Medicine Research Summaries. Volume 20

Zhongwen Liáng (Editor)
Bibao Zhang (Editor)

Series: Medicine Research Summaries
BISAC: MED014000



Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick


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This book is a continuation of the book Medicine Researcher Biographical Sketches and Research Summaries which compiles biographical sketches of top professionals in the field of medicinal research, as well as research summaries from a number of different focuses in this important field. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)


Chapter 1. Sialic Acids in Early Life and Their Impact Beyond Infancy
(Maria J. Martin and Elena Oliveros)

Chapter 2. Prolonged Excitation of Hypothlamic Sympathetic Center Provokes Preeclampsia by the Stimulation of Expanded Pregnant Uterus through Uterus-Brain Nerve
(Kazuo Maeda)

Chapter 3. Synthetic Biology: Modelling and Making Cells
(Roy D. Sleator)

Chapter 4. Individuals’ Involvement in Biobanking: New Ways of Doing Research in Bio-Medicine
(Luciana Caenazzo and Pamela Tozzo)

Chapter 5. IgG4-Related Sclerosing Cholangitis in the Early Postoperative Period After Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery: Screening Using Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography and Serum IgG4 Values
(David Padilla-Valverde, Pedro Villarejo-Campos, Carlos Marcote-Ibañez, Mercedes Molina, Elena Buces, Francisco J. Redondo, and Maitane Múgica)

Chapter 6. Burnout in Emergency Physicians and Strategies to Prevent It
(Megan Grigg and Manit Arora)

Chapter 7. Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Ground and Spring Waters: Imminent Public Health Issue
(Luís Rodrigues da Silva, Adriana Sousa and Branca M. Silva)

Chapter 8. A Role for Abdominal Vagal Afferent Signals in the Regulation of Food Intake and Metabolism
(Yusaku Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yada, Hisayuki Uneyama and Akihiko Kitamura)

Chapter 9. Malignant Otitis Externa
(Sangeeta Kapur Maini, Raghav C. Dwivedi and Bhaskar Ram)

Chapter 10. Epidemiology of Tobacco Consumption
(María Paz Bertoglia)

Chapter 11. Human Insecurity and Tobacco Consumption
(Francisca Crispi Gonzalo Cuadra, Nicolas Chomali, Muriel Febre and Paula Rojas)

Chapter 12. First, Second and Third Hand Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposure
(Karen Domínguez Cancino and Victoria Ramos Brant)

Chapter 13. Nonspecific Mechanisms of Disease Production
(Camilo Sotomayor, Ignacio Cortés, Matías Libuy, Nicolás Valls, Kjersti Nes and Juan Gmo Gormaz)

Chapter 14. Harmful Effects of Tobacco from a Life Course Perspective
(Abraham IJ. Gajardo Cortez, Gonzalo Cuadra, and Felipe De la Fuente)

Chapter 15. Tobacco and Cancer
(Juan G. Gormaz, Ignacio Cortés, Pablo Henríquez, Camilo Sotomayor, Abraham Gajardo, Kjersti Nes, and Marcia Erazo)

Chapter 16. Tobacco and Cardiovascular Disease
(Kjersti Nes, Juan G. Gormaz, Rodrigo Carrasco, Ignacio Cortés, José Llano and Nicolás Valls)

Chapter 17. Tobacco and Respiratory Diseases
(Carla Bertossi and Matías Libuy)

Chapter 18. Effectiveness of Interventions for Tobacco Control
(Felipe De la Fuente, Francisca Crispi and Matías Libuy)

Chapter 19. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the Challenges to Its Implementation
(Armando Peruga and Paloma Cuchí)

Chapter 20. Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Celiac Disease in Brazil
(Larissa Bezerra Santos, Fabiana Maria dos Santos, Iêda Nishitokukado, Carmen Lucia Ortiz-Agostinho, and Aytan Miranda Sipahi)

Chapter 21. Metabolic Bone Diseases and Muscle and Joint Changes in Celiac Disease
(Iva Hoffmanová)

Chapter 22. Psychosocial Challenges in Adult Celiac Disease
(Donald F. Smith)

Chapter 23. The Influence of Sounds in Postural Control
(E. Thomas, A. Bianco, G. Messina, M. Mucia, S. Rizzo, P. Salvago, F. Sireci, A. Palma and F. Martines)

Chapter 24. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Treatment Options, and Prognostic Factors
(Rafael da Costa Monsanto, Ana Luiza Kasemodel, Luiza Mazzola, Marielle Albrechete and Fabio Tadeu Moura Lorenzetti)

Chapter 25. Chronic Otitis Media and Hearing Loss
(Letícia S. Rosito, Mariana M. Smith, Daniela Marques, Marina Faistauer, and Gustavo V. Severo)

Chapter 26. Sensorineural Hearing Loss Secondary to Otitis Media
(Henrique F. Pauna and Rafael C. Monsanto)

Chapter 27. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss, an Invisible Male: State of the Art
(Rizzo Serena, Daniela Bentivegna, Ewan Thomas, Eleonora La Mattina, Marianna Mucia, Pietro Salvago, Federico Sireci and Francesco Martines)

Chapter 28. Genetic Kidney Diseases with Sensorineural Hearing Loss
(Consolación Rosado Rubio and Alberto Domínguez Bravo)

Chapter 29. Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors
(Andrea Ciorba and Chiara Bianchini)

Chapter 30. Hearing Loss of Volga-Ural Region in Russia
(Lilya U. Dzhemileva, Simeon L. Lobov, Dmitriy U. Kuznetzov, Alsu G. Nazirova, Elvira M. Nurgalina, Nikolay A. Barashkov, Sardana A. Fedorova and Elza K. Khusnutdinova)

Chapter 31. Hearing Loss after Traumatic Conditions: Histopathology and Clinical Features
(Henrique Furlan Pauna, Raquel Andrade Lauria, Thiago Messias Zago, Alexandre Caixeta Guimarães
and Guilherme Machado de Carvalho)

Chapter 32. Up-to-Date in Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder: Clinical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Features
(Henrique Furlan Pauna, Alexandre Caixeta Guimarães, Edi Lucia Sartorato and Guilherme Machado de Carvalho)

Chapter 33. Stepwise Approach to the Diagnosis of Hearing Loss in Children
(C. Aimoni, V. Corazzi, V. Conz, Chiara Bianchini and Andrea Ciorba)

Chapter 34. Pediatric Dysphagia and Aspiration: Evaluation and Management
(James D. Tutor)

Chapter 35. Post-Stroke Dysphagia
(Massimiliano Toscano and Vittorio Di Piero)

Chapter 36. Dysphagia and Pneumonia in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage
(Hideaki Takahata)

Chapter 37. Swallowing Dysfunction in Patients with Duchenne (Muscular Dystrophy)
(Michiyuki Kawakami, Ayako Wada and Meigen Liu)

Chapter 38. Parkin and Other Proteins of Parkinson's Disease
(Jolanta Dorszewska, Katarzyna Wize and Wojciech Kozubski)

Chapter 39. Statins and Yeast Polysaccharides in the Treatment of Hyperlipidemia and Liver Steatosis, Role of Autophagy
(T. P. Johnston, T. A. Korolenko and N. P. Bgatova)

Chapter 40. Protection Against Mitochondrial and Cell Damage: A New Approach to Treat Severe Hemorrhagic Shock
(Z. H. Zeng, S. Q. Xu and K. S. Zhao)

Chapter 41. Telomerase-Targeted Replicative Adenoviruses for Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis
(Hiroshi Tazawa, Shunsuke Kagawa, Kunitoshi Shigeyasu, and Toshiyoshi Fujiwara)

Chapter 42. Evaluation of the Swelling and Diffusional Behavior of Guar Gum for the Controlled Release of Bioactive Agents
(John Rojas and Yhors Ciro)

Chapter 43. The Application of Phytoestrogens in the Cosmetic Industry
(Alicja Kapuścińska, Anna Olejnik and Izabela Nowak)

Chapter 44. The Potential Role of Phytoestrogens in Hormonal Replacement Therapy
(Alicja Kapuścińska, Anna Olejnik and Izabela Nowak)

Chapter 45. Preventive Measures of Developing Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Patients Receiving Bisphosphonate Therapy
(Vladimíra Schwartzová, Peter Kizek and Jozef Minčík)

Chapter 46. The Oxidative Damage Pathways of Glutamine in Some Clinical Diseases
(David Calderón Guzmán, Hugo Juárez Olguín, Ernestina Hernández García, Mónica Punzo Soto
and Gerardo Barragán Mejía)

Chapter 47. Glutamine in Sport and Exercise
(Hércules Rezende Freitas)

Chapter 48. Andrographis paniculata: Clinical Uses, Mechanism of Action and Adverse Reactions
(Asna M. Zain)

Chapter 49. Andrographis paniculata: Functionality, Mechanism of Action and Adverse Reactions
(Nelma Nyvonne Tiqu Gina, Wei-Fu Chen and Tzou-Chi Huang)

Chapter 50. Triacylglycerols in Vegetable Oils: Chemical Structure, Biosynthesis and Health Benefits
(Aicha O. Cherif)

Chapter 51. Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerol Stores and Physical Performance
(Miquel Martorell, Natalia Castro, Katherine Forman, Xavier Capó, Silvia Tejada, Antoni Sureda and Antoni Pons)

Chapter 52. Determination of Human Skin Color – Possibilities and Limitations
(Dejana Javoršek, Elizabeta Jevnikar and Sabina Bračko)

Chapter 53. Imaging of Chronic Pancreatitis: From Past to Future
(Reiji Sugita)

Chapter 54. An Influence of Gingivitis on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
(Jun-Ichi Suzuki)

Chapter 55. Sedentary Behavior in Multiple Sclerosis
(Rachel E. Klaren and Robert W. Motl)

Chapter 56. Injury and Recovery of the Periodontal Ligament: From a View Point of Developmental Biology
(Toshiyuki Kawakami, Hidetsugu Tsujigiwa, Tatsuo Takaya, Keiko Kaneko, Hiroaki Mimura, Saeka Matsuda, Rina Muraoka, Mihoko Tomida, Norimasa Okafuji, Takeo Fujii, Keisuke Nakano and Hitoshi Nagatsuka)

Chapter 57. Overview and History of Health Literacy in the United States and the Epidemiology of Low Health Literacy in Healthcare
(Raghav Gupta, Christopher J. Kim, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Ajith J. Thomas and Christopher S. Ogilvy)

Chapter 58. Printed Education Materials: Analysis, Text Development and Interventions
(Varun Ayyaswami, Anshum Sood, Rafey Feroze and Logan Pyle)

Chapter 59. Health Literacy: How the Internet has Changed the Way People Receive Health Information
(Srihari Balasubramanian, Jonathan A. Cohen and Jin K. Jung)

Chapter 60. Metrics for Assessment of Online Patient Education Materials
(Rafey A. Feroze and Michael M. McDowell)

Chapter 61. Methods and Impact of Improving Health Literacy
(Jasmine Kashkoush, Ahmed Kashkoush and Kamil W. Nowicki)

Chapter 62. Socioeconomic Considerations: Economic Impact of Health Literacy
(Prateek Agarwal, Divyansh Agarwal, Tejas Karnati, Tekchand Ramchand and Carl Kraus)

Chapter 63. Assessing Health Literacy in the Hispanic Community
(Ahmed Jorge, James Zhou and Diego Chaves-Gnecco)

Chapter 64. The New Natural Antioxidants in Health
(Margarete D. Bagatini, Roberta Schmatz, Sarah F. V. de Oliveira, Gabriela G. de Oliveira, Débora T. R. Silva, Andréia M. Cardoso, Beatriz S. R. Bonadiman, Grazielle C. Weis and Fabiano Carvalho)

Chapter 65. An Investigation by Big Data Analysis of the Urban Heat Island Effect on Human Health Problems
(Kayoko Yamamoto and Shota Sashiyama)

Chapter 66. A Literature Review of the Associations between Sedentary Behavior and Health-Related Outcomes in Japan
(Shigekazu Ukawa, Toru Shirakawa, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Satoyo Ikehara, Shigeru Inoue, Hiroyasu Iso and Akiko Tamakoshi)

Chapter 67. The Assessment and Management of Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain
(Mary O’Keeffe and Kieran O’Sullivan)

Chapter 68. Scleroderma and Its Mythological Background
(Ernst G. Jung)

Chapter 69. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress Induced by the Presence of Serotonin in Venoms
(David Calderón Guzmán, Hugo Juárez Olguín, Ernestina Hernández García, Gerardo Barragán Mejía, Maribel Ortiz Herrera and Norma Osnaya-Brizuela)

Chapter 70. Induced Resistance against Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus in Faba Bean Plants Using Salicylic Acid
(Esam K. F. Elbeshehy)

Chapter 71. Photosensitizing Activity of Xanthone and Chemopreventive Action of Its Derivatives in Phototoxicity
(Kazutaka Hirakawa)

Chapter 72. Advances in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
(Ioannis Ziogas and Georgios Tsoulfas)

Chapter 73. In Vitro Anti-Cancer Actions of Progesterone on Human Melanoma (BLM) Cells Based on Recovery Cell Growth, Adhesion and Migration Functions
(Pandurangan Ramaraj)

Chapter 74. Spinal Anesthesia for Ambulatory Surgery: Review of Literature
(M. Echeverri, M. J. Alcantara, A. Abengochea-Cotaina, J. V. Cuchillo and M. P. Argente)

Chapter 75. Evaluation of Low Dosage Spinal Anesthesia in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Patients
(M. Sholjakova, A. Sivevski, V. Durnev, M. Temelkovska Stevanovska, and E. Ivanov)

Chapter 76. Horner’s Syndrome after Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia: A Potential Complication
(Monica del-Rio-Vellosillo and Jose Javier Garcia-Medina)

Chapter 77. Chronobiology and Electrophysiology of the Rat Heart under Pentobarbital Anesthesia
(P. Svorc)
Chapter 78. PSI (Patient-Specific Instrumentation) Total Knee Arthroplasty: Literature Orientation and Personal Experience
(Francesco Atzori, Claudio Cuocolo, Fabrizio Buzzi, Luigi Sabatini and Roberto Russo)

Chapter 79. The Involvement of the Endocrine System in the Pathogenesis and Clinical Course of Ménière’s Disease
(Mitsuhiro Aoki)

Chapter 80. Can Gliadins Be Blamed as Unique Drivers of Immune Responses to Gluten?
(Ricardo Fernández Musoles and José Moisés Laparra Llopis)

Chapter 81. Raynaud’s Phenomenon in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and the Role of Capillaroscopy
(Slavica Pavlov-Dolijanovic and Nada Vujasinovic Stupar)

Chapter 82. Fatigue in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
(Deirdre Connolly)

Chapter 83. Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Rhupus Syndrome, Jaccoud’s Arthropathy and Osteonecrosis
(Syuichi Koarada and Yoshifumi Tada)

Chapter 84. Young Adults with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Pain, Social Impact, and Interventions to Improve Functioning
(Bradley Fevrier, Teminijesu Ige, Laura Nabors and Alicia Aikens)

Chapter 85. Synthesis of Bisphosphonates and Their Biomedical Applications
(Blessing A. Aderibigbe)

Chapter 86. Polymeric Nano-Vectors Based siRNA Delivery: A Blooming Field towards Better Therapeutics
(R. Mankamna Kumari, Nikita Sharma, Nidhi Gupta, Ramesh Chandra and Surendra Nimesh)

Chapter 87. The Use of Thrombophilia and Pharmacological Thromboprophylaxis Screening in Women: The Benefits of the RIETE Registry
(Pierpaolo Di Micco, Angeles Blanco Molina, Donatella Colaizzo, Francesco Dentali, Andrea Fontanella, Matteo Giorgi Pierfranceschi, Elvira Grandone, Benjamin Brenner and Manuel Monreal)

Chapter 88. Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426: A Model Organism for Moderate Thermophiles
(Hirokazu Suzuki)

Chapter 89. Glycans Provide Molecular Recognition Motifs Which Regulate Endoplasmic Protein Folding, Transport, Lysosomal Targeting, and are Used by Pattern Recognition Receptors in Pathogen Surveyance and Innate Immunity
(James Melrose)

Chapter 90. The Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity, and Atherosclerosis
(Kazutaka Aoki and Yasuo Terauchi)

Chapter 91. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: New Hopes for an Old Malady
(Shakeel Ahmed, Syed Rehan Ali and Anila Haroon)

Chapter 92. Surgical Approaches in Knee Arthroplasty
(Prasad Ellanti, Priyanka Ellanti and Thomas McCarthy)

Chapter 93. Enhancement of Antioxidant System by Lipoic Acid in Experimental Lung Tumorigenesis
(Pandi Anandakumar, Thiruvengadam Devaki and Manickam Kalappan Vanitha)

Chapter 94. Harm Associated with Sanitary Assistance in Hospitals: Characterization and Factors Related to Adverse Events through Two Measurement Tools
(A. Fajreldines, M. Pellizzari, M. Princz, E. Pittaro, D. Bernárdez, S. Torres, N. Panattieri, I. Gutiérrez, M. Ceriani, M. Seisdedos, A. Murano and C. Ortiz)

Chapter 95. The Role of Nursing Administration and Communication Regarding the Best Possible Care Provision
(Maria Saridi, George Kourtis, Michael Kourakos and Eleni Albani)

Chapter 96. The Role of Guideline-Based Decision Support Systems in Execution of Complex Standard Operating Procedures
(Gerasim I. Nazarenko, Elena B. Kleymenova, Svetlana A. Payushchik and Luibov P. Yashina)

Chapter 97. Patient Safety in the Hospital Environment: The Impact of the Economic Crisis on the Quality of the Provided Health Care Services
(Kyriakos Souliotis, Lampros Bizas, Maria Zafiropoulou and Maria Saridi)

Chapter 98. Patient Safety Culture in Greece: Narrowing the Gap between the Principles of Patient Safety Culture and Current Clinical Practice
(V. Kapaki and K. Souliotis)

Chapter 99. Immunosuppressive Therapy in Nephrology
(Jean Jeanov Filipov and Emil P. Dimitrov)

Chapter 100. Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation During Immunosuppressive Therapy
(Wai-Kay Seto and Man-Fung Yuen)

Chapter 101. Routine Vaccinations in the Setting of Immunosuppressive Therapies for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
(Priyam V. Tripathi, Nimisha K. Parekh and Douglas L. Nguyen)

Chapter 102. Kleine-Levin Syndrome
(J. J. Ortega-Albás, D. Leal, A. Martínez and S. Carratalá)
Chapter 103. Stress, HPA Dysfunction, Inflammation, and Psychomotor Disability in Preterm Birth Infants
(Masato Kantake)

Chapter 104. Fibrogenesis: Cellular and Molecular Basis
(Sha Li, Ning Wang and Yibin Feng)

Chapter 105. Melanin and Vision: The Role of Ocular Melanin, Melanosomes and Melanocytes in Eye Functionality
(F. Solano)

Chapter 106. Emerging Pathophysiology of Hypopituitarism
(Genzo Iguchi and Yutaka Takahashi)

Chapter 107. Benign and Malignant Anorectal Pathology: A Review Based on MRI
(Roberto Fornell-Perez and Maria Carmen Gonzalez-Dominguez)

Chapter 108. The Management of Haemorrhoids Includes Both Medical and Surgical Treatment
(Belén Manso-Abajo, Jaime Ruíz-Tóvar, David Alías, Ana Moreno, Gustavo Díaz, Ignacio Robles and Manuel Durán)

Chapter 109. Computer Aided Drug Designing: A Safari to Drug Formulation
(Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Riaz, Erum Yasmeen, Muhammad Qasim and Muhammad Shareef Masoud)

Chapter 110. Organochlorine Pesticides in Seafood: Occurrence and Risk Assessment
(Maria Luz Maia, Luísa Correia-Sá, Sara Sousa, Virgínia Cruz Fernandes, Cristina Delerue-Matos and Valentina F Domingues)

Chapter 111. Trans Fats and Their Regulation in Mexico
(Victoria Eugenia Bolado García, Gabriela Blasco López, José Luis Castillo Hernández, María del Rosario Rivera Barragán, and María Guadalupe Castro Martínez)

Chapter 112. Trans Fat Scenario in Argentina: Legislation, Consumption and Potential Replacement Solutions
(Manuel Durán, Ana Carolina Rodríguez-Negrette, María José Rodríguez-Batiller and María Lidia Herrera)

Chapter 113. The Use of Negative Pressure Therapy in the Management of Chronic Resistant Venous Ulceration
(David Christopher Kieser)

Chapter 114. Telemedicine in Chronic Respiratory Diseases
(Carlos Zamarrón)

Chapter 115. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Prolonged DHEA(S) Treatment
(Dubravka Svob Strac, Janko Samardzic, Julija Erhardt, Zeljka Krsnik, Jelena Martinovic, Dunja Drakulic, Lucija Tudor, Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Gordana Nedic Erjavec and Nela Pivac)

Chapter 116. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) Based Magnetic Hyperthermia: A Promising Therapy in Cancer Treatment
(Dipak Maity, Ganeshlenin Kandasamy and Atul Sudame)

Chapter 117. Miscarriages: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Potential Complications
(Mohamed Alkhatim Alsammani and Ishag Adam)

Chapter 118. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Psychological Impact of Perinatal Mortality
(Zaheera Saadia and Ishag Adam)

Chapter 119. An Outline of Asbestos-Related Health Effects
(David Y. Zhang, Zhiyuan Zhao and Liping Yu)

Chapter 121. The Role of Autoantibodies Towards TNF in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Bronchial Asthma
(J. A. Lopatnikova, E. A. Golikova, F. D. Kireev, N. S. Shkaruba, A. E. Sizikov, T. V. Kovalevskaya-Kucheryavenko, V. M. Nepomnyashih and S. V. Sennikov)

Chapter 122. Immunoglobulin E in Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: A New Finding
(Yasushi Ota, Shigeko Inokuma and Mutsunori Fujiwara)

Chapter 123. Dermatomyositis: Initial Evaluation and Screening Recommendations
(Meyeneobong Inyang and Lindsay C. Strowd)

Chapter 124. How to Diagnose and Treat Juvenile Dermatomyositis
(Rabheh Abdul Aziz and Charles Spencer)

Chapter 125. The Role of a Capillaroscopy in Dermatomyositis
(Slavica Pavlov-Dolijanovic and Nada Vujasinovic Stupar)

Chapter 126. Recent Topics in the Retinal Ganglion Cells
(Ken Asakawa)

Chapter 127. A Review of Acetylsalicylic Acid Resistance
(Bulut Demirel)

Chapter 128. The Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Myocardial Diseases
(Junichi Suzuki and Hirofumi Zempo)

Chapter 129. The Role of Diet in the Composition and Activity of Gut Microbiota
(Lucia Birošová and Petra Olejníková)

Chapter 130. Advanced Glycation End Products in Escherichia Coli K-12: A Sign of Aging
(Rositsa Tsekovska, Yordan Handzhiyski, Elitsa Boteva, Kiril Kirilov, Toshimitsu Niwa, Ivan Ivanov and Roumyana Mironova)

Chapter 131. Haploinsufficient Tumor Suppressor Genes
(Kazushi Inoue and Elizabeth A. Fry)

Chapter 132. Animal Models of Respiratory Distress in Neonates
(Daniela Mokra)

Chapter 133. Professional Training in the Workup of Bleeding Disorders in Women: Obstetrics-Gynecology Residency and Women’s Health Advanced Practice Nursing
(Angelo P. Giardino, Jennifer E. Dietrich and Jennifer Kurkowski)

Chapter 134. Microbial Dynamics Characterization during the Composting Process of Organic Wastes
(Loubna El Fels, Abdelghani El Asli, Souad Loqman, Yedir Ouhdouch and Mohamed Hafidi)

Chapter 135. The History of Phototherapy
(E. Molinelli, G. Ganzetti, A. Campanati, V. Brisigotti and A. Offidani)

Chapter 136. Ultraviolet Light and Phototherapy
(E. Molinelli, G. Ganzetti, A. Campanati, V. Brisigotti and A. Offidani)

Chapter 137 Phototherapy and Photochemotherapy for Psoriasis
(A. Campanati, G. Ganzetti, E. Molinelli, V. Brisigotti and A. Offidani)

Chapter 138 Phototherapy and Photochemotherapy for Atopic Dermatitis
(G. Ganzetti, A. Campanati, E. Molinelli, V. Brisigotti and A. Offidani)
Chapter 139 Phototherapy and Photochemotherapy for Vitiligo
(V. Brisigotti, G. Ganzetti, A. Campanati, E. Molinelli and A. Offidani)

Chapter 140 Phototherapy and Lymphoproliferative Disorders
(E. Molinelli, G. Ganzetti, A. Campanati, V. Brisigotti and A. Offidani)

Chapter 141. Ectopic Pregnancy: Risk Factors, Medical Management and Potential Complications
(Mohamed Alkhatim Alsammani)

Chapter 142. The Role of Glucocorticoid Receptor Sensitivity in Immunopathology
(María Emilia Di Rosso, Darío Gerardo Scublinsky and Ana María Genaro)

Chapter 143. The Usefulness of an Initial Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy with a Delayed Use of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Kawasaki Disease
(Toshimasa Nakada)

Chapter 144. Advanced Glycation End Products: Formation, Metabolism and Role in Diabetic Vascular Complications
(Savita Bansal, Pawan Kumar Kare, Ashok Kumar Tripathi and Sri Venkata Madhu)

Chapter 145. Analytical Methods for the Determination of Fluoroquinolones in Pharmaceutical Preparations, Biological Fluids and Degraded Solutions
(Iqbal Ahmad, Rahila Bano, Muhammad Ali Sheraz, Sofia Ahmed, Kiran Qadeer and Zubair Anwar)

Chapter 146. Theoretical Characterization of Carvacrol, Thymol and Related Compounds: Structural Requirements for Their Antibacterial Activity
(Sergio Andrade-Ochoa, Luvia Enid Sánchez-Torres, Luz María Rodríguez-Valdéz, Guadalupe Virginia Nevárez-Moorillón and Blanca Estela Rivera-Chavira)

Chapter 147. Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 (CTHRC1), a Pituitary Hormone
(Volkhard Lindner and Christine W. Duarte)

Chapter 148. Nitric Oxide and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
(Ivana Resanovic, Milan Obradovic, Julijana Stanimirovic, Desanka Cenic-Milosevic, Branislava Vukovic, Djordje Radak and Esma R. Isenovic)

Chapter 149. Cloud Point Extraction of Parabens from Water Samples
(M. S. Norseyrihan, M. S. Noorashikin and H. Z. Hazrina)

Chapter 150. The Pacific Sleeper Shark Somniosus pacificus: A Deterrence for Existing Fisheries or a Promising Target?
(A. M. Orlov)

Chapter 151. Intrauterine Devices (IUD): Clinical Aspects, Side Effects and Potential Complications
(Kavitha Krishnamoorthy and Usha Verma)

Chapter 152. New Strategies to Reduce the Burst Release Effect of Copper-Based IUDs
(Claudia A. Grillo and Mónica A. Fernández Lorenzo de Mele)

Chapter 153. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes (E2s)
(Masashi Watanabe and Shigetsugu Hatakeyama)

Chapter 154. Innate Immunity: Advances in Insight, Research and Treatment
(Samuel Victor Nuvor)

Chapter 155. Basiliximab: Well-Established as an Immunosuppressive Therapeutic Antibody, but Falsifying the Outcome of Lymphocytotoxicity-Based Standard Cross-Matching
(Gerald Schlaf and Wolfgang Altermann)

Chapter 156. Bismuth Ions, Gastrins, and Their Biological Activity in the Gastrointestinal Tract
(Graham S. Baldwin)

Chapter 157. The Risks and Benefits of Barium Enema
)María Carmona Agúndez, Jaime Ruiz-Tovar and Manuel Durán)

Chapter 158. No Ventilatory Complications of ARDS: Difficult Weaning and Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness
(Carolina Romero-Dapueto and Rodrigo L. Castillo)

Chapter 159. The Management of a Quadricep Hematoma from Acute Injury to the End Stage of Rehabilitation: A Critical Discussion
(Cheuk Woon Chien and Wai Tong Chien)

Chapter 160. Obesity and Subclinical Inflammation in Adolescents
(Emilio González-Jiménez)

Chapter 161. Advances in the Diagnosis of Bullous Pemphigoid
(Kossara Drenovska, and Snejina Vassileva)

Chapter 162. Bullous Pemphigoid in Children: Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment
(Magdalena Żychowska)

Chapter 163. Childhood Bullous Pemphigoid
(Valeria Mateeva, Grisha Mateev, Kossara Drenovska and Snejina Vassileva)

Chapter 164. Induced Bullous Pemphigoid
(Karen Manuelyan, Kossara Drenovska, Grisha Mateev and Snejina Vassileva)

Chapter 165. Drug-Induced Bullous Pemphigoid: New Drugs, Diagnosis, Treatment Challenges, and Research Targets
(Francisco Manuel Ildefonso Mendonça and Francisco José Martín-Gutierrez)

Chapter 166. The Role of Dapsone in the Treatment of Bullous Pemphigoid
(Magdalena Żychowska)

Chapter 167. Nipah Virus: What Has Been Learned since the Discovery of This Deadly Virus Nearly Two Decades Ago?
(Benjamin A. Satterfield)

Chapter 168. Bursitis in Polymyalgia Rheumatica
(Zsuzsanna M. Schmidt, Adam R. Mester and Gyula Poór)

Chapter 169. Fetal Sinus Bradycardia
(Takekazu Miyoshi)

Chapter 170. The Physiology of Natriuretic Peptides
(Olli Arjamaa)

Chapter 171. Detoxification of Singlet Oxygen: Raising up Crop Yield and the Clinical Application
(Kohji Hasunuma)

Chapter 172. Prosthesis: Load Cell Applicability to Outcome Measurement
(Edward S. Neumann, Laurent Frossard, Maria Ramos and Kevin Bidwell)

Chapter 173. Cdk5 and Catalase: Interaction of Neuronal Regulation Systems
(Jared S. Rosenblum, Brandon Rosenblum, Harish Pant, James Mack and William Schreiber)

Chapter 174. Noroviruses in Brazil
(Marize Pereira Miagostovich and Julia Monassa Fioretti)

Chapter 175. Noroviruses in Italy
(Elisabetta Suffredini and Giuseppina La Rosa)

Chapter 176. Noroviruses in Dogs
(João Rodrigo Mesquita and Maria São José Nascimento)

Chapter 177. Bayesian Coalescent Inference Demonstrates Differences in Evolutionary Dynamics among Norovirus GII Genotypes
(Carmen F. Manso and Jesús L. Romalde)

Chapter 178. Considerations for Exposure and Dose-Response Assessment in Norovirus QMRA
(Nicole A. Van Abel, Jason Shao, Mary E. Schoen, John C. Kissel and J. Scott Meschke)

Chapter 179. Solar Radiation and Photo-Fenton Systems: Novel Applications for Norovirus Disinfection in Water
(Enrique Rivadulla, Irene García-Fernández, Jesús L. Romalde, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez and David Polo)

Chapter 180. High Pressure Processing’s Potential to Inactivate Noroviruses and Other Foodborne Viruses
(David H. Kingsley)

Chapter 181. Aptamer: The Potential Application to Norovirus Research, Diagnosis, and Therapeutics
(Seiya Hirano, Daisuke Sano, Satoshi Okabe and Masaaki Kitajima)

Chapter 182. The Journey Towards an Effective Norovirus Vaccine
(Jesús L. Romalde)

Chapter 183. Bacterial Biofilms: The Structure, Development and Potential of Plant Compounds for Alternative Control
(Maiara C. Moura, Thiago H. Napoleão, Patrícia M. G. Paiva and Luana C. B. B. Coelho)

Chapter 184. Bactericidal Agents: Common Mechanisms of Action and Strategy
(Heejeong Lee and Dong Gun Lee)

Chapter 185. Food Choices after Bariatric Surgery: Are There Changes in Oral Medium Characteristics and Food Perception?
(Elsa Lamy, Fernando Capela e Silva and Isabel do Carmo)

Chapter 186. Taxane-Induced Peripheral Neurotoxicity: A Review
(Akiko Otake, Yutaka Ueda, Shinya Matsuzaki, Kiyoshi Yoshino and Tadashi Kimura)

Chapter 187. The Clinical Significance of Pathological Findings in the Long-Term Prognosis and Biochemical Response to Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Primary Biliary Cholangitis
(Tadashi Namisaki, Kei Moriya, Mitsuteru Kitade, Hideto Kawaratani, Kosuke Takeda, Yasushi Okura, Kosuke Kaji, Hiroaki Takaya, Yasuhiko Sawada, Kenichiro Seki, Norihisa Nishimura, Shinya Sato, Junichi Yamao, Akira Mitoro, Masakazu Uejima, Tsuyoshi Mashitani, Naotaka Shimozato, Masanori Furukawa, Keisuke Nakanishi, Soichiro Saikawa, Takuya Kubo and Hitoshi Yoshiji)

Chapter 188. Gastrointestinal IgG4 Related Disease
(Tushar Kulkarni and Abhijai Singh)

Chapter 189. Retinol as an Active Molecule
(Malwina Zasada, Agata Markiewicz, Anna Erkiert-Polguj and Elzbieta Budzisz)

Chapter 190. Whiplash: Risk Factors, Management and Long-Term Effects
(Gunnel A. L. Berry)

Chapter 191. The Prevention of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Infants
(Silvia Vandini, Carlotta Biagi, Luca Pierantoni and Marcello Lanari)

Chapter 192. The Management and Treatment of Acute Bronchiolitis in Infants
(Silvia Vandini, Carlotta Biagi, Luca Pierantoni and Marcello Lanari)

Chapter 193. Predictors of Clinical Deterioration in Bronchiolitis: A Guide to Decisions Concerning Hospitalization and Referrals to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
(Jacopo Colombo, Matteo Brioni, Valeria Cavalleri, Maria Chiara Gattoni, Mirco Nacoti and Ezio Bonanomi)

Chapter 194. A Practical, Pathophysiology-Based Approach to Severe Bronchiolitis
(Matteo Brioni, Valeria Cavalleri, Jacopo Colombo, Isabella Pellicioli, Mirco Nacoti and Ezio Bonanomi)

Chapter 195. Cefaclor: Clinical, Biochemical, Analytical and Stability Aspects
(Adeel Arsalan, Iqbal Ahmad and Syed Abid Ali)

Chapter 196. Microbial Responses and Resistance to Chloramphenicol
(Jyumpei Kobayashi and Hirokazu Suzuki)

Chapter 197. Cetirizine: Indications, Contraindications and Adverse Effects
(Nicolas Andrews Mungo, Keerthi Reddy, Lyda Cuervo-Pardo and Alexei Gonzalez-Estrada)

Chapter 198. Alteration of Perforin Status Caused by Asbestos Exposure in CTL and NK Cells
(Naoko Kumagai-Takei, Yasumitsu Nishimura, Hidenori Matsuzaki, Suni Lee, Kei Yoshitome, Shoko Yamamoto, Miho Ikeda, Tamayo Hatayama, Megumi Maeda and Takemi Otsuki)

Chapter 199. Deregulation of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF)-Dependent Cell Proliferation through Potentiated and Sustained Activation of 1-Integrin, Induced by Tenascin-C-Derived Peptide TNIIIA2
(Takuya Iyoda and Fumio Fukai)

Chapter 200. Intra-Operative Biliary Imaging Techniques with Discussion on Routine vs. Selective Intra-Operative Cholangiography
(Jairo A. Espinosa, Timothy H. Truong, Leandra H. Burke and Earl M. Norman)

Chapter 201. Fluorescence Cholangiography Using Indocyanine Green: Development History and Clinical Applications
(Takeaki Ishizawa, Akio Saiura and Norihiro Kokudo)

Chapter 202. Is Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy Feasible in Patients with Previous Ipsilateral Thyroid Surgery?
(Roberto de la Plaza Llamas, José Manuel Ramia Ángel, Vladimir Arteaga Peralta, Cristina García Amador, Aylhín Joana López Marcano, Aníbal Armando Medina Velasco and Begoña González Sierra)

Chapter 203. Before Disaster Happens: Multiple Forms of Childhood Maltreatment
(Ewa Otto-Buczkowska and Anna Lorenc)

Chapter 204. Managing Influenza Pandemics: Past and Future
(Nancy Bristow, Dora Anne Mills and Timothy Soucy)

Chapter 205. The Dilemma of Typhoid Mary: Personal Liberty versus Public Health
(Judith Walzer Leavitt)

Chapter 206. Preparedness in Public Health: A Never-ending Need
(José Montero)

Chapter 207. From Smallpox to Polio: How America Embraced Vaccines
(M. Girard Dorsey)

Chapter 208. Immunization: Rights, Responsibilities, Regulations, and Results
(Alan R. Hinman)

Chapter 209. Refugee Health in the US: From International Policies to the Affordable Care Act
(Paul Geltman)

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