Misconduct in Medical Research and Practice


Sergei V. Jargin
Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

Series: Ethical Issues in the 21st Century
BISAC: MED106000

The main varieties of scientific misconduct are fabrication, falsification, misquoting and plagiarism. Considering the “improvement” of fraudulent skills, scientists, editors, and authorities must jointly combat the misconduct. Also, it is important that whistleblowers must be protected from revenge. The response to scientific misconduct requires national and international bodies to provide leadership and guidelines. Whistleblowers need a safe, confidential place to report misconduct. The quality of research and hidden conflicts of interest should be taken into account deciding which studies are to be included into reviews. Forged publications and speculative theories have been used for promotion of drugs, dietary supplements and treatments without proven effectiveness. Marketing of placebos in the guise of evidence-based medications seems to be on the increase. Patients can be misinformed not only by the advertising but also by publications supposed to be scientific. Furthermore, it has become usual practice to disregard published criticism in spite of personal communications and debates at conferences. Some scientists seem to make use of critical comments without citing them, or just continue publications ignoring the criticism. The same scientists continue working sometimes in cooperation with renowned researchers; and it is possible that some later articles are more reliable than earlier ones. However, it is insufficient to hope that reliable publications would be shortly confirmed while forgeries would fall into oblivion. Fake papers are misleading for research and practice, cost time and money. Wrong concepts are persisting and reappearing, which may result in useless experimentation and application of invasive methods without sufficient indications. An international cooperation of bona fide scientists, editors and authorities is needed to eradicate the scientific misconduct and fraude in medicine. The book contains an overview of misconduct in medical research and practice mainly from the former Soviet Union. Ample documentary evidence is provided as illustrations.



Table of Contents


Chapter 1. The Background

Chapter 2. Examples of Plagiarism

Chapter 3. Plagiarism in Dermatopathology

Chapter 4. How to Write a Textbook from the Internet

Chapter 5. Plagiarism and Misquoting in Environmental Science

Chapter 6. Historical Examples

Chapter 7. Manipulation with Statistics

Chapter 8. From the History of Russian Pathology

Chapter 9. Scientific Misconduct in Pathology

Chapter 10. Invasive Procedures with Questionable Indications

Chapter 11. Renal Biopsy with Questionable Indications

Chapter 12. Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident



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