Medicine Research Summaries. Volume 7

Zhongwen Liáng (Editor)
Bibao Zhang (Editor)

Series: Medicine Research Summaries
BISAC: MED000000



Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick


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This book is a continuation of the book Medicine Researcher Biographical Sketches and Research Summaries which compiles research summaries from a number of different focuses in this important field. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)


Chapter 1 T Helper 17 Cells Interplay with CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Regulatory T cells in Regulating Autoimmune Inflammation
(Jietang Mai, Anthony Virtue, Hong Wang and Xiao-Feng Yang)

Chapter 2 Human CD8 Tregs as Contender in Chronic Persisting Infections
Simone A. Joosten and Tom H. M. Ottenhoff

Chapter 3 Role of Regulatory t Cells in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
(K. Szklany, T. C. Koehler and W. van Eden)

Chapter 4 Immunoregulatory Cells and Mechanisms of Immune Response
(Carol Aristimuño, Roseta Teijeiro, Clara de Andrés and Silvia Sánchez-Ramón)

Chapter 5 Roles of Regulatory T Cells in Oral Tolerance and Food Allergy
(Yusei Ohshima)

Chapter 6 The Role of Regulatory T Cells in GVL and GVHD
(Abdullah Alsuliman, Paula Garland and Katayoun Rezvani)

Chapter 7 Regulatory T Cells and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Implication of the Regulatory T Lymphocytes in the Control of the Immune Response
(Nadira Delhem, Céline Miroux and Thibaut Vausselin)

Chapter 8 Regulatory T Cells and Tumor Immunity in the Tumor Microenvironment
(Lisong Shen, Matthew R. Thompson and Dakang Xu)

Chapter 9 Advantages and Disadvantages of and Cooperation between CD8+ and CD4+ Regulatory T Cells
(Haruhiko Suzuki, Yusuke Okuno, and Agustina Tri Endharti)

Chapter 10 Regulatory T Cells in Arthritis: Why Do They Fail?
(Halima Moncrieffe and Lucy R. Wedderburn)

Chapter 11 Immune Homeostasis Maintained by Tregs
(Myoung-Ho Jang, Yun-Jae Jung, Hyung-Ran Kim, Byung-In Moon and Ju-Young Seoh)

Chapter 12 Regulating Foxp3 by Cis Elements
(Peter C. J. Janson and Ola Winqvist)

Chapter 13 Genetic Engineering of Antigen- Specific Regulatory T Cells
(Eran Elinav and Zelig Eshhar)

Chapter 14 The Number of Regulatory T Cells: Pursuit of the Golden Mean
(Alexander Pukhalsky, Galina Shmarina and Vladimir Alioshkin)

Chapter 15 Regulatory T Cells in Allergic Disorders and Immunomodulation
(Kei-ichi Yamanaka)

Chapter 16 Molecular Aspects Involved in the Immunogenicity against Viral Epitopes: An Immunoinformatic Perspective
(Maurício Menegatti Rigo, Dinler Amaral Antunes, Marialva Sinigaglia, Cassiana Chassot Fülber, José Artur Bogo Chies and Gustavo Fioravanti Vieira)

Chapter 17 Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of the Envelope Glycoprotein (gpG) of Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Rhabdovirus (VHSV)
(A. Falco, M. Ortega-Villaizan, J.M. Coll and A. Estepa)

Chapter 18 Influenza Infection and Immunological Memory Responses
(Cheol-Heui Yun, Dong Hyun Joo, In Su Cheonand Chong-Su Cho)

Chapter 19 Vaccine Delivery Systems Based on Amphiphilic Bioresorbable Polymers and Their Role in Vaccine Immunogenicity
(Ming-Hsi Huang, Chih-Hsiang Leng, Shih-Jen Liu, Hsin-Wei Chen, Charles Sia and Pele Chong)

Chapter 20 Immunogenicity and Cardiovascular Disease
(Michael Jan, Meghanaben Pansuria, Jingshan Liu, Xinyu Xiong, Pu Fang, Shu Meng, Xiao-Feng Yang and Hong Wang)

Chapter 21 Immunogenicity of Three Chlamydial Vaccine Strains for Domestic Animals
(Changqing Qiu, Jizhang Zhou, Xiao-an Cao, Guozhen Lin, Fuying Zheng, Xiaowei Gong, Guanghua Wang, Xiyu Li, Yingcai Li, Yongyu Shuaiand and Xueli Yang)

Chapter 22 DNA Vaccines: A Modern-Day Vaccine Revolution
(Fiona J. Baird, Aya C Taki, Andreas L Lopata and Peter M Smooker)

Chapter 23 Barriers to, and Prospective Solutions for, Colorectal Cancer Immunotherapy
(Michael S. Magee, Adam E. Snook, Nicholas A. Siciliano and Scott A. Waldman)

Chapter 24 Immunogenicity of B and T Epitopes Displayed on Bacteriophage Fd
(Antonella Prisco and Piergiuseppe De Berardinis)

Chapter 25 Allergenicity and Immunogenicity of Sugar Alcohol Sweeteners
(Yeldur P. Venkatesh and Kundimi Sreenath)

Chapter 26 The Importance of Physical Activity in a Lofty Pediatric Obesity Context
(Benjamin C. Guinhouya)

Chapter 27 Contribution of Physiological and Psychosocial Risk Factors Combined With Sedentary Lifestyles to Overweight and Obesity: Prospects for Prevention
(Pouran D. Faghri and Cynthia H. Adams)

Chapter 28 The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Related Metabolic Abnormalities among Children and Adolescents in China
(Zhijie Yu, Gang Hu, and Xilin Yang)

Chapter 29 Ethnic Differences in Pediatric Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome
(Zeena Salman and Mark D. DeBoer)

Chapter 30 Migrant Status - An Important Risk Factor for Developing Obesity During Childhood
(Sylvia Kirchengast)

Chapter 31 Promotion of Healthy Lifestyles to Prevent Obesity in School Children
(Elena Centis, Rebecca Marzocchi and Giulio Marchesini)

Chapter 32 Using Real-Time Data Capture Methods to Investigate Children's Physical Activity and Eating Behaviors
(Genevieve Fridlund Dunton)

Chapter 33 Effects of Schoolyard’s Attributes on Childhood Obesity
(Isabel Mourão-Carvalhal and Eduarda Coelho)

Chapter 34 A Gender-Structured Random Model for Understanding Adulthood Obesity
(Francisco-J. Santonja, Rafael-J. Villanueva and Lucas Jodar)

Chapter 35 Does This Study Inform Policy? Examination of Leading Childhood Obesity Journals’ Instructions to Authors Regarding Policy-Related Research and Implications
(Sheila Fleischhacker, Kelly R. Evenson, Puneet Singh, Daniel A. Rodriguez and Alice Ammerman)

Chapter 36 Nutrition Education in School-Based Childhood and Adolescent Obesity Prevention Programs
(Melinda J. Ickes and Manoj Sharma)

Chapter 37 Child Obesity in Global Perspective Emergent Risks Related to Social Status, Urbanism, and Poverty
(Alexandra Brewis and Mary C. Meyer)

Chapter 38 Sexual Dimorphism in Corticosteroid Signaling – Underneath Vulnerability to Stress Related Disorders and Sensitivity to Antidepressants
(Ivana Elaković, Ana Djordjevic and Gordana Matić)

Chapter 39 Cell Matrix Interactions and Role of Integrins in Liver Development
(Baltasar Lucendo Villarin and David C. Hay)

Chapter 40 Hepatic Encephalopathy
(Kazuaki Inoue)

Chapter 41 Basic Guidelines for the Collection and Submission of Necropsy Samples
(Maria A Pires, Fernanda Seixas, Adelina Gama and Rita Payan-Carreira)

Chapter 42 Functions of Dietary Valine as Revealed by Dietary Valine-Deficiency
(Kenji Nagao, Makoto Bannai, Keiko Nakahara and Noboru Murakam)

Chapter 43 Liver Development in the Late Gestation Rodent Fetus
(Jennifer A. Sanders, Joan M. Boylan and Philip A. Gruppuso)

Chapter 44 Necropsy Techniques for Ruminants and Interpretation of Gross Findings in Infectious Diseases
(Silvia A. França, Tatiane A. Paixão and Renato L. Santos)

Chapter 45 Challenges in Vaccination against Mastitis
(Roberto S. Dias, Ana Carolina D. Fialho, Monique R. Eller, Ângelo L. Pereira, Hilário C. Mantovani, Eduardo A. M. da Silva, Cynthia C. da Silva, Leandro L. de Oliveira, Bolivar N. de Faria and Sergio O. De Paula)

Chapter 46 Hepatic Stellate Cells Control Liver Fibrosis by Platelets
(Naoya Ikeda, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi and Soichiro Murata)

Chapter 47 Hepatocyte Cytotoxic Activity and its Physiological and Pathological Relevance
(Clifford S. Guy and Tomasz I. Michalak)

Chapter 48 Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Met Receptor: Biology and Relevance for Cardioprotection and Cardiovascular Repair
(Rosalinda Madonna and Raffaele De Caterina)

Chapter 49 Psycho-Social Consequences of Corticosteroid Use in Haematology: Insights from an Australian Research Program
(Pam McGrath)

Chapter 50 Fluorescent Microbeads Method for the Measurement of Factor VIII-Binding Antibodies
(Tomohiro Takeda, Yoshihiko Sakurai, Midori Shima and Akira Yoshioka)

Chapter 51 Protein Modeling and CASP: Progress and Future Prospects
(Ashish Runthala)

Chapter 52 Corticosteroid Injections: Intra-Articular and Extra-Articular Use
(Chris Moros and Michael Kang)

Chapter 53 Telomere Attrition and Heightened Oxidative Stress Induced by Cigarette Smoking. Introduction of Formula Supplements of Non-Hydrolized Carnosine and Carcinine Offers Great Opportunities for Innovative Therapeutic Strategies to Attenuate Naturally Accelerated Aging and the Risk of Respiratory Disease Associated with Smoking: Can We Have Safer Cigarettes?
(Mark A. Babizhayev and Yegor E. Yegorov)

Chapter 54 Dietary Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
(Fumi Hirayama and Andy H. Lee)

Chapter 55 Effects of Air Pollution on the Human Respiratory System
(Karim N. Jallad)

Chapter 56 Immunotherapy in Respiratory Allergy
(Zamir Calamita)

Chapter 57 The Lung as a Target Organ for Type 2 Diabetes Complications
(Albert Lecube, Gabriel Sampol, Xavier Muñoz, Patricia Lloberes, Odile Romero, Jordi Mesa, Cristina Hernández and Rafael Simó)

Chapter 58 Impacts of Climate Change on Aeroallergens and Allergic Respiratory Diseases in Children in Rural Areas
(Paul John Beggs)

Chapter 59 Immunologic Findings in Children with Respiratory Diseases due to Chronic Toxigenic Mold and Mycotoxin Exposures
(Cyril Anyanwo)

Chapter 60 The Health Effects of Selenoproteins
(E. Zoidis and A. C. Pappas)

Chapter 61 Selenium Biorhythms and Hormonal Regulation
(N. A. Golubkina)

Chapter 62 Selenium in Seafood and Aquaculture Products
(Cláudia Afonso, Carlos Cardoso, Narcisa M. Bandarra and Maria Leonor Nunes)

Chapter 63 Selenium and Plant Health: The Physiological Role of Selenium
(Mirza Hasanuzzaman and Masayuki Fujita)

Chapter 64 Selenium Supplementation of Diet Affects Antioxidant Activity and Protects against Antibiotic Resistance and Avian Influenza in Poultry
(Hirotada Tsujii)

Chapter 65 Selenium in Critical Illness
(V. Mishra and A. Shenkin)

Chapter 66 Selenium and Tropical Diseases
(Daniel Plano, María Font, Juan Antonio Palop and Carmen Sanmartín)

Chapter 67 Products of Animal Origin as a Source of Se in Human Diet
(Bogumiła Pilarczyk, Agnieszka Tomza-Marciniak and Andrzej Marciniak)

Chapter 68 Stress Signaling and Proapoptotic Pathways Induced by Selenite in Malignant Colonocytes
(Věra Králová, Soňa Benešová and Emil Rudolf)

Chapter 69 Selenium and Prostate Health: A New Possible Nutraceutical Challenge
(Letteria Minutoli and Herbert Marini)

Chapter 70 Selenium in Food Materials and Its Impact on Human Health
(Wenbiao Wu)

Chapter 71 Structural, Electronic, Vibrational and Optical Properties of Amorphous Selenium: A First Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulation
(J. A. Reyes-Retana)

Chapter 72 The Management of Dysphagia: A Clinical and Ethical View
(David G. Smithard)

Chapter 73 Prevention of Radiation-Induced Dysphagia
(Piet Dirix and Sandra Nuyts)

Chapter 74 Dysphagia in the Myopathies
(Danielle Ramos Domenis, Paula de Carvalho Macedo Issa Okubo, Raphaela Barroso Guedes Granzotti, Claudia Ferreira da Rosa Sobreira and Roberto Oliveira Dantas)

Chapter 75 Swallow Screening as an Essential Component of Acute Stroke Management
(Julie Luker and Kylie Wall)

Chapter 76 Dysphagia: Perioperative Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment
(P. Bradley Segebarth and Bruce Darden)

Chapter 77 The Contribution of Deglutition Sounds for the Assessment of Dysphagia, Aspiration and Penetration: A Literature Review
(Christiane Borr)

Chapter 78 Down’s Syndrome and Dysphagia
(Tracy Lazenby-Paterson)

Chapter 79 Comprehensive Role of Oxygenation in the Regulation of Erythropoiesis
(Marija Vlaski, Xavier Lafarge and Zoran Ivanovic)

Chapter 80 Radiation-Related Toxicity in 3D Conformal Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, and Proton Beam Therapy for Lung Cancer
(Daniel Gomez and Zhongxing Liao)

Chapter 81 Erythropoiesis: Development, Regulation, and Disorders
(Angelica Tolentino and Walter Fried)

Chapter 82 Metformin: The Therapeutic Actions and Clinical Implications in PCOS
(Charikleia Christakou and Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis)

Chapter 83 Regulation of AKT by Phosphorylation of Distinct Threonine and Serine Residues
(Masayuki Noguchi and Futoshi Suizu)

Chapter 84 Spinal Cord Compression: Current Issues, Practices and Challenges
(Gunita Mitera, Michael H. Ford, Siddhartha Baxi, Tanya Holt, Arjun Sahgal, Andrew Loblaw and Brita Danielson)

Chapter 85 New Laboratory Parameters for the Assessment of Iron Status and Erythropoiesis
(Eloísa Urrechaga, Luís Borque and Jesús F. Escanero)

Chapter 86 Vascular Function in Diabetes Mellitus: Effects of Metformin
(Dimitris Tousoulis, Anna Maria Kampoli, Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Emmanouil Androulakis and Christodoulos Stefanadis)

Chapter 87 Application of Immobilized RNAses in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
(Bohuslav Rittich and Alena Španová)

Chapter 88 Invited Edited Collection Radiation Therapy: Types, Procedures and Outcomes the Role of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer
(Patricia Tai and Edward Yu)

Chapter 89 Usefulness of Metformin in Diabetes-Related Bone Disease
(Ippei Kanazawa)

Chapter 90 Abnormal Expression of Thr34-Phosphorylated DARPP-32 in Schizophrenia
(Yasuto Kunii)

Chapter 91 Magnesium and Lung Disease
(Fedoua Gandia, Sonia Rouatbi, Zouhair Tabka and Badreddine Sriha)

Chapter 92 Threonine Localization in a Protein Molecule
(Jesús Avila, Laura Sayas and Nieves Villanueva)

Chapter 93 Small Threonine-Containing Structural Motifs in Proteins
(E. James Milner-White)

Chapter 94 Microglia in the Developing Brain
(Gurugirijha Rathnasamy, Eng-Ang Ling and Charanjit Kaur)

Chapter 95 The Mystic Embryonic Microglia: Its Origin, Function and Seeding
(Yi Yin, Fei Li and Hua Feng)

Chapter 96 Soldiers of the Nervous System: Microglia in Surveillance, Offense and Defense
(Joseph M. Antony)

Chapter 97 Microglia Secretome: From Neurotoxins to Neurotrophins
(Jocelyn M. Madeira, Jonathan P. Little and Andis Klegeris)

Chapter 98 The Role of Microglia in Neurodegenerative Disease
(Paul Su and Marios Politis)

Chapter 99 Microglia Function in Alzheimer’s Disease
(Magdalena Sastre)

Chapter 100 Blood Derived Microglia-Like Cells in Alzheimer's Disease
(Jari Koistinaho, Johanna Magga and Tarja Malm)

Chapter 101 Microglial Functions against Amyloid
(Yoshihisa Kitamura and Kazuyuki Takata)

Chapter 102 Modulation of Microglial Reaction in Brain Injury by Novel Therapeutic Tools Based on Gene Therapy Approaches
(Jean-Pierre Louboutin and David S Strayer)

Chapter 103 The Application of Inhibitors of Microglial Activation in Brain Diseases
(Gang Xin and Kang-Sheng Li)

Chapter 104 Microglial Activation Is Reduced by Prostaglandin E2
(Takayuki Nagano, Shinya H. Kimura and Motohiko Takemura)

Chapter 105 Synaptic Stripping and Beyond: Microglia or Astrocytes?
(Jun Yamada, Shozo Jinno, and Hiroshi Nakanishi)

Chapter 106 Microglia-to-Neuron Communication in Spinal Nociceptive Pathways
(Francesco Ferrini, Chiara Salio and Adalberto Merighi)

Chapter 107 Microglia in Huntington Disease
(Colúm Connolly, Austin Hill and Blair R. Leavitt)

Chapter 108 The Neuroinflammatory Role of Schwann Cells in Health and Disease
(Elke Ydens, Guillaume Lornet, Veerle Smits, Sofie Goethals, Vincent Timmerman and Sophie Janssens)

Chapter 109 The Diverse Roles of Autophagy in Immunity
(Ian X. McLeod, Wei Jia and You-Wen He)

Chapter 110 Cross-Presentation Induced by Autophagy towards Clinical Approaches
(Young-Jun Ju, Jannatul Firdous, Hyo-Shin Yoon, Seung Hyun Han and Cheol-Heui Yun)

Chapter 111 Autophagy as a Hallmark of Hemophagocytic Diseases
(E. Marion Schneider, Myriam Lorenz and Paul Walther)

Chapter 112 Autophagy-Mediated Innate Defense Mechanism in Crypt Paneth Cells Responding to Impairment of Small Intestine Barrier after Total-Body Gamma-Photon Irradiation
(Nikolai V. Gorbunov and Juliann G. Kiang)

Chapter 113 Autophagy in Periodontal Disease
(Hiromasa Tsuda and Yoshikazu Mikami)

Chapter 114 The Induction of Autophagy in Gliomas Treated by Temozolomide
(Manabu Natsumeda, Hiroshi Aoki and Yukihiko Fujii)

Chapter 115 Autophagy Pathways and Drug Targets for Cancer Therapy
(Huai-long Xu, Lei-lei Fu, Yu Yang, Bo Liu, Xu Zhao, Wen-wen Li and Jin-ku Bao)

Chapter 116 Autophagy in the Eye: A Double-Edged Sword
(Goran Petrovski, Réka Albert, Kai Kaarniranta, Morten C. Moe, László Fésüs, András Berta and Dipak K. Das)

Chapter 117 Regulation of Autophagy by Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling Pathways
(Rodrigo Troncoso, César Vásquez-Trincado, Andrea del Campo, Damián Gatica, Pablo E. Morales, Felipe Paredes, Natalia Torrealba, Camila Lopez-Crisosto, Zully Pedrozo, Lorena García, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Pavan K. Battiprolu, Andriy Nemchenko, Anwarul Ferdous, Thomas G. Gillette, Joseph A. Hill and Sergio Lavandero)

Chapter 118 Autophagy: Regulation and Role in Degenerative Diseases
(Maylin Almonte-Becerril and Juan B. Kouri)

Chapter 119 Altered Autophagy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities?
(Jean-Paul Decuypere, Kim A. Staats, Kirsten Welkenhuyzen, Ludwig Missiaen, Humbert De Smedt, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Jan B. Parys and Geert Bultynck)

Chapter 120 Role of Autophagy in Parkinson’s Disease
(Giovanni Stefanoni, Gessica Sala, Lucio Tremolizzo, Laura Brighina and Carlo Ferrarese)

Chapter 121 Autophagy and Parkinson's Disease: A Love-Hate Relationship
(José M. Fuentes, José M. Bravo-San Pedro, Rubén Gómez-Sánchez, Mireia Niso-Santano and Rosa A. González-Polo)

Chapter 122 Autophagy and Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
(Raffaele Cursio, Pascal Colosetti, Patrick Auberger and Jean Gugenheim)

Chapter 123 Implication of Autophagy in Response to Tubular Ageing and Injuries
(Yoshitaka Isaka, Tomonori Kimura, Yoshitsugu Takabatake and Hiromi Rakugi)

Chapter 124 Autophagy Induced by Nanomaterials
(Jasmine Jia’en Li, Olivia Scully, Karthik Subramhanya Harve, Lin-Yue Lanry Yung and Boon-Huat Bay)

Chapter 125 Overview and Approaches Employed to Design Innovative Drug Delivery Systems for the Prophylaxis of HIV/AIDS and Prevention of STIs
(Viness Pillay, Valence M. K. Ndesendo, Yahya E. Choonara, Lisa C. du Toit, Eckhart Buchmann, Leith Meyer and David Bayever)

Chapter 126 Adiponectin: Production, Regulation and Roles in Disease
(Adeeb Shehzad, Waqas Iqbal and Young Sup Lee)

Chapter 127 Adverse Drug Events Associated with Anticonvulsants
(Robert M. Nevels, Anyaliese Hancock, Jessica L. Spofford, Brennan Atherton and Samuel T. Gontkovsky)

Chapter 128 Neonatal Resuscitation Practices in New York City Maternity Hospitals
(S. Ramsay)

Chapter 129 New Insights into the Antiproliferative Activity of Carbamazepine in Mammalian Cells In Vitro
(María José Hazen, José Manuel Pérez Martín, Paloma Fernández Freire and Ana Peropadre)

Chapter 130 Anticonvulsants: Pharmacology, Uses and Adverse Effects
(Dayane Pessoa de Araújo, Francisca Taciana Sousa Rodrigues, Matheus Andrighetti Rossi, Patrícia Xavier Lima Gomes Otoni Cardoso do Vale, Manoel Claudio Azevedo Patrocínio and Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos)

Chapter 131 Total Knee Replacement with Using of the Kinematic Navigation System
(Martin Komzák, František Okál, Adel Safi and Radek Hart)

Chapter 132 Use of Antiseptic Agents before Cesarean Section to Prevent Intra and Postoperative Infections
(Inés Velasco)

Chapter 133 In-Hospital Resuscitation: Association between Nurses CPR Training and Survival to Discharge
(Christina Passali and Anastasia Patsaki)

Chapter 134 Combination Therapy: Types, Procedures and Outcomes
(Vivek Verma and Sanjay Chhibber)

Chapter 135 Managing Severe Bone Loss in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty with Highly Porous Titanium and Tantalum Cones and Sleeves
(David Fabi and Brett Levine)

Chapter 136 Chest Compressions during CPR: Techniques and New Devices
(Ajay Suri, Anne Weaver, Comilla Sasson and Pascal Meier)

Chapter 137 Clinical Use of Concentrated Autologous Bone Marrow Aspirate Transplantation (CABMAT) for Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head and Bone Non-Union
(Tomokazu Yoshioka, Hajime Mishima and Hiroshi Akaogi)

Chapter 138 Regulatory T Cells in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Fighting GVHD
(Ping Yu and Chi Lu)

Chapter 139 The Risk of Infection in Patients Treated with Infliximab
(Isabel Martín Garrido, Rocío González León, José M. Varela and Enrique J. Calderón)

Chapter 140 Infliximab in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
(Rocío Ferreiro and Manuel Barreiro-de Acosta)

Chapter 141 Infliximab: Up-to-Date on Indications and Warnings
(M. D. Schafranski, A. B. Merlini, A. L. O. Prestes and B. Ribeiro)

Chapter 142 Infliximab in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Pharmacology, Uses and Limitations
(Luisa Guidi, Carla Felice, Manuela Marzo and Alessandro Armuzzi)

Chapter 143 Efficacy and Safety of Infliximab during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
(Sami Karoui, Wafa Haddad, Meriem Serghini, Jalel Boubaker and Azza Filali)

Chapter 144 Anti TNF’s for Postoperative Recurrence of Crohn’s Disease: The State of the Art
(D. Sorrentino and S. Buckton)

Chapter 145 Continuation Rate with Infliximab Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients does not Necessarily Reflect Efficacy of Therapy in Real-World Practice
(Yuko Sugioka, Tadashi Okano, Masahiro Tada, Hiroaki Nakamura and Tatsuya Koike)

Chapter 146 Mechanism of Disease Amelioration on Infliximab Treatment: Novel Effecter Molecules for Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis
(Kazuhisa Nozawa, Maki Fujishiro, Yoshinari Takasaki, Kenji Takamori, Hideoki Ogawa and Iwao Sekigawa)

Chapter 147 HLA and Non-HLA Genes Polymorphisms: Susceptibility and Severity in Tunisian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
(Tarak Dhaouadi, Imen Sfar, Leila Abdelmoula, Henda Krichen, Dorra Khazen, Houda Aouadi, Saloua Jendoubi-Ayed, Taieb ben Abdallah, Khaled Ayed, Rafik Zouari, Yousr Gorgi)

Chapter 148 Mechanisms, Management and Consequences of Acute Cellular and Antibody Mediated Rejection in Solid Organ and Reconstructive Transplantation
(A. Weißenbacher, T. Hautz, B. Kern, J. Pratschke and S. Schneeberger)

Chapter 149 Donor Specific Antibody (DSA) Mediated Humoral Rejection and Biological Implications of B Cells in Human Solid Organ Transplantation
(Manuel Muro, Alexandre Bosch, Ruth López-Hernández, Francisco Boix, Manuela López, José A. Campillo, Alfredo Minguela and Rocío Álvarez-López)

Chapter 150 Acute Cellular Rejection: Diagnosis and Immune Mechanisms
(Erika Lamkowski Naka, Alvaro Pacheco e Silva Filho, and Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara)

Chapter 151 Presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Rejection
(Karen L. Hardinger and Daniel C. Brennan)

Chapter 152 Novel Nucleic Acid Drugs for Prevention of Acute Cardiac Rejection
(Jun-ichi Suzuki, Mitsuaki Isobe, Ryuichi Morishita, and Ryozo Nagai)

Chapter 153 Study of Proliferation Response of the HLA-DQB1*0302 Molecule Associated to Acute Rejection Development in Liver Transplant and Soluble HLA Class I Depletion
(Manuel Muro, Luis Marin, Rosa Moya, Alfredo Minguela and Rocío Álvarez-López)

Chapter 154 Role of Thyroid Hormones on Hypothalamus Development and Function
(Alfonso Carreón-Rodríguez and Leonor Pérez-Martínez)

Chapter 155 Mastectomies: Procedures, Types and Risks
(María Amparo Gómez-Correcher, Jaime Ruíz-Tovar, Pilar Cansado, Andrés Frangi and Rafael Calpena)

Chapter 156 Identification of Novel Compounds or Mixtures, Activating Common Defense Responses to Abiotic Stress Both in Plants and Mammalian Skin Cells
(Assunta Tortora, Stefania Arciello, Gabriella Colucci and Fabio Apone)

Chapter 157 New Trends in the Therapy of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

(Virginia Sedeño-Monge, Francisca Sosa-Jurado, Verónica Vallejo-Ruiz, Daniel Meléndez-Mena, Julio Reyes-Leyva and Gerardo Santos-López)

Chapter 158 Breast Cancer Surgery: A Technical History
(William C. Dooley and J. John Makipour)

Chapter 159 Dysphagia on the Elderly: Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment
(P. Santoro and F. Cardoso)

Chapter 160 Transition from Acute to Chronic Pain States Following Breast Cancer Surgery
(M. Husband, V. Mehta and S. Chang)

Chapter 161 Mastectomy in the Far East – Is it the Same as in the West?
(Y. Y. Y. Tsang, A. M. Bello and K. L. Cheung)

Chapter 162 Bone Tumours: An Overview of Pathology, Diagnosis, and Management
(J. Ruston, W. S. Khan and J. Bhamra)

Chapter 163 Development of a Method for Removing Endotoxin from Bacterial Membrane Vaccines
(Michael J. McConnell and Jerónimo Pachón)

Chapter 164 Endoscopic Axillary Dissection in Breast Cancer
(Lucio Taglietti, Luca Gazzola, Nereo Vettoretto, and Maurizio Giovanetti)

Chapter 165 Writing a Scientific Paper
(B. S. Dhinsa and W. Khan)

Chapter 166 Chronic Graft Dysfunction in Allogeneic Islet Cell Transplantation
(Daisuke Chujo, Morihito Takita, Zehra Tekin and Shinichi Matsumoto)

Chapter 167 Constipation: Causes, Treatment and Prevention. A Review
(Cherry E. Koh and Christopher J. Young)

Chapter 168 Constipation in Parkinson’s Disease
(Ryuji Sakakibara, Masahiko Kishi, Yohei Tsuyusaki, Fuyuki Tateno, Tomoyuki Uchiyama, Tatsuya Yamamoto, and Yasuo Suzuki)

Chapter 169 Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Has the Psychosomatic “Affliction” Grown into an Inflammatory Disorder?
(Anastassios C. Manolakis, Andreas N. Kapsoritakis, Elisavet K. Tiaka, Ilias Tsiompanidis, and Spyros P. Potamianos)

Chapter 170 The Role of Serotonin in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
(Hirotada Akiho)

Chapter 171 Clinical Trials of Emerging Therapies in Chronic Idiopathic Constipation
(M. Scott Harris and Oranee Daniels)

Chapter 172 Role of Primary Afferent Nociceptors in Visceral Pain Associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome
(Victor Chaban)

Chapter 173 Pathophysiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea
(Motoyori Kanazawa and Shin Fukudo)

Chapter 174 Chronic Constipation in the Elderly
(Joseph Lysy)

Chapter 175 The Use of Tobacco Plants in the Scientific Researches
(V. Malinovsky)

Chapter 176 The Health Risks of Smoking
(Rosa Ana de la Chica)

Chapter 177 Separation and Determination of Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines
(Youyou Yang and Huwei Liu)

Chapter 178 Allergy to Tobacco, Cannabis, and Related Allergens
(Alicia Armentia, Enrique Fernandez-Caldas and Jesus Tejedor)

Chapter 179 Lowering Nitrate Content of Flue-Cured Tobacco: Reducing Harmfulness by Tuning Fertilization
(Enrico Ceotto, Fabio Castelli and Renato Contillo)

Chapter 180 Tobacco Use by Adolescents and Young Adults: Oral Health Effects and Cessation Strategies
(Giuseppe Pizzo, Maria E. Licata and Joan M. Davis)

Chapter 181 Cultural Barriers to Treating Tobacco Dependence: An Evidence-Based Review with Clinical and Health Policy Recommendations
(Megan J. Engelen and John E. Snyder)

Chapter 182 Colonic Polyps and Hereditary Polyposis Syndromes
(Viplove Senadhi and Dennis Emuron)

Chapter 183 Developmental Dysplasia of Hip
(Bilal Jamal and Anand Pillai)

Chapter 184 Bone Dysplasia: Causes, Classification and Treatment Options
(Miguel Cantalejo Moreira, Joaquín Casado Pardo and Patricia López Viejo)

Chapter 185 Does Elevated Intracellular Chloride Cause Epilepsy in Focal Cortical Dysplasia?
(Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Akihito Okabe and Atsuo Fukuda)

Chapter 186 Dysplasia in Longstanding Ulcerative Colitis: Diagnosis, Types, Surveillance and Treatment Options
(Ovidiu Fratila)

Chapter 187 Characterization of Angiogenic Activity and Identification of Mediators in Bronchial Dysplasia and Invasive Lung Cancer: Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiopoietins
(D. T. Merrick, S. Petrunich, Y. E. Miller, R. L. Keith, T. C. Kennedy and W. A. Franklin)

Chapter 188 Sudden Cardiac Death Syndrome - Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy as Most Frequent Cause of Fatal Arrhythmias
(Ivana I. Vranic and Tijana Simic)

Chapter 189 Pregnancy: Risk Factors, Management and Recovery in Mares
(Katy Satué and Juan Carlos Gardón)

Chapter 190 Glaucoma Management during Pregnancy
(M. Reza Razeghinejad and L. Jay Katz)

Chapter 191 Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy
(Silvia Santos Palacios, Eider Pascual Corrales and Juan Carlos Galofré)

Chapter 192 Treating Common ENT Diseases in Pregnancy: What Is Safe?
(Petros V. Vlastarakos, Emily Iacovou and Thomas P. Nikolopoulos)

Chapter 193 Preservation of Spermatozoa by Refrigeration
(Taketo Inoue, Yoshiyuki Ono and Nobuyuki Emi)

Chapter 194 Faceless and Facework Commitment: An Exploration of Birthing Women’s Trust toward Expert Systems within a Risk Society
(Alphia Possamai-Inesedy)

Chapter 195 Pregnancy and Cultural Knowledge and Practices among Northern Thai Women
(Pranee Liamputtong and Somsri Kitisriworapan)

Chapter 196 The Components of Humanized Birth Care that Bring Satisfaction to Women in a Tertiary Hospital
(Roxana Behruzi, Marie Hatem, Lise Goulet and William D. Fraser)

Chapter 197 Endothelium–Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor and Pregnancy: Possible Contribution in Regulation of Vascular Signaling Mechanisms in Normotensive and Hypertensive Setting
(Miroslav Radenković)

Chapter 198 Asthma in Pregnancy - Immunology, Diagnosis, and Treatment
(Lilla Tamási, Michael Schatz and György Losonczy)

Chapter 199 Laparoscopic Appendectomy during Pregnancy – A Comparative Study
(Zvi H. Perry, Uri Netz, Solly Mizrahi, Leonid Lantsberg, Eliezer Avinoach and Boris Kirshtein)


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