Microstrip Antennas Modeling for Recent Applications

Amel Boufrioua, PhD, MSc
Electronics Department, Technological Sciences Faculty, University of Mentouri Brothers, Constantine, Algeria

Series: Electronics and Telecommunications Research
BISAC: TEC041000

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Today, the state of the art antenna technology allows the use of different types and models of antennas, depending on the area of application considered. The rapid progress in wireless communications requires the development of lightweight, low profile, small size, flush-mounted and wideband multi-frequency planar antennas. This book reviews recent advances in designs of various microstrip patch antenna configurations.

Microstrip patch antennas have been widely used in the range of microwave frequencies over the past twenty-five years, and over the past few years, single-patch antennas have been extensively used in various communication systems due to their compactness, economical efficiency, light weight, low profile and conformability to any structure. The main drawback to implementing these antennas in many applications is their limited bandwidth. However, the most important challenge in microstrip antenna design is to increase the bandwidth and gain. Theoretical study of various patch antenna configurations will be carried out in this book. The study is performed by using full wave analysis and analytical techniques for the characterization of these structures. Several techniques are used in this book to achieve multi-band performances such as multilayer stacked patches, multiple patches and insertion of slots of different shapes and sizes in the patch antennas. In addition, some novel patch antenna designs for modern applications are given, and some challenges of patch antenna designs are addressed.
This book is divided into seven chapters and presents new research in this dynamic field. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1. General Principles of Microstrip Patch Antennas

Chapter 2. Analysis of Patch Antenna by Analytical Techniques

Chapter 3. Analysis of Patch Antenna by Full Wave Method

Chapter 4. Full Wave Analysis Using Various Currents and their Asymptotic Basis Functions

Chapter 5. Resistive Patch Antenna on Isotropic and Uniaxial Anisotropic Substrate

Chapter 6. Superstrate-Loaded Resistive Patch Antenna

Chapter 7. Wideband Slotted Microstrip Antennas

Index

Chapter 1

[1] I. J. Bahl and P. E. Bhartia, “Microstrip Antennas,” Dedham, MA: Artech House, 1980.
[2] Z. Fan and K. F. Lee, “Input impedance of annular-ring microstrip antennas with a dielectric cover,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 40, pp. 992-995, August 1992.
[3] Z. Nie, W. C. Chew, and Y. T. Lo, “Analysis of the annular-ring-loaded circular-disk microstrip antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 38, pp. 806-813, June 1990.
[4] E. H. Newman and P. Tulyathan, “Analysis of microstrip antennas using moment methods,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 29, pp. 47-53, January 1981.
[5] B. Belentepe, “Modeling and design of electromagnetically coupled microstrip-patch antennas and antenna arrays,” IEEE Antennas Propagation. Mag., vol. 37, pp. 31-38, February 1995.
[6] K. F. Lee and K. M. Luk, “Microstrip patch antennas,” World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd, London, 2011.
[7] Y. T. Lo, D. Solomon, and W. F. Richards, “Theory and experiment on microstrip antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 27, pp. 137-145, March 1979.
[8] K. R. Carver and J. W. Mink, “Microstrip antenna technology,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 29, pp. 2-24, January 1981.
[9] A. K. Bhattacharjee, S. R. B. Chaudhuri, A. Mukherjee, D. R. Poddar, and S. K. Chowdhury, “Input impedance of rectangular microstrip antennas,” Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng., vol. 135, pp. 351-352, October 1988.
[10] A. K. Bhattacharjee, S. R. B. Chaudhuri, D. R. Poddar, and S. K. Chowdhury, “Equivalence of radiation properties of square and circular microstrip patch antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 38, pp. 1710-1711, October 1990.
[11] T. Itoh, “Numerical techniques for microwave and millimeter-wave passive structures,” A Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York, Wiley, 1989.
[12] P. Bhartia, K. V. S. Rao and R. S. Tomar, “Millimeter wave microstrip and printed circuit antennas,” Artech House, Boston, London. 1991.
[13] C. A. Balanis, “Antenna theory: Analysis Design,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2005.
[14] R. E. Munson, “Conformal microstrip antennas and microstrip phased,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. AP-22, pp. 74-78, January 1974.
[15] A. G. Derneryd, “Linearly polarized microstrip antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 24, pp. 846-851, November 1976.
[16] H. Pues and A. V. de Capelle, “Accurate transmission-line model for the rectangular microstrip antenna,” Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng., vol. 131, pp. 334-340, December 1984.
[17] J. P. Damiano and a. papiernik, “survey of analytical and numerical models for probe-fed microstrip antennas,” IEE proc.-Microw. Antennas propagation, vol. 141, 15-22, february 1994.
[18] A. K. Bhattacharyya and R. Garg, “Generalized transmssion line model for microstrip patches,” IEE Proceedings H-Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 132, pp. 93-98, April 1985.
[19] Y. T. Lo, D. Salomon, and W. F. Richards, “Theory and experiment on microstrip antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 27, pp. 137-145, March 1979.
[20] K. C. Gupta, P. C. Sharma, “Segmentation and desegmentation techniques for analysis of planar microstrip antennas,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, vol. 19, pp. 19-22, USA, 16-19 June 1981
[21] K. C. Gupta, “Multiport-network modeling approach for computer-aided design of microstrip patches and arrays,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Internationl Symposium, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, pp. 786-789, 15-19 June 1987.
[22] W. C. Chew, Z. Nie, Q. H. Liu, and Y. T. Lo, “Analysis of probe-fed microstrip disk antenna,” Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng., vol. 138, pp. 185-191, April 1991.
[23] A. Boufrioua and A. Benghalia, “Analyse d’une antenne microbande circulaire par l’application de la méthode intégrale,” 16ème Colloque International Optique, Hertzienne et Diélectrique, OHD’01, France, pp. 193-196, 3-5 September 2001. [Circular microstrip antenna analysis by applying the integral method, 16th International Conference Optical and Dielectric Hertzienne, OHD'01, France, pp. 193-196, September 3-5, 2001].
[24] D. Mirshekar-Syahkal, “Spectral domain method for microwave integrated circuits,” Research studies press LTD. New York, Wiley, 1990.
[25] J. M. Jin and J. L. Volakis, “Electromagnetic scattering by a perfectly conducting patch array on a dielectric slab,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 38, pp. 556-563, April 1990.
[26] S. C. Wu, N. G. Alexopoulos and O. Fordham, “Feeding structure contribution to radiation by patch antennas with rectangular boundaries,” IEEE trans. Antennas propagation, vol. 40, pp. 1245-1249, october 1992.
[27] N. Kumprasert and W. Kiranon, “Simple and accurate formula for the resonant frequency of the circular microstrip disk antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 43, pp. 1331-1333, November 1995.
[28] W. C. Chew and J. A. Kong, “Analysis of a circular microstrip disk antenna with a thick dielectric substrate,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 29, pp. 68-76, January 1981.
[29] J. R. james, a. hendeson, and p. s. hall, “microstrip antenna performance is determined by substrate constraints,” Microwave System News, vol. 12, pp. 73-84, august 1982.
[30] F. Gardiol, "Design and layout of microstrip structures", IEEE Proceeding, vol. 35, pp. 145-157, June 1988.
[31] M. D. Deshpande and M. C. Bailey, “Input impedance of microstrip antennas,” IEEE Trans Antennas Propagation, vol. 30, pp. 645-650, July 1982.
[32] D. M. Pozar and S. M. Voda, “A rigorous analysis of a microstripline fed patch antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation. vol. 35, pp. 1343-1350, december 1987.
[33] A. Boufrioua, “Contribution à l'étude des antennes à patch résistif et parfaitement conducteur tenant compte d'une source d'excitation et des nouvelles formes asymptotiques de courant,” Doctoral thesis, Electronics Department, Constantine University, November 2006. [Contribution to the study of resistive patch antennas and perfectly conducting patches taking into account an excitation source and new forms of asymptotic current, Doctoral thesis, Electronics Department, Constantine University, November 2006].
[34] r. w. jackson and d. m. Pazar, “full wave analysis of microstrip open-end and gap discontinuities,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. vol. 33, pp. 1036-1042, october 1985.

Chapter 2

[1] I. J. Bahl and P. E. Bhartia, Microstrip Antennas, Dedham, MA: Artech House, 1980.
[2] K. R. Carver and J. W. Mink, “Microstrip antenna technology,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 29, pp. 2-24, January 1981.
[3] A. K. Bhattacharjee, S. R. B. Chaudhuri, D. R. Poddar, and S. K. Chowdhury, “Equivalence of radiation properties of square and circular microstrip patch antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 38, pp. 1710-1711, October 1990.
[4] A. K. Bhattacharjee, S. R. B. Chaudhuri, A. Mukherjee, D. R. Poddar, and S. K. Chowdhury, “Input impedance of rectangular microstrip antennas,” Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng., vol. 135, pp. 351-352, October 1988.
[5] Y. T. Lo, D. Solomon, and W. F. Richards, “Theory and experiment on microstrip antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 27, pp. 137-145, March 1979.
[6] C. A. Balanis, “Antenna Theory: Analysis Design,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2005.
[7] P. Bhartia, k. v. s. rao, r. s. tomar, millimeter wave microstrip and printed circuit antennas,” artech house, boston, london. 1991.
[8] K. F. Lee and K. M. Luk, “Microstrip patch antennas,” World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd, London, 2011.
[9] C. A. Balanis, “Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics,” New York, Wiley, 1989.
[10] G. Splitt and M. Davidovitz, “Guidelines for design of electromagnetically coupled microstrip patch antennas on two-layer substrates,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 38, pp. 1136-1140, July 1990.
[11] K. F. Lee, K. Y. Ho, and J. S. Dahele, “Circular-disk microstrip antenna with an air gap,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 32, pp. 880-884, August 1984.
[12] G. Arfken, Mathematical Methods for physists. New York, Academic press, 1970.
[13] K. Araki and T. Itoh, “Hankel transform domain analysis of open circular microstrip radiating structures,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 29, pp. 84-89, January 1981.
[14] E. H. Newman and P. Tulyathan, “Analysis of microstrip antennas using moment methods,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 29, pp. 47-53, January 1981.
[15] N. Kumprasert and W. Kiranon, “Simple and accurate formula for the resonant frequency of the circular microstrip disk antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 43, pp. 1331-1333, November 1995.
[16] L. C. Shen, S. A. Long, M. R. Allerding, and M. D. Walton, “Resonant frequency of a circular disc, printed-ciruit antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, pp. 595-596, July 1977.

Chapter 3

[1] K. Araki and T. Itoh, “Hankel transform domain analysis of open circular microstrip radiating structures,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 29, pp. 84-89, January 1981.
[2] A. Boufrioua and A. Benghalia, “Analyse d’une antenne microbande circulaire par l’application de la méthode intégrale,” 16ème Colloque International Optique, Hertzienne et Diélectrique, OHD’01, France, pp. 193-196, 3-5 September 2001. [Circular microstrip antenna analysis by applying the integral method, 16th International Conference Optical and Dielectric Hertzienne, OHD'01, France, pp. 193-196, September 3-5, 2001].
[3] O. Lafond, M. Himdi and J. P. Daniel, “Aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna with thick ground plane in millimetre waves,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1394-1395, August 1999.
[4] D. M. Pozar, “Radiation and scattering from a microstrip patch on a uniaxial substrate,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 35, pp. 613-621, June 1987.
[5] f. bouttout, f. benabdelaziz, t. fortaki and d. khedrouche, “resonant frequency and bandwidth of a superstrate-loaded rectangular patch on a uniaxial anisotropic substrate,” Communications in numerical methods in Engineering (john wiley & Sons), vol. 16, pp. 459-473. july 2000.
[6] J-s row and k-l. wong “Resonance in a superstrate-loaded rectangular microstrip structure,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 29, pp. 1349-1355, august 1993.
[7] K-L. Wong and J-S. Row, “Resonance of a rectangular microstrip patch on a uniaxial substrate,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 41, pp.698-701, april 1993.
[8] P. Bhartia, K. V. S. Rao, and R. S. Tomar, Millimeter wave microstrip and printed circuit antennas,” Publisher, Artech House, Boston, London, 1991.
[9] K. R. Carver and J. W. Mink, “Microstrip antenna technology,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 29, pp. 2-24, January 1981.
[10] W. C. Chew and T. M. Habashy, “The use of vector transforms in solving some electromagnetic scattering problems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 34, pp. 871-879, July 1986.
[11] F. Bouttout, F. Benabdelaziz, D. Khedrouche and T. Fortaki, “Equivalence entre les formalismes des transformées vectorielles et usuelles utilisées dans les problèmes à structures plannaires,” Journées sur les Télécommunications, JT’ 99, Tunis 1999. [Equivalence between formalism vector and usual transformed used in planar problems structures, Workshop on Telecommunications, JT '99, Tunis, 1999].
[12] A. Boufrioua and A. Benghalia, “Comparative study between the rectangular and circular microstrip patch antennas,” Sciences and Technologie, Constantine University, vol. 24, pp. 20-24, December 2005.
[13] W. C. Chew and Q. Liu, “Resonance frequency of a rectangular microstrip patch,” IEEE trans. antennas propagation, vol. 36, pp. 1045-1056, August 1988.
[14] K. M. Luk, W. Y. Tam and C. L. Yip, “Analysis of circular microstrip antennas with superstrate,” Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng., vol. 136, pp. 261-262, June 1989.
[15] L. C. Shen, S. A. Long, M. R. Allerding and M. D. Walton, “Resonant frequency of a circular disc, printed-circuit antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, pp. 595-596, July 1977.
[16] J. S. Dahele and K. F. Lee, “Effect of substrate thickness on the performance of a circular-disk microstrip antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 31, pp. 358-360, March 1983.
[17] W. C. Chew and J. A. Kong, “Analysis of a circular microstrip disk antenna with a thick dielectric substrate,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 29, pp. 68-76, January 1981.
[18] K. F. Lee, K. Y. Ho and J. S. Dahele, “Circular-disk microstrip antenna with an air gap,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 32, pp. 880-884, August 1984.
[19] N. Kumprasert and W. Kiranon, “Simple and accurate formula for the resonant frequency of the circular microstrip disk antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 43, pp. 1331-1333, November 1995.
[20] A. N Tulintsef, S. M. Ali and J. A. Kong, “Input impedance of a probe-fed stacked circular microstrip antenna,” IEEE trans. Antennas propagation, vol. 39, pp. 381-390, March 1991.
[21] J. R. Mosing and F. E. Gardiol, “Rayonnement d’une antenne microbande de forme arbitraire,” ANN. Tétecommun, vol. 40, pp.181-189, January 1985. [Radiation of a microstrip antenna of arbitrary shape, ANN. Tétecommun, vol. 40, pp.181-189, January 1985].
[22] R. Mittra, R. C. Hall and C-H Tsao, “Spectral domain analysis of circular patch frequency selective surfaces,” IEEE trans. Antennas propagation. vol. 32, pp. 533-536, May 1984.
[23] U. K. Revankar and A. Kumar, “Experimental investigation of three-layer electromagnetically coupled circular microstrip antennas,” Electronics Letters, vol. 27, pp. 1187-1189, June 1991.
[24] E. H. Newman and P. Tulyathan, “Analysis of microstrip antennas using moment methods”, IEEE trans. Antennas propagation. vol. 29, pp. 47-53, January 1981.
[25] A. Boufrioua, and A. Benghalia, “Radiation and resonant frequency of a resistive patch and uniaxial anisotropic substrate with entire domain and roof top functions,” Elsevier, EABE, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, vol., 32, pp. 591-596, March 2008.
[26] A. Boufrioua, “Resistive Rectangular Patch Antenna with Uniaxial Substrate.” In: Antennas: Parameters, Models and Applications (Ed. Albert I. Ferrero), pp. 163-190, Publisher, Nova, New York, 2009.
[27] D. M. Pozar and S. M. Voda, “A Rigorous Analysis of a Microstripline Fed Patch Antenna”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 35, pp. 1343-1350, December 1987.
[28] E. H. Newman and D Forrai, “Scattering from a Microstrip Patch,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 35, pp. 245-251, March 1987.
[29] G. Arfken, “Mathematical Methods for physists,” New York, Academic press, 1970.
[30] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, “Handbook of Mathematical Functions,” New York, Dover, 1965.
[31] I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik “Table of integrals series and products,” Academicpress INC New York, 1979.
[32] D. Mirshekar-syahkal, “Spectral domain method for microwave integrated circuits,” Research studies press LTD. New York, Wiley, 1990.
[33] T. Itoh, “Numerical techniques for microwave and millimeter-wave passive structures,” A Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York, Wiley, 1989.
[34] A. Boufrioua, “Contribution à l'étude des antennes à patch résistif et parfaitement conducteur tenant compte d'une source d'excitation et des nouvelles formes asymptotiques de courant,” Doctoral thesis, Electronics Department, Constantine University, November 2006. [Contribution to the study of resistive patch antennas and perfectly conducting patches taking into account an excitation source and new forms of asymptotic current, Doctoral thesis, Electronics Department, Constantine University, November 2006].
[35] H. Y. Yang, A. Nakatani, and J. A. Castaneda, “Efficient evaluation of spectral integrals in the moment method solution of microstrip antennas and circuits,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 38, pp. 1127-1130, July 1990.
[36] W. P. Harokopus, Jr., L. P. B. Katehi, W. Y. Ali-Ahmed and G. M. Rebeiz, “Surface wave excitation from open microstrip discontinuities,” IEEE Transactions on microwave theory and techniques, vol. 39, pp. 1098-1107, July 1991.
[37] W. C. Chew and J. A. Kong, “Resonance of the axial-symmetric modes in microstrip disk resonators,” J. Math. Phys., vol. 21, pp. 582-591, March 1980.
[38] A. Boufrioua and A. Benghalia. “Effects of the resistive patch and the uniaxial anisotropic substrate on the resonant frequency and the scattering radar cross section of a rectangular microstrip antenna,” AST, Aerospace Science and Technology, vol. 10, pp. 217-221, April 2006.
[39] E. F. Knott, J. F. Shaeffer and M. T. Tuley, “Radar Cross Section,” Publisher SciTech, Raleigh, NC, 2004.
[40] V. M. Reddy, D. Deshpand, C. R. Cockrell and F. B. Beck, “Fast RCS computation over a frequency band using method of moments in conjuction with asymptotic waveform evaluation technique,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 46, pp. 1229-1233, August 1998.
[41] C. A. Balanis, “Antenna theory: Analysis and design,” Publisher, John Wiley&Sons, Inc., 1997.

Chapter 4

[1] C. Wood, “Analysis of microstrip circular patch antennas,” Microwaves, Optics and antennas, IEE Proceedings, vol. 128, pp. 69-76, April 1981.
[2] A. N. Tulintsef, S. M. Ali and J. A. Kong, “Input impedance of a probe-fed stacked circular microstrip antenna,” IEEE Trans., on antennas and propagation, vol. 39, pp. 381-390, March 1991.
[3] M. Davidovitz, and Y.T. Lo, “Rigorous analysis of a circular patch antenna excited by a microstrip transmission line,” IEEE Trans., on antennas and propagation, vol. 37, pp. 949-958, August 1989.
[4] V. Losada, R. R. Bix and M. Horno, “Resonant modes of circular microstrip patches in multilayered substrates,” IEEE Trans., on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 47, pp. 488-498, April 1999.
[5] F. Bouttout, F. Benabdelaziz and A. Khellaf, “Closed-form Hankel transforms for the circular disk basis modes involving Chebyshev polynomials and edge condition,” Electronics Letters, vol. 36, pp. 866-867, May 2000.
[6] W. C. Chew and Q. Liu, “Resonance frequency of a rectangular microstrip patch,” IEEE trans., on antennas and propagation, vol. 36, pp. 1045-1056, August 1988.
[7] D-H. Kwon, R. J. Burkholder and P. H. Pathak “Efficient method of moments formulation for large PEC scattering problems using asymptotic phasefront extraction (APE),” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 49, April 2001.
[8] A. Boufrioua, A. Benghalia, and F. Bouttout, “Resonant frequency of a rectangular patch antenna using asymptotic basis functions” COMPEL, The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 27, pp. 638-650, 2008.
[9] D. M. Pozar and S. M. Voda, “A rigorous analysis of a microstripline fed patch antenna,” IEEE Trans. on antennas and propagation, vol. 35, pp. 1343-1350, 1987.
[10] E. H. Newman and D. Forrai, “Scattering from a microstrip patch,” IEEE Trans. on antennas and propagation, vol. 35, pp. 245-251, March 1987.
[11] J. s. row and k. l. wong, “Resonance in a superstrate-loaded rectangular microstrip structure”, IEEE Trans. on antennas and propagation, vol. 41, pp. 1349-1355, August 1993.
[12] k. l. wong, J. s. row, C. W. Kuo and K. C. Huang, “Resonance of a rectangular microstrip patch on a uniaxial substrate,” IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, vol. 41, pp. 698-701, April 1993.
[13] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, “Handbook of Mathematical Functions,” New York: Dover, 1965.
[14] D. M. Pozar, “Input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 30, pp. 1191-1196, November 1982.
[15] S. O. Park, C. A. Balanis, and C. R. Birtcher, “Analytical evaluation of the asymptotic impedance matrix of a grounded dielectric slab with roof top functions,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 46, pp. 251-259, February 1998.
[16] A. Boufrioua and A. Benghalia, “Radiation and resonant frequency of a resistive patch and uniaxial anisotropic substrate with entire domain and roof top functions,” EABE Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements.vol 32, pp. 591-596. July 2008.
[17] F. Bouttout, F. Benabdelaziz, A. Benghalia, D. Khedrouche and T. Fortaki, “Uniaxially anisotropic substrate effects on resonance of rectangular microstrip patch antenna,” electronics letters, vol. 35, pp. 255-256, March 1999.
[18] R. M. Nelson, D. A. Rogers and A. G. D’assunçao, “Resonant frequency of a rectangular microstrip patch on several uniaxial substrates,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and propagation, vol. 38, pp. 973-981, July 1990.
[19] I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik Table of integrals series and products, Academic press INC New York, 1979.

Chapter 5

[1] D. Shively, “Scattering from perfectly conducting and resistive strips on a grounded dielectric slab,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 42, pp. 552-556, april 1994.
[2] C. A. Balanis, “Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics,” New York, Wiley, 1989.
[3] T. B. a. Senior, “Backscattering from resistive strips,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 27, pp. 808-813, November 1979.
[4] T. B. a. Senior, “Combined resistive and conductive sheets,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagatation, vol. 33, pp. 577-579, May 1985.
[5] T. B. a. Senior, “Approximate boundary conditions,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 29, pp. 826-829, september 1981.
[6] T. B. A. Senior and V. Liepa, “Backscattering from tapered resistive strips,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 32, pp. 747-751, July 1984.
[7] S. G. DA Silva, AG., D’Assuncao, J. D. R. S. Oliveira, “Analysis of high Tc superconducting microstrip antennas and arrays,” International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference, APS and LEOS-IMOC’99, pp. 243-246, Rio de Janeiro, 09-12, August 1999.
[8] R. C. Hansen, “Electrically small, superdirective, and superconducting antennas,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hobokon, New Jersey, 2006.
[9] D. Shively, “surface waves on a grounded dielectric slab covered by a resistive sheet,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation., vol. 41, pp. 348-350, march 1984.
[10] D. M. Pozar, “Radiation and scattering from a microstrip patch on a uniaxial substrate,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and propagation, vol. 35, pp. 613-621, June 1987.
[11] r. mittra, r. c. hall, and c. h. tsao, “spectral domain analysis of circular patch frequency selective surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and propagation, vol. 32,

pp. 533-536, May 1984.
[12] A. Boufrioua and A. Benghalia, “Effects of the resistive patch and the uniaxial anisotropic substrate on the resonant frequency and the scattering radar cross section of a rectangular microstrip antenna,” AST, Aerospace Science and Technology, vol. 10, pp. 217-221, April 2006.

Chapter 6

[1] A. Boufrioua, “Bilayer microstrip patch antenna loaded with U and half U-shaped slots” IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems ICMCS'14, Morocco, 14-16 April 2014.
[2] K. Srivastava, J. P. Saini and D. S. Chauhan, “Broadband stacked H-shaped patch antenna,” International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, vol. 2, pp. 385-389, November 2009.
[3] J. A. Ansari, S. K. Dubey, P. Singh, B. R.Vishvakarma and R. U. Khan, “Gunn loaded microstrip antenna with parasitic elements,” Indian Journal of Radio and Space Physics, vol. 38, pp. 116-121, April 2009.
[4] A. Mishra, P. Singh, N. P. Yadav, J. A. Ansari and B. R. Vishvakarama, “Compact shorted patch microstrip patch antenna for dualband operation,” Progress in Electromagnetic Research C, vol. 9, pp. 171-182, 2009.
[5] A. A. Deshmukh and K. P. Ray, “Resonant length formulations for dual band slot cut equilateral triangular microstrip antennas,” Wireless Engineering and Technology, vol. 1, pp. 55-63, 2010.
[6] A. Boufrioua, “The RCS of a resistive rectangular patch antenna in a substrate-superstrate geometry” JWCMC International Journal of Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, pp. 91-95, vol., 1, October 2013.
[7] R. Q. Lee, K. F. Lee and J. Bobinchak, “Characteristics of two layers electromagnetically coupled rectangular patch antenna,” Electron Lett, vol. 23, pp1070-1072, September 1987.
[8] P. Bhartia, K. V. S. Rao and R. S. Tomar, “Millimeter wave microstrip and printed circuit antennas,” Artech House, Boston, London, 1991.
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Chapter 7

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The proposed book is designed to serve as a useful reference for students, researchers and for engineers who are interested in the analysis and design of microstrip antennas.

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