Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Mechanical Behavior of Cement Treated Clayey Gravel Exposed to Sulphate Concenteration Abstract
Chapter 2. Effect of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) on Sulphate Resistance of Sand-Bentonite (SB): Part I
Chapter 3. Effect of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) on Sulphate Resistance of Sand-Bentonite (SB) Part II
Chapter 4. Effect of Sulphate Concentration on Unconfined Compressive Strenghht of Clay Mixed with Carbon Abstract
About the Authors
Al-Mukhtar, M., Khattab, S., and Alcover, J. F. (2012). Microstructure and geotechnical properties of lime-treated expansive clayey soil. Engineering Geology, 139, 17-27.
Amini, Y., and Hamidi, A. (2014). Triaxial shear behavior of a cement-treated sand–gravel mixture. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 6(5), 455-465.
Amiralian, Saeid, Mochamad Arief Budihardjo, Amin Chegenizadeh, and Hamid Nikraz. (2015a). “Study of Scale Effect on Strength Characteristic of Stabilised Composite with Sewage Sludge–Part A: Preliminary Study.” Construction and Building Materials 80: 339-345.
Amiralian, Saeid, Mochamad Arief Budihardjo, Amin Chegenizadeh, and Hamid Nikraz. (2015b). “Study of Scale Effect on Strength Characteristic of Stabilised Composite with Sewage Sludge–Part B: Critical Investigation.” Construction and Building Materials 80: 346-350.
ASTM. (2000). Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil. ASTMD2166. Annual book of ASTM Standards, American Society for Testing and Materials. 2000, Philadelphia.;4:08.
ASTM. (2010). “Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils.” ASTM D4318, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM. (2011a). “Standard Test Method for Dispersive Characteristics of Clay Soil by Double Hydrometer.” ASTM D4221, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM (2011a). Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3)). ASTM D1557. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM (2011b). Standard practice for classification of soils for engineering purposes (Unified Soil Classification System). ASTM D2487. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM. (2011b). “Standard practice for classification of soils for engineering purposes (unified soil classification system).” ASTM D2487, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM (2011c). “Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions.” ASTM D3080/D3080M, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM (2011c). “Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3)).” ASTM D1557. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM (2011d). “Standard Test Method for Length Change of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulfate Solution.” ASTM C1012, USA, PA.
ASTM. (2012). “Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3)).” ASTM D1557, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM. (2014a). “Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates.” ASTM C136, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM. (2014b). “Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer,” ASTM D854, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM (2016). “Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil.” ASTM D2166, West Conshohocken, PA.
Ata, A. A., Salem, T. N., and Elkhawas, N. M. (2015). Properties of soil–bentonite–cement bypass mixture for cutoff walls. Construction and Building Materials, 93, 950-956. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
Bahar, R., Benazzoug, M., and Kenai, S. (2004). “Performance of compacted cement-stabilised soil.” Cement and concrete composites, 26(7), 811-820.
Bartelt-Hunt, S. L., Smith, J. A., Burns, S. E., and Rabideau, A. J. (2005). Evaluation of granular activated carbon, shale, and two organoclays for use as sorptive amendments in clay landfill liners. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 131(7), 848-856.
Basha, E. A., Hashim, R., Mahmud, H. B., and Muntohar, A. S. (2005). Stabilization of residual soil with rice husk ash and cement. Construction and Building Materials, 19(6), 448-453.
Behfarnia, K., and Farshadfar, O. (2013). “The effects of pozzolanic binders and polypropylene fibers on durability of SCC to magnesium sulfate attack.” Construction and Building Materials, 38, 64-71.
Bell, F. G. (1996). Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils. Engineering geology, 42(4), 223-237.
BGC Cement (2013). “Safety Data Sheet for Portland and Blended Cement.”
BGC Cement. (2013). “Materials safety data sheet for Portland and blended cement” BGC Cement PTY LTD.
BGC Cement. (2013). Safety data sheet for Portland and blended cement.
Blatz, J. A., Graham, J., and Chandler, N. A. (2002). Influence of suction on the strength and stiffness of compacted sand bentonite. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 39(5), 1005-1015.
Bohnhoff, G. and Shackelford, C. (2013). “Consolidation Behavior of Polymerized Bentonite-Amended Backfills.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001079, 04013055.
Bonen, D., and Cohen, M. D. (1992). “Magnesium sulfate attack on Portland cement paste-I. Microstructural analysis.” Cement and Concrete Research, 22(1), 169-180.
Bouchelaghem, F., A. Benhamidab, and H. Quoc Vub. (2010). “Nonlinear Mechanical Behaviour of Cemented Soils.” Computational Materials Science 48 (2): 287-295.
Boylu, F. (2013). Modelling and optimisation of ageing characteristics of soda activated Na+-bentonites. Applied Clay Science, 83–84, 300-307. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2013.08.024.
Bruker AXS. (2012). “DIFFRAC.EVA Application V3.”
Brune, G. (1965). Anhydrite and gypsum problems in engineering geology. Engineering Geology, 2(1), 26-38.
Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief, Amin Chegenizadeh, and Hamid Nikraz. (2015). “Investigation of the Strength of Carbon-Sand Mixture.” Procedia Engineering 102 (0): 634-639. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
Celauro, Bernardo, Antonio Bevilacqua, Dario Lo Bosco, and Clara Celauro. (2012). “Design Procedures for Soil-Lime Stabilization for Road and Railway Embankments. Part 1-Review of Design Methods.” Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences., http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
j.sbspro.2012.09.925. 53: 754-763. doi.
Chegenizadeh, A., Keramatikerman, M., Panizza, S., and Nikraz, H. (2017). “Investigation on Effect of Powdered Recycled Tyre on Sulphate Resistance of Cemented Clay” ASCE’s Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (accepted).
Cokca, Erdal. (2001). “Use of Class C Fly Ashes for the Stabilization – of an Expansive Soil.” J. of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering., 127: 568-573.
Consoli, Nilo Cesar, Rafael Rizzati de Moraes, and Lucas Festugato. (2012). “Parameters Controlling Tensile and Compressive Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Cemented Soil. ” J. of Materials in Civil Engineering 25 (10): 1568-1573.
Daniel, D., Anderson, D., and Boynton, S. (1985). “Fixed-Wall Versus Flexible-Wall Permeameters,” Hydraulic Barriers in Soil and Rock ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 874, 107-126.
Diab, A. M., Awad, A. E. M., Elyamany, H. E., and Elmoaty, A. E. M. A. (2012). “Guidelines in compressive strength assessment of concrete modified with silica fume due to magnesium sulfate attack.” Construction and Building Materials, 36, 311-318.
Du, Y. J., Fan, R. D., Liu, S. Y., Reddy, K. R. and Jin, F. (2015). “Workability, compressibility and hydraulic conductivity of zeolite-amended clayey soil/calcium-bentonite backfills for slurry-trench cutoff walls.” Engineering Geology, 195, pp.258-268.
Edil, T. B., Park, J. K., and Kim, J. Y. (2004). Effectiveness of scrap tire chips as sorptive drainage material. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 130(7), 824-831.
Estabragh, A. R., Beytolahpour, I., and Javadi, A. A. (2011). “Effect of resin on the strength of soil-cement mixture.” J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000252, 969–976.
Estabragh, A. R., Khatibi, M., and Javadi, A. A. (2015). “Effect of cement on treatment of a clay soil contaminated with glycerol.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 28(4), 04015157.
Fatahi, B., and Khabbaz, H. (2012). Mechanical characteristics of soft clay treated with fibre and cement. Geosynthetics International.
Gan, J. K. M., Fredlund, D. G., and Rahardjo, H. (1988). Determination of the shear strength parameters of an unsaturated soil using the direct shear test. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 25(3), 500-510.
Haeri, S. M., Hamidi, A., and Tabatabaee, N. (2005a). The effect of gypsum cementation on the mechanical behavior of gravely sands.
Haeri, S. M., Hamidi, A., Hosseini, S. M., Asghari, E., and Toll, D. G. (2006). Effect of cement type on the mechanical behavior of a gravely sand. Geotechnical & Geological Engineering, 24(2), 335.
Haeri, S. M., Hosseini, S. M., Toll, D. G., and Yasrebi, S. S. (2005b). The behaviour of an artificially cemented sandy gravel. Geotechnical & Geological Engineering, 23(5), 537-560.
Hasan, U., Chegenizadeh, A., Budihardjo, M. A., and Nikraz, H. (2016). Experimental evaluation of construction waste and ground granulated blast furnace slag as alternative soil stabilisers. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 34(6), 1707-1722.
Hasan, Umair, Amin Chegenizadeh, Mochamad Arief Budihardjo, and Hamid Nikraz. (2015). “Experimental Evaluation of Construction Waste and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as Alternative Soil Stabilisers.” Manuscript submitted.
Hashemi, M. A., T. J. Massart, S. Salager, G. Herrier, and B. François. (2015). “Pore Scale Characterization of Lime-Treated Sand–Bentonite Mixtures.” Applied Clay Science doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
j.clay.2015.04.001. 111: 50-60.
Hekal, E.E., Kishar, E. and Mostafa, H. (2002). “Magnesium sulfate attack on hardened blended cement pastes under different circumstances.” Cement and Concrete Research, 32(9), pp.1421-1427.
Hong, C., Shackelford, C., and Malusis, M. (2012). “Consolidation and Hydraulic Conductivity of Zeolite-Amended Soil-Bentonite Backfills.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.
Isaia, G.C., Gastaldini, A.L.G., and Moraes, R., 2003. Physical and pozzolanic action of mineral additions on the mechanical strength of high-performance concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites 25, 69–76.
James, R., Kamruzzaman, A. H. M., Haque, A., and Wilkinson, A. (2008). Behaviour of lime–slag-treated clay. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Ground Improvement, 161(4), 207-216.
Kanji, M. A. (2014). Critical issues in soft rocks. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 6(3), 186-195.
Keramatikerman, M., Chegenizadeh, A., and Nikraz, H. (2016). Effect of GGBFS and lime binders on the engineering properties of clay. Applied Clay Science, 132, 722-730.
Kitazume, M., and Terashi, M. (2013). The deep mixing method (p. 410). Balkema: CRC Press.
Li, S., and Li, D. (2014). Electrically conductive charcoal powder/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites. Materials Letters, 137, 409-412. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2014.09.022.
Li, S., Li, X., Deng, Q., and Li, D. (2015). Three kinds of charcoal powder reinforced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene composites with excellent mechanical and electrical properties. Materials & Design, 85, 54-59. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.06.163.
Malusis, M., Barben, E., and Evans, J. (2009). “Hydraulic Conductivity and Compressibility of Soil-Bentonite Backfill Amended with Activated Carbon.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)
Manutec (2011). “Material Safety Data Sheet for Magnesium Sulphate/Epsom salt” Manutec Garden Care Products.
Manutec. (2007). “Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Magnesium Sulphate/Epsom Salt.”
Mardani-Aghabaglou, A., Kalıpcılar, İ., Sezer, G. İ., Sezer, A., and Altun, S. (2015). “Freeze–thaw resistance and chloride-ion penetration of cement-stabilized clay exposed to sulfate attack.” Applied Clay Science, 115, 179-188.
Meng, Xianghai, Yihe Zhang, Fengshan Zhou, and Qi An. 2014. “Influence of Carbon Ash on the Rheological Properties of Bentonite Dispersions.” Applied Clay Science 88–89: 129-133. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2013.12.001.
Miller, G. A., and Azad, S. (2000). Influence of soil type on stabilization with cement kiln dust. Construction and building materials, 14(2), 89-97.
Mohammadi, A., M. Dehestani, I. Shooshpasha, and S. Asadollahi. (2015). “Mechanical Properties of Sandy Soil Stabilized with Modified Sulfur.“ J. of Materials in Civil Engineering 27 (4): 04014140. doi: doi:10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001059.
Mola-Abasi, H., and Shooshpasha, I. (2016). Influence of zeolite and cement additions on mechanical behavior of sandy soil. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 8(5), 746-752.
Mott, H. V., and Weber, Jr, W. J. (1992). Sorption of low molecular weight organic contaminants by fly ash: Considerations for the enhancement of cutoff barrier performance. Environmental science & technology, 26(6), 1234-1242.
Obika, B., and Freer-Hewish, R. J. (1990). Soluble salt damage to thin bituminous surfacings of roads and runways. Australian Road Research, 20(4).
Okyay, U. S., and Dias, D. (2010). Use of lime and cement treated soils as pile supported load transfer platform. Engineering Geology, 114(1), 34-44.
Pakbaz, M.S. and M. Farzi. (2015). Comparison of the effect of mixing methods (dry vs. wet) on mechanical and hydraulic properties of treated soil with cement or lime. Applied Clay Science, 105–106: p. 156-169.
Philip, L. K. (2001). “An investigation into contaminant transport processes through single-phase cement–bentonite slurry walls.” Engineering geology, 60(1), pp.209-221.
Phonphuak, N., and Thiansem, S. (2012). Using charcoal to increase properties and durability of fired test briquettes. Construction and Building Materials, 29, 612-618. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
Purwana, Y. M. (2013). Experimental Study on Unsaturated Direct Shear and California Bearing Ratio Tests with Suction Monitoring on Sand-Kaolin Clay Mixtures. Curtin University, Australia.
Rajasekaran, G., and Narasimha Rao, S. (2005). Sulphate attack in lime-treated marine clay. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, 23(1-2), 93-116.
Rajasekaran, G., Murali, K., and Srinivasaraghavan, R. (1997). Effect of chlorides and sulphates on lime treated marine clays. Soils and foundations, 37(2), 105-115.
Ressi, A. and Cavalli, N. (1985). “Bentonite slurry trenches.” Engineering Geology, 21(3-4), pp.333-339.
Rocla Quarry Product. (2014). “Gaskell Conceret Sand” Technical Data Sheet.
Rollings, R.S., Burkes, J.P. and Rollings, M.P. (1999). “Sulfate attack on cement-stabilized sand.” Journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, 125(5), pp.364-372.
Saffer, D. M., and Marone, C. (2003). Comparison of smectite-and illite-rich gouge frictional properties: application to the updip limit of the seismogenic zone along subduction megathrusts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 215(1), 219-235.
Santhanam, M., Cohen, M.D. and Olek, J. (2001). “Sulfate attack research—whither now?” Cement and concrete research, 31(6), pp.845-851.
Selçuk, L., and Kayabali, K. (2015). Evaluation of the unconfined compressive strength of rocks using nail guns. Engineering Geology, 195, 164-171.
Shen, C. K., and Mitchell, J. K. (1966). “Behaviour of soil-cement in repeated compression and flexure.” Highway Res. Rec., 128, 68–100.
Sherwood, P. T. (1993). Soil stabilization with cement and lime. Transport Research Laboratory, State of the Art Review. HMSO, London.
Sheshde, E. A., and Cheshomi, A. (2015). New method for estimating unconfined compressive strength (UCS) using small rock samples. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 133, 367-375.
Siad, H., Lachemi, M., Bernard, S. K., Sahmaran, M., and Hossain, A. (2015). “Assessment of the long-term performance of SCC incorporating different mineral admixtures in a magnesium sulphate environment.” Construction and Building Materials, 80, 141-154.
Sibelco (2010). “Materials safety datasheet Sibelco Bentonite Group 1” Sibelco Australia Limited.
Sibelco Australia Limited. (2010). “Sibelco Bentonite Group 1” Material Safety Data Sheet.
Standard Australia. (1998). “Methods of Testing Soils for Engineering Purposes – Soil strength and consolidation tests – Determination of the shear strength of a soil – Direct shear test using a shear box” AS 12184.108.40.206-1998.
Standard Australia. (2003). “Methods of Testing Soils for Engineering Purposes – Method 5.1.1: Soil Compaction and density tests – Determination of the dry density/moistur content relation of a soil using standard compactive effort.” AS 12220.127.116.11-2003.
Tang, C., Shi, B., Gao, W., Chen, F., and Cai, Y. (2007). Strength and mechanical behavior of short polypropylene fiber reinforced and cement stabilized clayey soil. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 25(3), 194-202.
Tang, G. X., Graham, J., Blatz, J., Gray, M., and Rajapakse, R. K. N. D. (2002). Suctions, stresses and strengths in unsaturated sand–bentonite. Engineering Geology, 64(2–3), 147-156. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/
Tasong, W.A., Wild, S. and Tilley, R.J. (1999). “Mechanisms by which ground granulated blastfurnace slag prevents sulphate attack of lime-stabilised kaolinite.” Cement and concrete research, 29(7), pp.975-982.
Vakili, M. V., Chegenizadeh, A., Nikraz, H., and Keramatikerman, M. (2016). Investigation on shear strength of stabilised clay using cement, sodium silicate and slag. Applied Clay Science, 124, 243-251.
Wang, Y., Chen, Y., Xie, H., Zhang, C. and Zhan, L., 2016. Lead adsorption and transport in loess-amended soil-bentonite cut-off wall. Engineering Geology, 215, pp.69-80.
Wild, S. and Tasong, W.A. (1999). “Influence of ground granulated blastfurnace slag on the sulphate resistance of lime-stabilized kaolinite.” Magazine of Concrete Research, 51(4), pp.247-254.
Wild, S., Kinuthia, J. M., Jones, G. I., and Higgins, D. D. (1999). Suppression of swelling associated with ettringite formation in lime stabilized sulphate bearing clay soils by partial substitution of lime with ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS). Engineering geology, 51(4), 257-277.
Wong, L. S., Hashim, R., and Ali, F. (2013). Utilization of sodium bentonite to maximize the filler and pozzolanic effects of
stabilized peat. Engineering Geology, 152(1), 56-66. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2012.10.019.
Xiao, Y., Liu, H., Chen, Y., and Jiang, J. (2014). Strength and deformation of rockfill material based on large-scale triaxial compression tests. II: influence of particle breakage. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 140(12), 04014071.
Yang, Y., Wang, G., and Xie, S. (2012). Effect of Magnesium Sulfate on the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cement-Treated Soils. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 40(7), 1-8.
Yeo, S., Shackelford, C., and Evans, J. (2005). “Consolidation and Hydraulic Conductivity of Nine Model Soil-Bentonite Backfills.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:10
Yi, Y., Li, C., Liu, S. and Al-Tabbaa, A. (2014). “Resistance of MgO–GGBS and CS–GGBS stabilised marine soft clays to sodium sulfate attack.” Géotechnique, 64(8), pp.673-679.
Yi, Y., Li, C., Liu, S. and Jin F., (2015). “Magnesium sulfate attack on clays stabilised by carbide slag-and magnesia-ground granulated blast furnace slag.” Géotechnique Letters, pp.306-312.
Zanbak C. and Arthur R. C. (1986). Geochemical and engineering aspects of anhydrite/gypsum phase transitions. Bull Assoc Eng Geol, 23(4), 419-433.