites
Jiun Hor Low and Wan Aizan Wan Abdul Rahman (School of Engineering, Taylor’s University, Taylor’s Lakeside Campus, No.1 Jalan Taylor’s, Selangor, Malaysia, and others)

Chapter 16. The Use of Palm Fibers Reinforced in Polymer Matrices for Various Applications
Joyce P. Cipriano, Ingriddy R. Dantas, Daniella R. Mulinari and Maria Rosa Capri (Faculty of Technology/UERJ, RJ, Brazil, and others)

Source of Further Information about Natural Fibers
Jorge Barriga Bedoya and Maria Mackiewicz (Talarczyk, Poland)

About Editors

About the Authors


Additional Information

Audience: Scientists, academic teachers, students, company specialists, marketing makers, Universities, R&D institutes, technical universities, governmental and nongovernmental, associations, policy makers.

Audience: Scientists, academic teachers, students, company specialists, marketing makers, Universities, R&D institutes, technical universities, governmental and nongovernmental, associations, policy makers.

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