Medicine Research Summaries. Volume 9

Zhongwen Liáng (Editor)
Bibao Zhang (Editor)

Series: Medicine Research Summaries
BISAC: MED106000

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This book is a continuation of the book Medicine Researcher Biographical Sketches and Research Summaries which compiles research summaries from a number of different focuses in this important field. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Preface

Chapter 1 Caesarean Section: Procedures Complications and Recovery
(Eyal Sheiner)

Chapter 2 The History of Cesarean Section
(Samuel Lurie)

Chapter 3 The Epidemiology of Cesarean Delivery in the United States: Trends, Characteristics, and Outcomes
(Marian F. MacDorman, Michelle J. K. Osterman and Eugene Declercq)

Chapter 4 Indications for Cesarean Sections
(Ciro Comparetto and Franco Borruto)

Chapter 5 Breech Delivery: Epidemiology and Cesarean Delivery
(Henry Chong Lee and Jeffrey B. Gould)

Chapter 6 Cesarean Section Procedures
(Avi Harlev and Eyal Sheiner)

Chapter 7 Stark or Misgav Ladach Cesarean Section
(Antonio Malvasi, Andrea Tinelli and Michael Stark)

Chapter 8 Tubal Ligation during Cesarean Section
(Daniel Abehsera, Ignacio Zapardiel and Javier De Santiago)

Chapter 9 Anesthesia for Cesarean Section
(Alexander Zlotnik, Akiva Leibowitz and Yoram Shapira)

Chapter 10 Maternal Complications of Cesarean Delivery
(Naomi Schneid-Kofman)

Chapter 11 Long-Term Risks after Cesarean Section
(Tomohito Tanaka)

Chapter 12 Neonatal Complications of Cesarean Delivery
(Naomi Schneid-Kofman and Eyal Sheiner)

Chapter 13 Cesarean Hysterectomy
(Jason D. Wright and Patricia Devine)

Chapter 14 Recovery after Cesarean Section
(Rachel Pope and Eyal Sheiner)

Chapter 15 Timing of Elective Repeat Cesarean Section: Maternal and Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality
(Tamar Tzur, Adi Y. Weintraub, Gershon Holcberg, Moshe Mazor and Eyal Sheiner)

Chapter 16 Vaginal Birth after Cesarean Delivery
(Asnat Walfisch)

Chapter 17 Diabetes Mellitus: Is it an Indication for Cesarean Delivery?
(Kinneret Tenenbaum-Gavish and Yariv Yogev)

Chapter 18 Can we Prevent Adhesions during Cesarean Delivery?
(Charles R. S. Bakerand Ying Cheong)

Chapter 19 Ethics of Maternal-Choice Cesarean Delivery
(Frank A. Chervenak and Laurence B. McCullough)

Chapter 20 Cesarean Section and HIV Transmission
(David Kulak and Anatte Karmon)

Chapter 21 Handbook of Methodological Concepts in Perinatal Medicine
(Eyal Sheiner)

Chapter 22 The Anthropozoonotic Ancylostoma caninum
(A. S. Maciel, A. K. Campos, I. N. K. Mello and M. R. Pereira)

Chapter 23 The Function of the Hyalectan Class of Proteoglycans and Their Binding Partners during Vertebrate Development
(Frédéric Brunet, Christopher Kintakas, Adam D. Smith and Daniel R. McCulloch)

Chapter 24 Puberty, Kisspeptin and Glutamate: A Ceaseless Golden Braid
(C. A. Meza-Herrera)

Chapter 25 Periodontal Diseases and Their Association with Certain Systemic Diseases and Life Style Factors
(Man Mohan Singh and Rajat Mathur)

Chapter 26 Review: Female Pubertal Development and Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants
(Krista Yorita Christensen, Mildred Maisonet and Michele Marcus)

Chapter 27 Liver Transplantation, Hepatitis C Disease Recurrence and Oxidative Stress
(Janet Madill, Bianca Arendt, Les Lilly, Maha Guindi, George Therapondus, Gary Levy and Johane Allard)

Chapter 28 Role of the Cell Death in the Sexual Maturation Processes
(M. L. Escobar Sánchez, O. M. Echeverría Martínez and G. H. Vázquez-Nin)

Chapter 29 Model Methodology for Analyzing Peripheral Arterial Fractility from Hemodynamic Data
(Yoshihiro Nakamura and Shoichi Awa)

Chapter 30 Medical Simulation Training and Assessment: Benefits and Applications
(Constantinos Loukas)

Chapter 31 Carrier Rates of Pathogenic Bacteria, EXCEPT methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, at Hospitalization in a Pediatric Surgical Ward
(Koichi Ohno)

Chapter 32 New Horizon of Glycosaminoglycan Glycotechnology
(Masanori Yamaguchi)

Chapter 33 Caring for Limited English Proficiency Patients in the Emergency Department
(Fátima Rodriguez and Lenny López)

Chapter 34 Potential Biomarkers of Suicide Risk
(Lei Zhang, Xian-Zhang Hu, He Li, Xiaoxia Li, Stanley Smerin and Robert Ursano)

Chapter 35 Innovative Drug Delivery and Formulation Designs to Deter Drug Abuse/Misuse Related to Suicide
(Fang Zhao)

Chapter 36 The Comparative Safety of Multiple Prescription Drug Regimens with Adverse Effects of Risk of Suicidal Ideation or Behavior: A Study Design in Bipolar Disorder
(Jill E. Lavigne)

Chapter 37 Blister Packaging Medication to Increase Treatment Adherence and Clinical Response: Impact on Suicide-Related Morbidity and Mortality
(Peter M. Gutierrez, Lisa A. Brenner, Hal Wortzel, Jeri E. F. Harwood, Rebecca Leitner, Jeffrey Rings and Stephen Bartlett)

Chapter 38 Advances in Motivational Interviewing to Address Suicidal Ideation (MI-SI)
(Peter C. Britton)

Chapter 39 Traumatic Brain Injury and Suicide: Contributing Factors, Risk Assessment and Safety Planning
(Gina M. Signoracci, Bridget B. Matarazzo and Nazanin H. Bahraini)

Chapter 40 Interventions to Address Suicidal Behavior in Adults with Substance Use Disorders
(Kenneth R. Conner)

Chapter 41 Older Men and Suicide Risk: Clinical and Research Implications
(Alisa A. O’Riley and Phillip N. Smith)

Chapter 42 Statistical Methods and Issues in the Study of Suicide
(Y. Xia, N. Lu, H. Zhang, D. Gunzler, G. S. Zubenko and X. M. Tu)

Chapter 43 Building Connections: Strategies to Mitigate Suicide Risk in Civilians and Military Veterans Living in Non-Urban and Rural Areas with a Focus on Telecommunication and Internet Technologies
(John F. Crilly)

Chapter 44 Operation S.A.V.E.: Suicide Prevention Training for Front-Line Employees in the US Department of Veterans Health Affairs
(Deborah A. King, Heather Von Bergen (In Memoriam), Kerry L. Knox, Jane Wood, Krista Stephenson, Lynda Chauncey, Naji Lu, Kimberly Kaukeinen and Janet E. Kemp)

Chapter 45 Pharmacist and Pharmacy Staff Knowledge, Attitudes and Motivation to Refer Patients for Suicide Risk Assessment: Lessons from Operation S.A.V.E.
(Jill E. Lavigne, Deborah A. King, Nai Ji Lu, Kerry L. Knoxand Jan E. Kemp)

Chapter 46 Court Perspectives on Addressing Mental Health in the Justice System through Community-Based Participatory Research
(Ann Marie White, Corey A. Nichols-Hadeed, Henry J. Steadman and Catherine Cerulli)

Chapter 47 Determinants of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior, Economic Theories of Suicidal Behavior and the Economics of Prevention
(Alper Altinanahtar and Nazmi Sari)

Chapter 48 Suicide: Risk Factors and Prevention
(Barbara Schneider)

Chapter 49 Suicide Attempters Transferred by Ambulance: Prevention of Recurrent Suicide Attempts
(Kaoru Kudo, Kotaro Otsuka and Akio Sakai)

Chapter 50 Suicidal Syndrome Rather than Process Related to Suicide in Severe Depression: Evidence from a Controlled Longitudinal Case Study of 100 People Who Died by Suicide
(Louise Bradvik and Mats Berglund)

Chapter 51 Executive Functioning in Borderline Personality Disorder with and without Self-harming Behaviors
(Laurence Claes, Frederique Van den Eynde, Sébastien Guillaume, Caroline Vogels and Kurt Audenaert)

Chapter 52 Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics for Structure and Function Determination of Alligator Leukocyte Proteins
(Lancia N. F. Darville, Mark E. Merchant and Kermit K. Murray)

Chapter 53 Psychological Stress Alters Host Defense by Modulating Immune Function. Consequences on the Disease Susceptibility
(Silvia Novío, Manuel Freire-Garabal and María Jesús Núñez-Iglesias)

Chapter 54 Congenital Defects of Phagocytes
(Paolo Ruggero Errante and Antonio Condino-Neto)

Chapter 55 Leukocyte Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Type 1 Diabetes
(E. Matteucci and O. Giampietro)

Chapter 56 Biology and Role of Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells in Healthy and Disease Conditions
(Jong-Young Kwak, Min-Gyu Song and Sik Yoon)

Chapter 57 Primary Culture and Leukocyte Migration as New Tools to Evaluate the Effects of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Fish
(Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis, Francisco Filipak Neto, Anna Lúcia Miranda and Claudia Turra Pimpão)

Chapter 58 The Leukocyte Expression of CD36 and Other Biomarkers: Risk Indicators of Alzheimer’s Disease
(Antonello E. Rigamonti, Sara M. Bonomo, Marialuisa Giunta, Eugenio E. Müller, Maria G. Gagliano and Silvano G. Cella)

Chapter 59 Miscarriage: Definition, Prevalence, Causes and Symptoms
(Laura Avagliano, Evita Calvi and Anna Maria Marconi)

Chapter 60 The Background of Recurrent Miscarriage. New Trends in Research: Inflammation, Immunology, Coagulation, and Uterine Environment
(Beatrice Landi and Andrea L. Tranquilli)

Chapter 61 Cell Immunity and Recurrent Miscarriage
(Elena Vaquero, Giovanna de Felice, Herbert Valensise, and Natalia Lazzarin)

Chapter 62 Ultrasound Imaging in Miscarriage
(Claudio Giorlandino)

Chapter 63 Risk Factors for First Trimester Miscarriage
(Roisin O’Loughlin and Keelin O’Donoghue)

Chapter 64 Is Iron a Risk Factor for Miscarriage?
(Eugene D. Weinberg)

Chapter 65 Prevention of Recurrent Miscarriage
(Natalia Lazzarin, Caterina Exacoustos, Edoardo Valli, Herbert Valensise, and Elena Vaquero)

Chapter 66 Old and New Inherited Thrombophilias in the Occurrence of Pregnancy Losses
(G. Tiscia, E. Chinni and E. Grandone)

Chapter 67 Anticoagulant Treatment in Recurrent Miscarriage
(Nicoletta Di Simone and Silvia D’Ippolito)

Chapter 68 The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Medicines for Threatened Miscarriage
(Lu Li, Ping Chung Leung and Chi Chiu Wang)

Chapter 69 Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Diagnosis, Pathogenesis and Treatment Options
(Magdy El-Salhy, D. Gundersen, J. G. Hatlebakk and T. Hausken)

Chapter 70 Implicated Autoantibodies in a Kidney Disease
(Arpad Zsigmond Barabas, Chad Douglas Cole, Rene Lafreniere and Donald Mackay Weir)

Chapter 71 Anti-Factor H Autoantibodies in Kidney Disease: Detection, Pathogenic Role and Relevance for Treatment
(Mihály Józsi)

Chapter 72 Autoantibodies in Alzheimer’s Disease
(Makrina Daniilidou, Magda Tsolaki, Thomas Giannakouros and Eleni Nikolakaki)

Chapter 73 Autoimmunity in Cardiovascular Disease
(Nicholas Parchim and Yang Xia)

Chapter 74 Approaches for Detection and Analysis of Natural Autoantibodies
(Naohito Nishii and Hitoshi Kitagawa)

Chapter 75 The Importance of Autoantibodies in the Etiology, Pathogenesis and Diagnosis of Autoimmune Diseases
(Ali A. Al-Jabri, Elias Said, Crystal Koh, Mohammed S. Al-Buloshi and Sidgi S. Hasson)

Chapter 76 B Cells and Autoantibodies in Multiple Sclerosis
(Klaartje Somers, Judith Fraussen, Myrthe Rouwette, Cindy Govarts, Piet Stinissen and Veerle Somers)

Chapter 77 Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
(Mohamed Mabed and Maha Shahin)

Chapter 78 Falls in Elderly Patients
(E. Vazquez-Espinosa, O. Rajas, M. D. Menendez-Fraga and F. Vazquez)

Chapter 79 Recent Advances in Scleroderma Pulmonary Fibrosis
(Carol M. Artlett)

Chapter 80 Major Histocompatibility Complex: Biology, Functions and Roles in Disease
(Kwame A. Darfour-Oduro and Lawrence B. Schook)

Chapter 81 HDL Quantity and Quality in HIV: The Role of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
(Joana R. Batuca, Aline T. Marinho, Sandra Gouveia, Umbelina Caixas, José Delgado-Alves, Emília C. Monteiro and Sofia A. Pereira)

Chapter 82 Information Safety: A Patient Centered Framework for the Design of Medicine Inserts
(Carla G. Spinillo and Stephania Padovani)

Chapter 83 Surgical Management of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension
(Laszlo Göbölös, Dimitrios Pousios, Maik Foltan, Alois Philipp, Peter Ugocsai and Sunil K. Ohri)

Chapter 84 Fungal Cell Walls as Protective Barriers for Toxic Metals
(J. Naveena Lavanya Latha, P. Naga Babu, P. Rakesh, K. Ashok Kumar, M. Anupama and L. Susheela)

Chapter 85 Analysis of Drug Interactions with Lipoproteins by High-Performance Affinity Chromatography
(Matthew R. Sobansky and David S. Hage)

Chapter 86 Suicide Antigens: Induced Denaturation of Proteins in the Development of Allergic Reaction
(D. I. Zabolotnyi, I. V. Gogunskaya, D. D. Zabolotnaya, L. V. Zabrodskaya and S. V. Verevka)

Chapter 87 Telemedicine as an Effective Tool for the Management of Maxillofacial Pathology
(C. I. Salazar-Fernandez, J. Herce, A. Garcia-Palma, M. T. Soto, G. Cuadrado and J. C. Martínez-Royo)

Chapter 88 Drug Development: Strategy for Complex Antigens
(Ashish Runthala and Manohar Lal)

Chapter 89 Biological Agents in Inflammatory Eye Disease
(Yukio Sassa, Atsunobu Takeda, Shigeo Yoshida, Yo-ichi Kawano, Toshihiro Kono and Tatsuro Ishibashi)

Chapter 90 Free Radicals: An Overview
(Osvaldo H. Berger)

Chapter 91 Pathophysiology of Sepsis and Septic Shock
(Jazmina Bongain)

Chapter 92 Inflammation
(Rodrigo Castillo)

Chapter 93 Mitochondrial Dysfunction
(Víctor Molina)

Chapter 94 Endothelial Dysfunction
(Emilia M. Sanhueza Reinoso)

Chapter 95 Pathophysiology of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in Sepsis
(Diego Saa Lic and Ramón Rodrigo)

Chapter 96 Nutrition in the Critically Ill Hospitalized Patient
(Bettina von Dessauer)

Chapter 97 Contribution of Oxidative Stress in Pneumonia
(Rodrigo Carrasco Loza)

Chapter 98 Oxidative Stress and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
(Rodrigo Carrasco, and Cristian Carvajal)

Chapter 99 Oxygen Therapy and Oxidative Stress
(Bettina von Dessauer and Jazmina Bongain)

Chapter 100 Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress
(Rodrigo Castillo)

Chapter 101 Exogenous Antioxidants As Potential Therapeutic Agents
(Ramón Rodrigo)

Chapter 102 Myocardial Dysfunction
(Pedro Alvarez, Ana María Bañales, and Agustín Gatica)

Chapter 103 Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk: Rapid Evolution of Evidence and Understanding in the Early 21st Century
(Kenneth C. Johnson)

Chapter 104 Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of Breast Cancer - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
(Fei Xue)

Chapter 105 Significance of Smoking in Cervical Carcinogenesis
(Adriana B. Campaner and Cintia I. Parellada)

Chapter 106 Association of Gene Polymorphisms with Lung and Colorectal Cancers in Relation to Smoking
(Kayo Osawa)

Chapter 107 The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Progression in Different Laryngeal Lesions
(Draško Cikojević and Marisa Klančnik)

Chapter 108 Impact of Smoking on Oral Mucosa and Reproduction: Effects on Humans and Experimental Models
(Juliana Noguti, Sandra Regina Miranda, Viviane Carlin, Vanessa Cardoso Pires, Odair Aguiar Junior and Daniel Araki Ribeiro)

Chapter 109 Effect of Chronic Smoke in Human Oral Mucosa: The Morphological Point of View
(Elena Donetti and Alice Gualerzi)

Chapter 110 Cigarette Smoking and Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease
(Dhouha Haj Mouhamed,Asma Ezzaher, Fadoua Neffati, Anwar Mechri, Wahiba Douki, Lotfi Gaha and Mohamed Fadhel Najjar)

Chapter 111 Potential Role of Cigarette Smoking in Two Emerging Endemic Diseases: Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetes Mellitus
(Richard Halmai and István Wittmann)

Chapter 112 Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers
(Dhouha Haj Mouhamed, Asma Ezzaher, Fadoua Neffati, Lotfi Gaha, Wahiba Douki and Mohamed Fadhel Najjar)

Chapter 113 Causality of Cigarette Smoking among Young Men in Taiwan
(Hong-I Chen, Yaoh-Shiang Lin, Zheng-Ping Shi, Der-Min Wu, Nain-Feng Chu and Hsiang-Ru Lai)

Chapter 114 Bacteria, Mold and Microbial Toxins of Cigarettes
(John L. Pauly and Geraldine M. Paszkiewicz)

Chapter 115 Abdominal Massage with Aromatherapy
(T. K. Lai, M. C. Cheung, C. K. Lo, K. L. Ng, Y. H. Fung, M. Tong, and C. C. Yau)

Chapter 116 Insights into Histamine Role in Cell Migration and Matrix Remodeling: Special Focus on Tumor Biology
(Graciela P. Cricco, Nora A. Mohamad, and Gabriela A. Martín)

Chapter 117 Neuronal Histamine Circuits as Modulators of Cognitive Processes in the Brain
(Edgardo O. Alvarez)

Chapter 118 Histamine in the Peripheral Nervous System: A Modulator or Neurotransmitter?
(Mingkai Li and Xiaoxing Luo)

Chapter 119 A Selection of Cationic Cell Penetrating Peptides Mediate Hemodynamic Changes Through Mast Cells Activation
(Maamoun Basheer and Raphael Gorodetsky)

Chapter 120 Lipid Emulsions for Intoxications with Membrane Stabilizing Agents
(Marjolaine Cottrel, Emilie Guillard, Sylvie Airiau, Emgan Querellou, Yves Ozier, and Gildas Gueret)

Chapter 121 The Pathomechanics and Management of Perilunate Dislocations
(Emeka Oragui, Daniel Bocter, and Wasim S. Khan)

Chapter 122 The Management of Flexor Tendon Injuries in Zone 2
(Emeka Oragui, Shawqi Al-Hashemi, Victoria Laxton, and Wasim S Khan)

Chapter 123 Literature Review in Robotic Arm-Assisted Orthopaedic Knee Arthroplasty
(Yiu C. A. Lau and Wasim S. Khan)

Chapter 124 Percutaneous Fixation of Scaphoid Fractures
(Altaf Ahmed, Emeka Oragui, and Wasim S. Khan)

Chapter 125 Single-Stage Revision for Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Review of the Evidence
(Jonathan Palmar and Wasim S. Khan)

Chapter 126 Spouses’ Psychopathological Distress and Marital Quality at Childbirth: Theoretical and Empirical Current Status
(Patrizia Velotti, Donatella Cavanna and Rosetta Castellano)

Chapter 127 The Voices of Postnatal Couples: How they can Enhance our Antenatal Practice
(Jane Svensson)

Chapter 128 Caesarean Birth: The Lived Experiences of Thai Women
(Pranee Liamputtong and Somsri Kitisriworapan)

Chapter 129 Ethical Analysis on Therapeutic Abortion for Fetal Abnormality: A Case Study
(Linda Y. K. Lee, Joseph K. L. Lee, Simon C. Lam and S. L. Wong)

Chapter 130 The Use of Placental Blood in Term and Pre-Term Newborns
(Peter Lillitos and Heike Rabe)

Chapter 131 A Theory-Based Intervention to Promote Chinese First-Time Pregnant Women’s Self-Efficacy for Childbirth
(Wan-Yim Ip)

Chapter 132 Anal Sphincter Damages and Childbirth. Mechanisms of Action, Diagnosis and Treatment
(F. Sartori, G. A. Santoro and S. A. Shobeiri)

Chapter 133 Radiation Treatment and Alopecia: Past and Present Concerns
(Paula Boaventura, Dina Pereira, José Teixeira-Gomes, and Paula Soares)

Chapter 134 Psychosocial Aspects in Alopecia Areata: Studies on Stress Involvement in Adults and Children
(Liana Manolache)

Chapter 135 The Power of the Gene: The Origin and Impact of Genetic Disorders
(Naoki Oiso and Akira Kawada)

Chapter 136 Alopecia Areata: Treatment Options
(Emina Kasumagić-Halilovic and Nermina Ovcina-Kurtovic)

Chapter 137 The Genetic Basis of Alopecia Areata
(F. Megiorni, M. Carlesimo, A. Pizzuti, and A. Rossi)

Chapter 138 Benign Infantile Convulsions Associated with Mild Gastroenteritis: A Complication or a New Entity?
(Teodoro Durá-Trave, María Eugenia Yoldi-Petri, Fidel Gallinas-Victoriano, Sergio Aguilera-Albesa, and Asier Sáez de Ibarra-Pérez)

Chapter 139 Viral Gastroenteritis: Etiologic Agents, Epidemiology and Management
(Mouna Hassine-Zaafrane and Mahjoub Aouni)

Chapter 140 Gastroenteritis in Children
(Sachin B. Ingle, Sopan N. Jatal, Hemant G. Murdeshwar, Chitra Hinge (Ingle), Pradeep A. Gadgil, Meera P. Zawar, Yogesh G. Patle, and Nitin U. Lokhande)

Chapter 141 Epidemiology of Viral Gastroenteritis in Children
(D. Dilillo, V. Fabiano, C. Mameli, E. Galli, F. Meneghin, and G. V. Zuccotti)

Chapter 142 Traveler's Diarrhea: Overview
(Sachin B. Ingle, Chitra R. Hinge (Ingle), and Pradeep B. Kendre)

Chapter 143 Gastroenteritis-Overview
(Sachin B. Ingle, Hemant G. Murdeshwar, Sopan N. Jatal, Chitra R. Hinge (Ingle), Pradeep A. Gadgil, Meera P. Zawar, Pradeep B. Kendre, and Nitin U. Lokhande)

Chapter 144 Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis
(Sachin B. Ingle, Hemant G. Murdheshwar, Yogesh G. Patle, Abhijit S. Acharya, Chitra Hinge (Ingle), Pradeep A. Gadgil, Meera P. Zawar, and Sopan N. Jatal)

Chapter 145 E Coli Gastroenteritis
(Sachin B. Ingle and Chitra R. Hinge (Ingle))

Chapter 146 Ulcerative Colitis: Symptoms, Treatment and Complications
(Carolina M. Coelho and Maria H. Ribeiro)

Chapter 147 Treatment of Steroid-Dependent Ulcerative Colitis: An Accelerated Step-Up Approach
(Maria Cappello, Ivana Bravatà, Marta Mazza and Antonio Craxì)

Chapter 148 Pathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis
(Am El-tawil)

Chapter 149 Neutrophil-Derived Defensin in Ulcerative Colitis
(Toshio Sakiyama, Hirofumi Uto, Shuji Kanmura and Hirohito Tsubouchi)

Chapter 150 Recent Advances in Basic and Clinical Aspects in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, as Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Role of Gastrointestinal Granulocytes
(Manuel Muro, Ruth López, José A. Campillo, Pedro Martínez, Daniel Lucas, Carmen Botella, Alfredo Minguela and Rocío Álvarez)

Chapter 151 Chemo - and Immunotherapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Hepatitis B Virus Infection
(Neeraj Shakya, Babita Agrawal and Rakesh Kumar)

Chapter 152 Hepatitis B and Dialysis
(Bhadran Bose, Katherine A. Barraclough, E. Geoffrey Playford and David W. Johnson)

Chapter 153 Novel Carrier(s) Based Vaccine Design against Hepatitis B: Recent Updates
(Rishi Paliwal, Shivani R. Paliwal and Suresh P. Vyas)

Chapter 154 Management of Chronic Hepatitis B
(Walid S. Ayoub and Channa R. Jayasekera)

Chapter 155 Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Middle School Students in South Brazil: Epidemiology and Vaccination
(Ana Maria Passos, Aricio Treitinger and Celso Spada)

Chapter 156 Challenges in Risk Assessment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Example of Hepatitis B Virus Infection
(Myriam Lereau, Doriane Gouas, Nora Martel, Tatiana Dupinay and Isabelle Chemin)

Chapter 157 Silencing Hepatitis B Virus Replication with Antiviral Pri-Mir Shuttles Generated from Liver-Specific Pol II Promoters
(Abdullah Ely and Patrick Arbuthnot)

Chapter 158 What is Forest Medicine?
(Qing Li)

Chapter 159 Physical Factors in the Forest Environment
(Takahide Kagawa and Norimasa Takayama)

Chapter 160 Phytoncides in Forest Atmosphere
(Tatsuro Ohira and Naoyuki Matsui)

Chapter 161 Psychological Evaluations of Forest Environment and the Physical Variables
(Bum-Jin Park, Katsunori Furuya, Tamami Kasetani, Norimasa Takayama, Takahide Kagawa and Yoshifumi Miyazaki)

Chapter 162 Effect of the Forest Environment on Physiological Relaxation Using the Results of Field Tests at 35 Sites throughout Japan
(Bum-Jin Park, Yuko Tsunetsugu, Juyoung Lee, Takahide Kagawa and Yoshifumi Miyazaki)

Chapter 163 Effect of Forest Environments on Human Immune Function
(Qing Li and Tomoyuki Kawada)

Chapter 164 Effect of Forest Environments on the Human Endocrine System
(Qing Li, Maiko Kobayashi and Tomoyuki Kawada)

Chapter 165 Effect of Forest Bathing on Sleep and Physical Activity
(Tomoyuki Kawada, Qing Li, Ari Nakadai, Hirofumi Inagaki, Masao Katsumata, Takako Shimizu, Yukiyo Hirata, Kimiko Hirata and Hiroko Suzuki)

Chapter 166 Effect of the Forest Environment on Blood Glucose
(Yoshinori Ohtsuka)

Chapter 167 Effects of Forest Environments on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters
(Qing Li, Toshiaki Otsuka, Maiko Kobayashi, Yoko Wakayama, Hirofumi Inagaki, Masao Katsumata, Yukiyo Hirata, Yingji Li, Kimiko Hirata, Takako Shimizu, Hiroko Suzuki, Tomoyuki Kawada and Takahide Kagawa)

Chapter 168 Effect of Forest Environments on Psychological Response Evaluated by the POMS Test
(Qing Li, Maiko Kobayashi, Yoko Wakayama, Hirofumi Inagaki, Masao Katsumata, Yukiyo Hirata, Yingji Li, Kimiko Hirata, Takako Shimizu, Hiroko Suzuki, Toshiaki Otsuka, Tomoyuki Kawada)

Chapter 169 Effect of the Forest Environment on the Human Psycho-Neuro-Endocrino- Immune Network
(Qing Li)

Chapter 170 Effect of Phytoncides from Forest Environments on Immune Function
(Qing Li, Maiko Kobayashi, Hirofumi Inagaki, Yoko Wakayama, Masao Katsumata, Yukiyo Hirata, Yingji Li, Kimiko Hirata, Takako Shimizu, Ari Nakadai, Tomoyuki Kawada)

Chapter 171 Physiological Effects of Visual, Olfactory, Auditory, and Tactile Factors of Forest Environments
(Yuko Tsunetsugu, Bum-Jin Park and Yoshifumi Miyazaki)

Chapter 172 Green Spaces and Population Health
(Rich Mitchell)

Chapter 173 The Beneficial Effects of Green Exercise on Health
(Jo Barton and Jules Pretty)

Chapter 174 Effect of Forest Coverage on Standardized Mortality Ratios of Cancers in Japan
(Qing Li, Maiko Kobayashi and Tomoyuki Kawada)

Chapter 175 An Introduction to the Forest Therapy Society of Japan, Forest Therapy® and Forest Therapist®
(Michiko Imai)

Chapter 176 Forests and Human Health—Recent Trends in Japan
(Juyoung Lee, Bum-Jin Park, Yuko Tsunetsugu and Yoshifumi Miyazaki)

Chapter 177 Forests and Human Health - Recent Trends in Korea
(Won Sop Shin)

Chapter 178 Forests and Human Health - Recent Trends in China
(Minghao Meng, Yiwu Yu and Qunhui Xue)

Chapter 179 Research into Forests and Human Health- Current Status and Trends in Europe
(Christos Gallis, Marcus Sangster, Gunnar Tellnes, Giovanni Sanesi, Liz O’Brien, Bjarne Holmbom and Kari Batt-Rawden)

Chapter 180 Diseases, Drugs and Quality of Life
(Marwan S.M. Al-Nimer)

Chapter 181 Endogenous Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Is the List Ever Ending?
(Saran Kumar, Nithya Rao, Shruthi Venugopal and Ruowen Ge)

Chapter 182 Angiogenesis, Lymphangiogenesis and Vasculogenic Mimicry in Human Prostate Cancer Therapy
(Jingli Hao, Michele Madigan, Paul Cozzi, John Kearsley and Yong Li)

Chapter 183 Structural and Functional Alteration of the Aging Lower Urinary Tract
(Sung Yong Cho, Seong Jin Jeong and Seung-June Oh)

Chapter 184 Stem Cell Therapy for Ischaemic Stroke in the Elderly
(Ruo-Li Chen, Joyce S. Balami, Christopher Young, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Yueh Chien, Liang-Kung Chen, Francis Szele and Alastair M. Buchan)

Chapter 185 Role of Angiogenesis in Neural Repair after Ischemic Stroke
(Yongmei Chen)

Chapter 186 Sirt1’s Systemic Protective Roles and its Promise as a Target in Anti-Aging Medicine
(Bin Qi Gan and Bor Luen Tang)

Chapter 187 Ethical Debates on the Scientific Use of Embryonic Stem Cells
(Wai-Tong Chien, Li-Qun Wang, Holly H.L Yu and Vincent C.Y. Wan)

Chapter 188 Peptidergic Regulation of the Urinary Bladder Functions
(Anna Tolekova, Petya Hadzhibozheva, Tsvetelin Georgiev, Rosen Iliev, Galina Ilieva, Federica Pessina and Reni Kalfin)

Chapter 189 Bone Marrow Angiogenesis in Multiple Myeloma and its Prognostic Significance
(Chanchal Rana)

Chapter 190 Ethical Issues with Extracorporeal Life Support in Patients with Cancer and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
(Kenneth W. Gow)

Chapter 191 New Concepts in Biomechanics of the Ankle and Hindfoot:Instability, Osteoarthritis and Reconstruction
(Arno Frigg)

Chapter 192 Pathogenic Mechanisms in Escherichia Coli Cystitis: New Perspectives Joined Together
(Gabriella Piatti and Daniele Saverino)

Chapter 193 Adenovirus Diarrhea: Types, Diagnosis and Treatments
(Shuvra Kanti Dey, Tsuguto Fujimoto and Hiroshi Ushijima)

Chapter 194 Radiation Induced Cystitis: Physiopathology, Clinical Manifestations and Treatment Options
(R. Martínez-Rodríguez, C. Gutiérrez Ruiz and L. Ibarz Serbio)

Chapter 195 Homeopathy: Anti-Aging Medicine First Line
(Jean-Paul Billot)

Chapter 196 About Scar Deformities of the Foot
(Babur M. Shakirov)

Chapter 197 Arterial Stiffness and General Aging: Mini-Review and Hypothesis
(Katsuhiko Kohara, Yasuharu Tabara, Michiya Igase, and Tetsuro Miki)

Index

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