Metal Toxicity in Higher Plants

Marco Landi (Editor)
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy),Interdepartmental Research Center “Nutraceuticals

Series: Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology, Pollution Science, Technology and Abatement
BISAC: SCI026000

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Metals are important environmental pollutants and their toxicity is a problem of increasing significance for ecological, nutritional, and environmental reasons. These pollutants, ultimately derived from a growing number of diverse anthropogenic sources (industrial effluents and wastes, urban runoff, sewage treatment plants, boating activities, agricultural fungicide runoff, domestic garbage dumps, and mining operations), have progressively affected more and more different ecosystems. Even agricultural lands are progressively becoming enriched of metals due to long-term use of phosphatic fertilizers, sewage sludge application, dust from smelters, industrial waste and bad watering practices in agricultural lands.

Among these metals, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn are pivotal micronutrients, while Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb and V and are non-essential for plants and have no known function as nutrients and seem to be more or less toxic to all plants and microorganisms. Sodium excess deserves particular attention. Several agricultural lands are indeed becoming familiar with the problem of salinization, due to the use of fresh water which contains a high level of NaCl or due to intensive fertilization, especially in arid and semi-arid environments characterized by poor rainfalls. Overall, the presence of both essential and non-essential metals in the atmosphere, soil and water, in excessive amounts, can cause serious problems to all organisms. Knowledge of plant-metal interactions is important for the safety of the environment, but also for reducing the risks associated with the introduction of trace metals into the food chain. Although intense research has been conducted during the last 30 years, many aspects remain to be clarified concerning the effect of metals in higher plants.

Our goal for this book is to critically review existing literature related to the specific effects of different metals in plants, as well as to provide new evidence about plant-metal interactions in order to clarify mechanisms of metal uptake, translocation, and partitioning and the effect of metal toxicity. Consequences related to accumulation of metals in food products have been described. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms adopted by plants to cope with metal excess and possible implications for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils are also discussed. Therefore, we believe that this book will provide a comprehensive overview regarding some aspects of metal toxicity in plants and it will be useful for scientist working in this field of research, but it will also be of practical interest to environmentalists, policy-makers, and resource managers working on the topic.

We wish to thank all the authors who joined this book project by contributing their valuable work. Lastly, we extend our sincere thanks to Nova Science Publishers for their efficient support.
(Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1. Heavy Metal Pollution: Effect on Plants and Food
(Shevtsova Tetiana, Taran Nataliya and Sytar Oksana, ,Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic, and others)

Chapter 2. Antioxidant System and Plant Cross-Adaptation against Metal Excess and Other Environmental Stressors
(Yuriy E. Kolupaev, Yuriy V. Karpets, Tetiana O. Yastreb, Sergiy A. Shemet and Renu Bhardwaj, Dokuchaev Kharkiv National Agrarian University, Kharkiv, Ukraine, and others)

Chapter 3. Metal/Metalloid-Induced Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds in Plants
(Volodymyr S. Fedenko, Sergiy A. Shemet, Lucia Guidi and Marco Landi, Research Institute of Chemistry and Geology, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Dnipro, Ukraine, and others)

Chapter 4. Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Ameliorating Heavy Metal Caused Oxidative Stress in Plants: An Update
(Anket Sharma, Vinod Kumar, Rakesh Kumar, Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Poonam Yadav, Dhriti Kapoor, Ekhlaque A. Khan, Ripu Daman Parihar, Babar Shahzad, Ashwani Kumar Thukral and Renu Bhardwaj, Plant Stress Physiology Lab, Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India, and others)

Chapter 5. Plant Response to Excess of Copper in Soils: A Review
(Chandana Chandrasekhar and Joseph George Ray, Laboratory of Ecology and Eco-technology, School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India)

Chapter 6. The Phytotoxic Effects of Lead, Cadmium and Sodium Chloride on the Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Ornamental Herbaceous Plants
(Valentyna Bessonova, Olena Dzhygan, Olga Ivanchenko and Olena Ponomareva, Department of landscape gardening, Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro, Ukraine)

Chapter 7. Olea europaea L. (Cv. ‘Kalamon’): A Tolerant Tree Species to Mn Toxicity
(Theocharis Chatzistathis and Ioannis E. Papadakis, Institute of Soil and Water Resources, Hellenic Agricultural Organization “Demeter”, Thessaloniki, Greece, and others)

Chapter 8. Determination of Metal Content in Two Genotypes of Cannabis sativa L. Under Different Environmental Conditions Through ICP-MS Analysis
(Оlga І. Rudnyk-Ivashchenko, Viktor M. Kabanets, Liudmyla М. Mykhalska and Victor V. Schwartau, Institute of Horticulture of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine, and others)

Chapter 9. Effects of Excess Manganese on Growth, Mineral Nutrition, Carbohydrates, Malondialdehyde, Hydrogen Peroxide and Proline of Citrus Plants
(Ioannis E. Papadakis, Theocharis Chatzistathis, Anastasia Giannakoula, Thomas Sotiropoulos, Chrysovalantou Antonopoulou and Ioannis Therios, Laboratory of Pomology, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos, Athens, Greece, and others)

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