Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns

António José Bento Gonçalves and Antonio Avelino Batista Vieira (Editors)
Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade do Minho, Guimarães, Portugal

Series: Environmental Research Advances
BISAC: SCI031000

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Mountain areas constitute exceptionally rich environments characterized by an extremely high biodiversity, high geomorphological dynamics, peculiar climatic environments and an important reserve of natural resources (hydrological, geological…). But these areas are also characterized by specific cultural aspects and varied forms of territory exploitation and occupation.

The highest mountain areas were once considered repulsive areas, until they began to attract scientists (mainly geographers) in the 19th and 20th centuries. The gradual occupation of these areas with different economical activities during this period started to slow down between the 1960’s – 1980’s, when mountains suffered a gradual abandonment.

In the 1990’s, a movement of appropriation over these mountain spaces occurred, promoted mainly by urban societies, in search of new spaces for sport, leisure and tourism. This modification of uses, a key process for revitalization of economically depressed areas, posed some issues, however, in terms of the preservation and management of environmental resources.

Although mountain areas are important to local and regional societies, they play a crucial role in the global economy and the environment. They are a source of energy, water, food and other natural resources for both local and distant populations. Therefore, the protection and preservation of mountains is an issue that belongs to all mankind and forces the development of a globally sustainable strategy.

The present book intends to outline different perspectives regarding the geology, topography and environmental issues of mountains, including thirteen valuable contributions that reflect its title. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1- Revisiting Mountain Areas (pp. 1-24)
António Bento-Gonçalves, António Vieira, Paula Alexandra Malta, Luís da Vinha, Luciano Lourenço and Adélia Nunes (Center for Studies in Geography and Spatial Planning (CEGOT), Geography Department, Institute of Social Sciences, University of Minho, Portugal)

Chapter 2- The Use of Remote Sensing for Analyzing Geology, Topography and Environmental Changes in Mountains (pp. 25-42)
Lubos Matejicek, Jaroslav Tonika and Marek Biskupic (Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Natural Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic)

Chapter 3- Sierra Nevada Range, the Biodiversity Legacy of the Southernmost European Glaciated Mountain (pp. 43-64)
Juan Carlos Linares, Ana Isabel García-Cervigón Morales, María Luisa Dugo-Díaz, Daniel Garcilaso, Víctor Lechuga, María del Carmen Blanes and Benjamín Viñegla (Dpto. Sistemas Físicos, Químicos y Naturales,
Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain)

Chapter 4- Climate or Topography: Topography of Mountains as Basis of Modern Glacier Variations, Exemplified by 6500 up to 8000 m High Summits in High Asia - Evidences of Holocene and History as well as Current Glacial Stages (pp. 65-148)
Matthias Kuhle (Geography and High Mountain Geomorphology, Geographical Institute, University of Göttingen, Denmark)

Chapter 5- Mountain Ecosystems of Greater Caucasus under Global Warming: Predictive Landscape-Ecological Modeling (pp. 149-194)
Erland G. Kolomyts (Institute of Ecology of the Volga River Basin, Russian Academy of Sciences, Togliatti, Russia)

Chapter 6- Environmental Concerns of Portuguese Mountains: A Case Study in the Central Mountains (pp. 195-212)
Luciano Lourenço, Adélia N. Nunes, António Bento-Gonçalves and António Vieira (Centro de Estudos em Geografia e Ordenamento do Território (CEGOT), Departamento de Geografia da Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal)

Chapter 7- Environmental Concerns, Vulnerability of a Subsistence System and Traditional Ecological Knowledge in the High Atlas of Morocco (pp. 213-228)
Bernadette Montanari (Centre for Biocultural Diversity, University of Kent, UK)

Chapter 8- Ecology and Environmental Issues of Aquatic Invertebrates in High Mountain Rivers of Northern Chile (pp. 229-250)
Ingrid E. Alvial, Catalina Verdugo, Daniel H. Tapia and Francisco A. Squeo (Center for Advanced Studies in Arid Zones, Raúl Bitrán s/n, Colina El Pino, La Serena, Chile)

Chapter 9- Density of Lianas Following the Topo-Sequence in the Mountainous Rainforest of Kahuzi-Biega National Park (pp. 251-262)
Masumbuko Ndabaga Céphas, Habiyaremye Muhashy and Meerts Pierre (Université Officielle de Bukavu, Congo)

Chapter 10- Persistent Organic Pollutants in a Multimedia Environment of a High Altitude Prairie in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (pp. 263-300)
Yong-Liang Yang, Jing Pan, Nan Gai, Guo-Hui Lu, Shu Chen and Xiao-Hua Zhu (National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing, China)

Chapter 11- Physiological Processes during Respiratory Acclimatization to Low Inspired Oxygen (pp. 301-316)
Christopher B. Wolff (William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London Hospital Medical and Dental School, Anaesthetics Laboratory, London, UK)

Chapter 12- Oxygen Delivery at Sea Level and High Altitude: Altitude, Anaemia and Anaesthesia (pp. 317-340)
Christopher B. Wolff (William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London Hospital Medical and Dental School, Anaesthetics Laboratory, London, UK)

Chapter 13- Realising Design Projects in the Mountains of Australia: A Repositioned Problem-Solving Approach (pp. 341-356)
Beau B. Beza (Discipline of Environment and Planning, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia)

Index

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