Methods and Instruments for Visual and Optical Diagnostics of Objects and Fast Processes

Gennadiy Sergeevich Evtushenko
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia

Series: Physics Research and Technology
BISAC: SCI053000

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This book presents new instruments and methods for studying the dynamics of fast processes. The manuscript consists of two parts: Part I discusses the use of high speed metal vapor brightness amplifiers for object and process imaging, and Part II addresses the plasma parameters of a high-voltage nanosecond discharge initiated by a runaway electron beam.

Nowadays, the interaction of powerful energyfluxes with various objects, namely plasma-induced processes, surface modification for operational characteristics improvement, production of new materials and nanoparticles, thermonuclear synthesis and others, is studied in variousfields of science and technology. As a rule, observing these processes in real time is a challenging problem because of the intense background radiation, the brightness temperature of which reaches thousands or even tens of thousands of degrees. The use of active optical systems with brightness amplifiers allows one “to monitor” such processes. “Looking through theflame” becomes possible due to the use of high spectral brightness of metal vapor active media on self-terminating transitions. The medium serves as an amplifier in a narrow spectral range, or a “nanofilter,” which allows for the viewing of the processes blocked by the broadband background radiation. Metal vapor active media on self-terminating transitions with high pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) and modern high-speed video cameras have been used to design a laser monitor. Optical systems based on such an amplifier have been used for monitoring a number of objects and high speed processes, including the diagnostics of fast discharges.

Pulse-periodic high-voltage nanosecond discharge in high-pressure gases initiated by runaway electrons in a non-uniform electric field is a promising method for generating the non-equilibrium low-temperature plasma. The main plasma parameters of the pulse and pulse-periodic high-voltage nanosecond discharges initiated by runaway electrons were determined with spectral methods. The results of investigations of colored jets that occur during the explosion of microinhomogeneities on the surface of electrodes and gas-dynamic processes that occur after nanosecond discharge initiated by runaway electrons in the pulse-periodic mode in atmospheric pressured air are presented.

Preface

Part One: High Speed Metal Vapor Brightness Amplifiers for Object and Process Imaging
(G. S. Evtushenko, S. N. Torgaev, M. V. Trigub, D.V. Shiyanov and T. G. Evtushenko)

Chapter 1. Active Optical Systems with Brightness Amplifiers: Laser Projection Microscope and Laser Monitor
(G. S. Evtushenko, S. N. Torgaev, M. V. Trigub, D. V. Shiyanov and T. G. Evtushenko, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia, and others)

Chapter 2. Single Pulse Imaging Laser Monitor
(G. S. Evtushenko, S. N. Torgaev, M. V. Trigub, D.V. Shiyanov and T. G. Evtushenko, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia, and others)

Chapter 3. Laser Monitor for Diagnostics and Nondestructive Testing
(G. S. Evtushenko, S. N. Torgaev, M. V. Trigub, D. V. Shiyanov and T. G. Evtushenko, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia, and others)

Chapter 4. High PRF Metal Vapor Lasers and Brightness Amplifiers
(G. S. Evtushenko, S. N. Torgaev, M. V. Trigub, D. V. Shiyanov and T. G. Evtushenko, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia, and others)

Part Two: Plasma Parameters of High-Voltage Nanosecond Discharge Initiated by a Runaway Electron Beam
(D. V. Beloplotov, M. I. Lomaev, D. A. Sorokin and V. F. Tarasenko)

Chapter 5. Diagnostic of High-Voltage Nanosecond Discharges Initiated by Runaway Electrons and Parameters of Their Plasma
(D. V. Beloplotov, M.I. Lomaev, D. A. Sorokin and V. F. Tarasenko, High Current Electronics Institute SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia, and others)

Index

"The book presents the recent status of R&D in the field of laser projection microscopes and highpressure gas nanosecond high-voltage discharge, and their applications. Now-days R&D in that area is predominantly concentrated in Russia, especially, Siberia. There happened to form a consolidated and strong community of scientists working very persistently in projects on metal vapor lasers and high voltage nanosecond gas discharge for many decades. For sure, one of their achievements are the systems with laser brightness amplifier producing magnified images initially on big screens and lately, video recorders. The very principle of optical brightness amplifier based on single spectral line excludes strong background interference except of the operating line itself. Its advantage is lack of intermediate steps of transformation of signal from optical to electrical, and reversely to optical, again. Because of high pulse repetition frequencies of some metal vapor laser media, MHz frame rates are almost achievable and when equipped with modern fast cameras monitoring of very fast processes can be done frame by frame. In the First part of book the authors give R&D of high speed brightness CuBr amplifiers and the Second part (by different researchers) is devoted to plasma parameters of high-voltage nanosecond discharge initiated by a runaway electron beam. The latter deal with high-pressure gas nanosecond discharge accompanied by number of electrical, optical and gas-dynamic processes thereafter. Both parts of book have a lot of results (many are original) and they appear systematic and prolific contributions to different areas of science and applications. I conceive the book "Methods and Instruments for Visual and Optical Diagnostics of Objects and Fast Processes" by G.S. Evtushenko (Ed.), 2018, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. is a good R&D product that will be of interest of scientists, engineers and students." - Dimo Astadjov, Assoc. Prof., Dr., Metal Vapor Lasers Dept., Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

This book was also reviewed by Snezhana Gocheva-Ilieva, Professor, University of Plovdiv “Paisii Hilendarski”, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. To read the review, click here.

Keywords: Imagine, laser, active optical system, amplification, brightness amplifier, laser monitor, non-destructive testing

The book is written for scientists involved in the study of runaway electrons, X-rays and pulsed discharges in gases at high pressure, nondestructive testing of materials and high speed processes, as well as for undergraduate and graduate students. The book сan be useful for application in industry.

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