Table of Contents
List of Figures
Part I: Moral Classroom Management: Conceptual Framework and Methodology
Chapter 1. MCM Defined as an Emerging Meta-competency and the Processes that Foster it
Chapter 2. Methodology: Action Research Assocatied with MCM as an Engine of Professional Development
Part II: MCM and Coping with Challenging Behavior
Chapter 3. How MCM Can Influence a Teacher’s Perspective and Analysis of Events in Coping with Children’s Challenging Behavior
Chapter 4. The Emergence of a Moral Approach in Place of a Disciplinarian Approach
Chapter 5. Coping with Multiple Cases of Behavioral Problems Using Repeated Narrative Writing of Emotionally Loaded Episodes
Part III: MCM, Curriculum Discourse, and Learning
Chapter 6. MCM, Emergent Curriculum, and Discourse in the Educational Garden
Chapter 7. Integrating Small Groups as a Permanent Element of the Preschool Curriculum
Part IV: MCM and Managing Diversity
Chapter 8. MCM Fostering Group Cohesion and Learning in a Culturally Diverse Group of Children
Chapter 9. What a Student Learned about Inclusion of a Girl with ASD
About the Author
“This is a book full of practical insights matched by innovative theory about how to rethink classroom management for student teachers and teachers, seeing this as an evolving process that can lead to transformational change. Clodie Tal brings to this process her wide experience of teaching, mentoring, researching and writing about classroom life as a teacher-educator trained as a psychologist.
This book will be an invaluable tool for early childhood teachers and student students, especially those working in diverse communities, providing a framework, as Tal describes, ‘to switch between a bird’s eye view of the classroom and an intimate attentive view that takes an interest in each child.” – < Dr Alison Clark, Thomas Coram Research Unit, UCL Institute of Education, London, UK
“A teacher’s highest priority, whether acknowledged or not, strongly influences their personal philosophy of classroom management. Clodie Tal’s focus on employing morality and the emotional well-being of children as overarching principles is insightful and thought provoking. It is also slightly discomforting in the way it compels me, as a teacher, to look inside and question my own values and the impact they have on my students. The numerous real-life stories included make for compelling reading. They also encourage teachers to look at situations from multiple perspectives, which is imperative, since we make decisions that impact students many times a day. If we want teachers to be reflective and intentional, where all children in a classroom are given the opportunity to thrive, regardless of circumstances, this is the kind of book we need to be reading.” – Liz Hah (M.Ed), The Early Childhood Research Podcast, Liz’s Early Learning Spot
“In this stimulating, reflective and evidence based monograph, Clodie Tal sets out a theoretical and well researched case for the application of moral classroom management (MCM) within early childhood contexts. The monograph makes a serious contribution to the development of high quality pedagogic practice, with its focus on the nature of positive interactions between teachers and children as a critical element in classroom management. It points out that having a good relationship with children and creating learning conditions for diverse children are the very heart of a good education and achieving this depends crucially on the adult’s capacity to move between a micro perspective of an individual child to the macro view of the classroom as a whole. In support of this goal, and at the heart of this monograph, is the theoretically justified concept of moral classroom management. This is defined as a meta-competency of teachers that integrates cognitive perceptions, self-regulation competencies, and interpersonal relationships with children, colleagues, and parents.
This concept is then explored in teachers’ work in real life classrooms as it works to achieve moral and learning goals that the teacher has set or helped formulate. Subsequent chapters in the monograph provide an analysis and interpretation of the use of MCM model by student-teachers and teachers in several main areas of preschool work including dealing with children’s challenging behavior; its influence on curriculum and discourse that promotes learning; and also the potential role of the model in understanding and coping with diversity (ethnic, functional, and other). Individually each chapter provides an insight into reflective and dialogic practice, but collectively the monograph stand as a model of critical thinking, research and professional praxis. I believe this monograph will stimulate a deeper level of critical reflection on teacher development which is informed, evidence based and contextually located, and contribute to a greater understanding of the real and diverse world of teacher practice.
I believe anyone who reads this book will be inspired and motivated to challenge and extend their thinking and professional practice in classroom management, adopting the critical stance which lies at the heart of quality services for children and families. As such this monograph should inspire students and teachers aiming to support the development of excellence in their professional pedagogic practice.” – Chris Pascal, Professor, Director, Centre for Research in Early Childhood (CREC), St Thomas Children’s Centre, Birmingham, UK
“Classroom management has been described as a challenging task and yet relevant aspect for educators. In her book, Dr. Tal deconstructs the concept of classroom management moving it from the commonly held point of view of establishing order, an organizational task, to the sphere of developmental elements essential for child-appropriate practices. Placing emphasis on the role of emerging interactions and relationships, classroom management as posited in her book, underlines the role teachers play mindfully and deliberately creating opportunities in the preschool setting that engage and promote young children’s socio-moral development.
Using the perspective of the preschool years, her book presents a model for effectively responding to the holistic needs of young children within the classroom context. Beyond the mere organizational nature of classroom management, she punctuates attention on the role of the early childhood educator in leading efforts to address the overarching task of socioemotional development during the preschool years. Within the construct of child development, this emphasis shifts attention to the classroom environment as a place where teachers’ knowledge and reflections guide decisions and experiences, planning and adjusting, these based on the individual and diverse needs of the child. She conceptualizes teachers as leaders with “the ability to influence children, staff and parents”, determined to establish the conditions necessary to promote a child’s wellbeing. Beyond the traditional idea of managing the environment to set rules and behaviors, Dr. Tal poses classroom management as a teacher-led intentional and reflective process where the goal is centered on meeting and fostering socio-moral outcomes for preschool children. Her well-selected examples further illustrates her model and redefining the teachers’ role in creating environments that welcome and support the individual child’s needs. Indeed, a much needed reading for early childhood professionals and contribution to the literature on early childhood developmental practices.” – Wilma Robles-Melendez, PhD, Department Chair/Associate Professor of Early Childhood Education, Department of Teaching and Learning, Fischler School of Education, Nova Southeastern University, FL, USA
‘I am very pleased to introduce you to this text written by Dr Clodie Tal. Teachers around the globe, whether experienced or novice, often face the challenges of classroom management without the insight of evidenced-based solutions. Much of contemporary research also indicates that the most effective professional learning comes not from attending one-off seminars, but to engage in educational inquiry as part of everyday practices.
The MCM model, used as a meta-competency tool, enables both teachers and student teachers to closely examine and analyse teaching-learning episodes, experiences and anecdotal narratives to better inform understandings of their own practice and pedagogy. In this way, classrooms become more effective and democratic teaching and learning spaces for both teachers and students.
With application potentials across curriculum domains, socio-cultural contexts, diversity of capability in teachers and behavioural challenges faced by students, this model advocates and supports the notion of true collaborative partnerships, the cornerstone of high quality educational experiences for teachers, students and families.
In addition, the MCM model for evidenced-based change moves teachers into a significantly different perspective on the art and science of teaching. When there is clear intentionality surrounding decision-making processes, whether that be establishing the physical context, re-examining the teaching/learning content or exploring specific pedagogical strategies, the chances of successfully implementing change is amplified. Teachers can be more confident of their own and others’ efficacy in driving solution focused transformations.
This text will be a welcome addition to teacher education programs and to teachers who are invested in ensuring they are the best teachers they can be. As a continuous improvement tool for professional practice, children can also be assured of the high expectations teachers will have of them as students, and that they can have of their teachers.” – Dr Deborah Harcourt, Professor of Early Childhood, Australian Catholic University, Australia
Aronson, E. (2000). Nobody left to hate . New York, NY: W. H. Freeman. Atkins, S., & Murphy, K. (1995). Reflective practice. Nursing Standard,9(45), 31-37. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundation of thought and action: A social cognitive theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control New York, NY: Freeman.<br>Barber, B. K., Stolz, H. E., & Olsen, M. (2005). Parental support, psychological control and behavioral control: Assessing relevance across time, culture and method. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,70(4), Serial No. 282, 1-145.<br>Barth, R. (2002). The culture builder. Educational Leadership,59(8), 6-11. Ben-Chaim, L. (2014). How can a teacher enhance inclusion of a child with ASD in a regular preschool? (unpublished seminar paper). Levinsky College of Education, Tel Aviv [Hebrew]. Bereiter, C. (1994). Implications of post-modernism for science, or, science as progressive discourse. Educational Psychologist,29(1), 3-12. Bolden, R. (2011). Distributed leadership in organizations: A review of theory and research. International Journal of Management Review,13, 251-269. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In R.M. Lerner & W. Damon (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. I. Theoretical models of human development (5th ed., pp. 793-828). New York, NY: Wiley. Brophy, J. & McCaslin, M. (1992). Teachers’ reports of how they perceive and cope with problem students. Elementary School Journal,93, 3-68. Clark, A. (2010). Transforming children’s spaces: Children’s and adults’ participation in designing learning environments. London, UK: Routledge. Cross, T., Bazron, B.J., Dennis, K.W., & Isaacs, M.R. (1989, March). Toward a socially competent system of care . Washington DC: CASSP Technical Assistance Center; Georgetown University Child Development Center. Retrieved from http://www.mhsoac.ca.gov/meetings/docs/Meetings/ 2010/June/CLCC_Tab_4_Towards_Culturally_Competent_System.pdf. Dahlberg, G., Moss, P. & Pence, A. (2013). Beyond quality in early childhood education and care: Languages of evaluation . London, UK: Routledge. Davidovich, N. (2013). How to implement small group work as a fixed routine in a preschool? (unpublished seminar paper). Levinsky College of Education, Tel Aviv [Hebrew]. Devarakonda, C. (2013). Diversity and inclusion in early childhood: An introduction. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Dinkelman, T. (2003). Self-study in teacher education: A means and ends tool for promoting reflective teaching. Journal of Teacher Education,54(1), 6-19. Doyle, W. (1986). Classroom organization and management. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook on research in teaching ed., pp. 392-431). New York, NY: Macmillan. Doyle, W. (2006). Ecological approaches to classroom management. In C.M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, practice and contemporary issues (pp. 97-127). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Duke, D.L. (1979). Classroom management: The 78 Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.<br>Emmer, E. T. (1994, April). Teacher emotions and classroom management . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Emmer, E. T., & Stough, L. M. (2001). Classroom management: A critical part of educational psychology. Educational Psychologist,36, 103-112.<br>Esposito, J., Davis, C. L., and Swain, A. N. (2011). Urban educators’ perceptions of culturally relevant pedagogy and school reform mandates. Journal of Educational Change,13(2), 235-58.<br>Evertson, C. M. (1985). Training teachers in classroom management: An experiment in secondary classrooms. Journal of Educational Research,79, 51-58.<br>Evertson, C. M., & Emmer, E. T. (1982). Effective management at the beginning of the school year in junior high classes. Journal of Educational Psychology,74, 485-498. Evertson, C. M., Emmer, E., Sanford, J., Clements, B. (1983). Improving classroom management: An experiment in elementary classrooms. Elementary School Journal,84(2), 173-188. Evertson, C. M. & Harris, A. (1999). Support for managing learning-centered classrooms: The classroom organization and management program. In H.J. Freiberg (Ed.), Beyond behaviorism Changing the classroom management paradigm (pp. 59-74). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.<br>Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (2006). Classroom management as a field of inquiry. In C.M. Evertson & C.S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom anagement. Research, practice and contemporary issues (pp. 3-17). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). Five misunderstandings about case-study research. Qualitative Inquiry,12(2), 219-245. Flyvbjerg, B. (2011). Case study. In N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Sage handbook of qualitative research ed., pp. 301-316). Thousand Oaks CA: Sage. Freiberg, H. J., & Lapointe, J.M. (2006). Research-based programs for preventing and solving discipline problems. In C.M. Evertson & C.S. Weinstein (Eds.). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice and contemporary issues (pp. 735-786). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Friedman, I. A. (2000). Burnout: Shattered dreams of impeccable professional performance. Journal of Clinical Psychology,56, 595-606.<br>Friedman, I. A. (2001). Teacher training that reduces burnout: Lessons from the research. In R. Zozovsky, T. Ariav & A. Keinan (Eds.). Teacher training and their professional development: An exchange of ideas . Tel Aviv: Mofet Institute [Hebrew]. Friedman, I. A. (2005). Measurement and assessment. Jerusalem: Henrietta Szold Institute [Hebrew]. Friedman, I. A. (2010). Assessment of socio-educational programs: From a black-box to a dynamic, theory-grounded model. In M. Levin-Rozalis & R. Soya (Eds.). Assessment issues in Israel (pp. 13-71). Beer Sheva: Ben Gurion University Press [Hebrew]. Friedman, I. A., & Kass, E. (2002). Teaching and Teacher Education , 675-686. Fyfe, B., & Forman, G. (1996). The negotiated curriculum. Innovations in Early Education: The International Reggio Exchange,3(4), 4-7. Gandini, L. (1998). Educational and caring spaces. In C. Edwards, L. Gandini, and G. Forman (Eds.), The hundred languages of children: The Reggio Emilia approach: Advanced reflections ed., 239-61). Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier Science. Griffin, P., & Care, E. (2015). Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills: Methods and approach . Dordrecht: Springer.<br>Griffiths, M. (2009). Action research for/as/mindful of social justice. In S.E. Nofke & B. Somekh (Eds.) Sage handbook of educational action research (pp. 85-98). London, UK: Sage. Habib, C. (2014). How do various approaches regarding cultural diversity impact immigrant children’s language and social functioning? (unpublished seminar paper). Levinsky College of Education, Tel Aviv [Hebrew]. Harding, S. (1987). Introduction: Is there a feminist method? In S. Harding (Ed.), Feminism and Methodology (pp. 1-14), Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Hargreaves, A., & Fullan, M. (2012). Professional capital: Transforming teaching in every school . New York, NY: Teachers College, Columbia University. Hargreaves, A., & Tucker, E. (1991). Teaching and guilt: Exploring the feelings of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education , 491-505. Harré, R., & Secord, P. F. (1972). The explanation of social behavior . Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell. Jackson, P. W. (1968). Life in classrooms . New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.<br>Jones, V. (1996). Classroom management. In J. Sikula (Ed.). Handbook of research on teacher education ed., pp. 503-521). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.<br>Kabia, A. (2015). Improving my leadership of the preschool using repeated narrative writing (unpublished seminar paper). Levinsky College of Education, Tel Aviv [Hebrew]. Katz, L. (1993). What can we learn from Reggio-Emilia? In C. Edwards, L. Gandini, & G. Forman (Eds.) The hundred languages of children (pp. 19-40). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.<br>Kazdin, A. E. (1982). Applying behavioral principles in the schools. In C.R. Reynolds & T.B. Gutkin (Eds.). Handbook of school psychology . New York, NY: Wiley. Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, R. (1981). The action research planner . Geelong, Australia: Deakin University Press. Kounin, J.S. (1970). Discipline and group management in classrooms . New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Kruse, K. (2012). Employee engagement: How to motivate your team for high performance . Richboro, PA: The Kruse Group.<br>Landau, B. (2009). Classroom management. In L.J. Saha & A.J. Dworkin (Eds.). International Handbook of Research on Teachers and Teaching (pp. 739-755). New York, NY: Springer. Lonsdale, M. & Anderson, M. (2011). Preparing 21st century learners: The case for school-community collaborations. Camberwell, Victoria, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research. Retrieved from https://www.acer.edu.au/occasional-essays/preparing-21st-century-learners-the-case-for-school-community-collaboration. Lortie, D.C. (1975). Schoolteacher . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Malaguzzi, L. (1993). For an education based on relationships, Young Children ,11(93), 9-13. Marshall, J. (1999). Leaving life as inquiry. Systemic Practice and Action Research,12(2), 155-171. McNiff, J., & Whitehead, J. (2010). You and your action research project (3rd ed.). London, UK: Routledge. Mezirow, J. (1990). How critical reflection triggers transformative learning. In J. Mezirow & Associates. Fostering critical reflection in adulthood (pp. 1-20). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.<br>Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformative Learning: Theory to Practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education,74, 5-12. Nofke, S. (2009). Revisiting the professional, personal, and political dimensions of action research. In S.E. Nofke & B. Somekh (Eds.), Sage handbook of educational action research (pp. 6-25). London, UK: Sage.<br>Nucci, L. (2006). Classroom management for moral and social development. In C.M. Evertson & C.S. Weinstein (Eds.). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice and contemporary issues (pp. 711-728). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.<br>Nutbrown, C., & Clough, P. (2006). Inclusion in the early years . London, UK: Sage.<br>Pinchas, R. (2015). How to learn to set boundaries on children’s parents based on a trust relationship with them? (unpublished seminar paper). Levinsky College of Education, Tel Aviv [Hebrew]. Pintrich, P.R. (2000). Educational psychology at the millennium: A look back and a look forward. Educational psychologist,35(4), 221-226.<br>Radostin, S. (2014). From contemplating organization to contemplating planning and self-regulation (unpublished seminar paper). Levinsky College of Education, Tel Aviv [Hebrew]. Rinaldi, C. (2001). The pedagogy of listening: The listening perspective from Reggio Emilia. Innovations in Early Education: The International Reggio Exchange,8(4), 1-4. Rosenwasser, N. & Nathan, L. (1997). Group guidance . Jerusalem: Zippori [Hebrew]. Russo, T.C., & Ford, D.J. (2006). Teachers’ reflection on reflective practice. Journal of Cognitive Affective Learning,2(2), 1-12.<br>Schön, D.A. (1983). The reflective practitioner . New York, NY: Basic Books. <br>Sergiovanni, T.J. (2007). Rethinking leadership . Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.<br>Shavelson, R.J., & Stern, P. (1981). Research on teachers’ pedagogical thoughts, judgments, decisions, and behavior. Review of Educational Research,51, 455-498.<br>Shulman, L.S. (2002). Truth and consequences? Inquiry and policy in research on teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education,53(3), 248-253.<br>Sidorkin, A.M. (2002). Learning relations: Impure education, deschooled schools, and dialogue with evil . New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.<br>Silins, H., & Mulford, B. (2004). Schools as learning organizations: Effects on teacher leadership and student outcomes. School Effectiveness and School Improvement.,15(3-4), 443-466.<br>Smylie, M. A., & Mayrowetz, D. (2009). Footnotes to teacher leadership. In L. J. Saha & A. J. Dworkin (Eds.). International Handbook of Research on Teachers and Teaching (pp. 277-291). New York, NY: Springer.<br>Smyth, J.M., & Pennebaker, J.W. (1999). Sharing one’s story: Translating emotional experiences into words as a coping tool. In C.R. Snyder (Ed.). Coping: The psychology of what works (pp. 70-89). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Souto-Manning, M. (2012). Teacher action research in teacher education. Childhood Education 88 (1), 54-66. Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Stake, R. E. (2006). Multiple case study analysis . New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Stogdill, R. M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research . New York, NY: Free Press. Tal, C. (2005). Emotional intelligence . Tel Aviv and Haifa: Mofet Institute and Ach Publishing House [Hebrew]. Tal, C. (2006). A yearly program plan for teaching social competence to kindergarten children. Hed HaGan , 70-82 [Hebrew]. Tal, C. (2010a). Moral classroom management. In S.B. Thompson (Ed.). Kindergartens: Programs, functions, and outcomes (pp. 115-132). New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers. Tal, C. (2010b). Case studies to deepen understanding and enhance classroom management skills in preschool teacher training. Early Childhood Education Journal 38 , 143-152. Tal, C. (2014). Self-transcendence values, relationships, and participatory practice in early childhood education. Education Research International 2014 , Article ID 371831. doi:10.1155/2014/371831. Tal, C., & Yinon, Y. (2009). Teachers’ values in the classroom. In L.J. Saha & A. G. Dworkin (Eds.). International Handbook of Research on Teachers and Teaching (pp. 259-276). New York, NY: Springer. Taylor, E.W. (1998). The theory and practice of transformative learning: A critical review . Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education. Turiel, E. (2002). The culture of morality: Social development, context, and conflict. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy . Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Van Manen, M. (1994). Pedagogy, virtue, and the narrative identity in teaching. Curriculum Inquiry , 4(2), 135-170. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Vygotsky, L. (1987). Thinking and Speech (Vol.1). New York, NY: Plenum Press. Wasik, B. (2008). When fewer is more: Small groups in early childhood classrooms. Early Childhood Education Journal,35, 515-521. Wells, G. (2000). Dialogic inquiry in education: Building on the legacy of Vygotsky. In C.D. Lee & P. Smagorinsky (Eds.), Vygotskian perspectives on literacy research: Constructing meaning through collaborative inquiry (pp. 51-85). New York: Cambridge University Press. Wells, G. (2008). Dialogue, inquiry, and the construction of learning in communities. In B. Lingard, J. Nixon, & S. Ranson (Eds.). Transforming learning in schools and communities: The remaking of education for a cosmopolitan society (pp. 236-256). London, UK: Continuum.<br>Wells, G. (2009). The meaning makers: Learning to talk and talking to learn (2nd ed.). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. Yin, R.K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Yu-le, Z. (2004). Some thoughts on emergent curriculum. Paper presented at the Forum for Integrated Education and Educational Reform sponsored by the Council for Global Integrative Education, October 28-30, in Santa Cruz, CA. Retrieved from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/CGIE/ yule.pdf. Zellermayer, M. (2001). Action research in education: History, characteristics, critique. In N. Sabar-Ben-Yehoshua (Ed.). Traditions and genres in qualitative research (pp. 307-342). Lod, Israel: Dvir [Hebrew]. Zimbel, H. (2011). How to cope with challenging behaviors? (unpublished seminar paper). Levinsky College of Education, Tel Aviv [Hebrew]. Zimmerman, B.J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social-cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P.R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self- regulation (pp. 13-39). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Audience: · Undergraduate and graduate students in teaching education in general and in Early Childhood Education in particular
· Teachers in in -service training
· Teachers interested in improving their daily practice
Blogs dealing with issues related to classroom management and meaningful learning