Medicine Research Summaries. Volume 18

Zhongwen Liáng (Editor)
Bibao Zhang (Editor)

Series: Medicine Research Summaries
BISAC: MED014000

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This book is a continuation of the book Medicine Researcher Biographical Sketches and Research Summaries which compiles biographical sketches of top professionals in the field of medicinal research, as well as research summaries from a number of different focuses in this important field. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Preface

Chapter 1. Patho-Physiology of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease
(Vikas Singhal)

Chapter 2. Clinical Practice for Extraesophageal Reflux and the Outcome
(Zhi-Wei Hu, Ji-Min Wu and Zhong-Gao Wang)

Chapter 3. Extraesophageal Reflux and Sleep Microarchitecture Disturbance and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness
(Wilfried Böhning and Else Briese)

Chapter 4. Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
(Leonardo Rios Diniz and Wagner Rodrigues Martins)

Chapter 5. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): Update in the Surgical Approach and Long-Term Outcome
(Jaime Ruiz-Tovar and Carolina Llavero)

Chapter 6. The Role of Temporomandibular Disorders in the Genesis of Tinnitus
(Federico Sireci, Pietro Salvago, Giuseppe Messina, Fulvio Plescia, and Francesco Martines)

Chapter 7. Tinnitus and Audiological Findings: Hyperacusis, Stapedial Reflex and Recruitment Phenomenon
(Fernando Laffitte Fernandes, Vanessa Brito Campoy Rocha, Alexandre Caixeta Guimarães, Guita Stoler and Reinaldo Jordão Gusmão)

Chapter 8. Pharmacological Treatment of Tinnitus
(Ricardo Rodrigues Figueiredo, Andréia Aparecida de Azevedo and Norma de Oliveira Penido)

Chapter 9. Emerging Pharmacological Treatments of Tinnitus
(Fulvio Plescia, Carla Cannizzaro, Anna Brancato, Federico Sireci, Pietro Salvago and Francesco Martines)

Chapter 10. Electrical Stimulation for the Treatment of Tinnitus, Past, Present and Future
(A. J. Iwata, C. W. Swegal and S. F. Ahsan)

Chapter 11. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Tinnitus Treatment
(Patricia Ciminelli)

Chapter 12. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Tinnitus Therapy
(Katarzyna Pawlak-Osińska, Henryk Kaźmierczak, Stanisław Osiński and Lukasz Sielski)

Chapter 13. The Role of Remifentanil in Obstetric Analgesia: A Review
(Petr Stourac, Olga Smekalova, Martina Kosinova, Hana Harazim, Petr Janku and Martin Huser)

Chapter 14. Oculomotor Palsy after Obstetric Anesthesia
(Monica del-Rio-Vellosillo, Jose Javier Garcia-Medina, Antonio Abengochea-Cotaina and Maria Dolores Pinazo-Duran)

Chapter 15. Differentiation between Benign and Malignant Ovarian Cysts: Contemporary Diagnostic Procedures
(Milan Terzic and Jelena Dotlic)

Chapter 16. Ovarian Cysts in Dogs’ Practice
(Rita Payan-Carreira and Maria dos Anjos Pires)

Chapter 17. Papain-Based Carious Tissue Removal: From Biochemical Aspects to Clinical Effectiveness
(A. A. Neves, P. M. Pires, A. V. Pintor and L. G. Primo)

Chapter 18. Jaundice and Pruritis: Pathophysiology and Management
(Jaclyn Aramoana, Ramez Bassari and Jonathan Koea)

Chapter 19. Rare Causes of Obstructive Jaundice
(Lorenzo Dioscoridi, Damiano Bisogni and Raffaele Manta)

Chapter 20. Stability of Sulfacetamide in Pharmaceutical Preparations: A Review
(Sofia Ahmed, Noureen Anwar, Muhammad Ali Sheraz and Iqbal Ahmad)

Chapter 21. Post-Traumatic Inflammation of the White Matter; New Disease for Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
(Jacek M. Kwiecien)

Chapter 22. The Effects of Dexamethasone in Pre and Post Operative Surgery
(Jun-Beom Park) 

Chapter 23. Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant for Noninfectious Uveitis
(Omer Trivizki and Zohar Habot-Wilner)

Chapter 24. Advances and Challenges in Structural Analysis of Milk Biomolecules Using Modern Mass Spectrometry Techniques
(Marko Jovanović)

Chapter 25. Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita
(Kossara Drenovska and Snejina Vassileva)

Chapter 26. Immunofluorescence Mapping for Diagnosis of Inherited Epidermolysis Bullosa
(Valeria Mateeva, Grisha Mateev and Snejina Vassileva )

Chapter 27. Nutrition for Children and Adolescents with Epidermolysis Bullosa
(Ana Paula Caio Zidório, Eliane Said Dutra and Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho)

Chapter 28. Wound Healing and Skin Care in Inherited Epidermolysis Bullosa
(Yordanova Ivelina, Vassileva Snejina and Gospodinov Dimitar)

Chapter 29. Strategies Integrating Gene Therapy and Tissue Engineering into the Development of Treatments for Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa
(Angela Dakiw Piaceski, Danielle Larouche, Francis Bisson, Karim Ghani, Manuel Caruso and Lucie Germain)

Chapter 30. Inflammatory Markers, Oncogenes, and Tumor Suppressor Cell Cycle Regulators in Benign, Premalignant and Malignant Skin Lesions
(Ana Maria Abreu-Vélez, Juliana Calle-Isaza, Yulieth Alexandra Upegui-Zapata, Daniel Alberto Vásquez-Hincapié, Eduardo Upegui-Quiceño, Natalia Regina Mesa-Herrera, Carlos Andrés Valencia-Yepes, Jorge Enrique Velasquez-Velez and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 31. Vimentin, Bromodeoxyuridine and Topoisomerase II Α Expression in a Mildly Dysplastic Compound Nevus
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Carlos Andres Valencia-Yepes and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 32. A Basal Cell Carcinoma with Sebaceous and Squamous Differentiation, with Expression of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, P27Kip1 and Vimentin
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, DA Vásquez-Hincapié and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 33. A Case of an Inflamed Precancerous Wart and Immune Response with Factor XIIIA, IgD, CD11c/CD18 and CD79A
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Billie L. Jackson and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 34. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Immunohistochemical Staining Reveals Lateral Satellitosis, Undetected via Hematoxylin and Eosin
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Yulieth Alexandra Upegui-Zapata and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 35. Immunologic and Cell Cycle Regulatory Markers in an Inflamed Actinic Keratosis
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Harry D. Vildibill and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 36. Ribosomal Protein S6-PS240, CD45 and Cyclooxygenase-2 in an Inflamed Mildly Dysplastic Junctional Nevus
(Ana Maria Abreu-Velez, Charles J. Douchy and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 37. Epidermis Above a Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma Overexpressing Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Billie L. Jackson and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 38. Epidermal Tissue Near a Basal Cell Carcinoma Overexpresses Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, Cyclin D1, Topoisomerase IIα, KI-67 and p27kip1
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Billie L. Jackson and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 39. Directed Host Immune Response against a Primary Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Vickie M. Brown and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 40. Double Color Immunohistochemistry Analysis of the Immune Response, Angiolymphatic Invasion and Tumor Mitotic Rate in A Superficial Spreading Malignant Melanoma
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, E. D. DeLoach and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 41. Aggressive Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma with Expression of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and B-Cell Lymphoma 2 Gene
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Rick Lockhart and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 42. Octamer Transcription Factor-2 (OCT-2) and CD25 Expression in a Recurrent Cutaneous Melanoma
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Harry D. Vildibill and Michael S. Howard)

Chapter 43. Pemphigus Vulgaris: Scientific Basis, Clinical Presentations, Diagnostic Methodology and Management Strategies
(Lawrence S. Chan)

Chapter 44. Isolation of Mitotic Chromosomes From HeLa and Other Cells: Contributions to Understanding Chromosome Biology
(James R. Paulson)

Chapter 45. Male Fertility Control and Family Planning
(Daulat R. P. Tulsiani and Aida Abou-Haila)

Chapter 46. Risk Factors Associated with Smoking during Pregnancy
(M. Carmen Míguez and Beatriz Pereira)

Chapter 47. The Impact of BVDV Presence on Fetal Bovine Serum Used in the Biotechnology Industry
(Roberto Becht Flatschart, Lúcio Ayres Caldas, Davi de Oliveira Almeida, Nathália Correia dos Santos, Leonardo da Cunha Boldrini, José Mauro Granjeiro and Aurea Valadares Folgueras-Flatschart)

Chapter 48. Immunomodulation Mechanisms Developed by Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Its Role in the Establishment of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex
(F. Romero-Palomo, J. C. Gómez-Villamandos and M. A. Risalde)

Chapter 49. Diagnosis, Prognosis and Management of Polycythemia Vera
(Mohammad O. Khalil and Mohamad Cherry)

Chapter 50. Polycythemia Vera: Current Management and Emerging Treatment
(Harinder Gill and Anskar Y. H. Leung)

Chapter 51. Tea Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Diseases
(Jun-ichi Suzuki)

Chapter 52. Diverticular Disease and Diverticulitis: General Overview and Updated Evidences
(Luis García-Catalá, Pedro Moya, Antonio Arroyo, Laura Armañanzas and Rafael Calpena)

Chapter 53. Diverticular Disease and Diverticulitis: Symptoms, Therapeutic Options and Long-Term Outcomes
(Sara López Goye, Jaime Ruíz-Tovar Polo, Juan José Carrera Alvarez, Cristina Nevado García, Belen Manso Abajo, Montiel Jiménez Fuertes, Ana Moreno Posadas and Manuel Durán Poveda)

Chapter 54. Colonic Diverticular Disease and Diverticulitis: Symptoms, Treatment Options and Long-Term Health Outcomes
(Yen-Chun Chen, Chih-Wei Tseng, Wu Chin-Chia, Yu-Hsi Hsieh, Kuo-Chih Tseng and Tsung-Hsing Hung)

Chapter 55. Acute Complicated Diverticulitis: Evolving Management Strategies
(Devin Hosein and Shiva Seetahal)

Chapter 56. Diverticulitis of the Right Colon
(Nidal Issa and Yaniv Fenig)

Chapter 57. Right Colon Diverticulitis
(Heung-Kwon Oh, Seung-Bum Ryoo and Kyu Joo Park)

Chapter 58. Glottal Incompetence: Proposal of an Evidence Based Therapy
(Susana Vaz-Freitas and Pedro Melo Pestana)

Chapter 59. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis in Children
(Giselle Cuestas, Juan Agustín Rodríguez D’Aquila, Máximo Rodríguez D’Aquila and Hugo Rodríguez)

Chapter 60. Pediatric Voice Therapy: Big Challenge with Little People
(Susana Vaz-Freitas and Pedro Melo Pestana)

Chapter 61. State of Voice Quality in Pedagogues at Primary Schools
(Kristýna Vojkovská, Eva Mrázková and Petra Sachová)

Chapter 62. A Review on the Application of High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in the Quality Control of Traditional Chinese Medicines
(Xian-Long Cheng, Ling-Yun Ma, Ming-Hua Li, Wei Liu, Wen-Juan Zhang, Feng Wei and Shuang-Cheng Ma)

Chapter 63. Phytochemicals from Honey: A Review for the Roles in Floral Identification and Authentication
(Shi Shen and Shuang-Qing Zhang)

Chapter 64. Implementation and Practice of Safety Evaluation of Natural Products
(Zhi-Jian Li, Guo-Lin Zhao, Lan-Lan Zhang, Qin Dou, Ming Yan and Aibai Silafu)

Chapter 65. Issues to Be Considered about Safety Evaluation of Natural Products
(Shi-Fen Dong, Shuo-Feng Zhang and Hui Zhao)

Chapter 66. Clinical Pathology in Safety Evaluation of Natural Products
(Yu-Fa Miao, Yan Huo, Xing-Chao Geng, Jian-Jun Lv and Bo Li)

Chapter 67. Registration Regulations Requirements for Safety Evaluation of Natural Products
(Xiao-Yu Fan, Jing-Yi Feng, Tian-Tian Liu, Gen-Bei Wang, Xiaohui Ma and Hong-Tao Jin)

Chapter 68. Pharmacokinetics Based Herb-Drug Interactions: Mechanism, Prediction and Management
(Yingfei Li, Shuai Yuan, Suyun Li and Guoxin Ji)

Chapter 69. The Application of DNA Molecular Techniques in Identification of Traditional Chinese Medicine
(Wen-Juan Zhang, Xian-Long Cheng, Feng Wei and Shuang-Cheng Ma)

Chapter 70. Safety Evaluation of Phytosterols
(Lifang Gao)

Chapter 71. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and Metabolic Syndrome
(Tongtong Xu, Sige Zou, Joshua D. Lambert and Yaning Sun)

Chapter 72. North American Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon) Mediated Decreases in Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells In Vitro Occurs via Modulation of Key Cellular Signaling Activities
(Amanda Thomas, Kunal Patel, Catherine Neto and Robert Hurta)

Chapter 73. Dietary Whole Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Modulates Plasma Cholesterol Profiles and Prevents Liver Toxicity in Response to Cholesterol-Feeding in the JCR: LA-CP Corpulent Rat Model
(Colin Stetson, Colleen MacDougall, Anne Liberty, Catherine Neto, Katherine Gottschall-Pass and Robert Hurta)

Chapter 74. Pericytes: Cell Biology, Functions and Role in Human Atherogenesis 157
(Alexander N. Orekhov and Ekaterina A. Ivanova)

Chapter 75. Putative Role of Pericytes in Thyroid Gland and Rare/Orphan Thyroid Tumors 159
(Danica Vodopivec and Carmelo Nucera)

Chapter 76. Luteinizing and Follicle-Stimulating Hormones in Women: Synthesis, Regulation and Physiological Effects 161
(M. R. Espejo-Catena and N. Veiga Canuto)

Chapter 77. Legionellosis: Epidemiology, Clinical Features and Control Strategies 163
(Enrique Gea-Izquierdo)

Chapter 78. Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Insights on Neuronal Vulnerability and Astrocytic Abnormalities on Stroke
(Kazuo Yamagata)

Chapter 79. The Role of the Scientist in Community – Intertwining Immunology and Biochemistry Perspectives on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
(S. Muhammad, A. Antonopollos, D. Mathews and J. Oliver)

Chapter 80. Corneal Neovascularization: Update on Pathogenesis and Advances in Treatment Strategies
(J. Behaegel, S. Ni Dhubhghaill, C. Koppen and N. Zakaria)

Chapter 81. Mechanisms of Photoaging
(Jeffrey F. Scott, Elma Baron and Meg R. Gerstenblith)

Chapter 82. Medication Error Reduction at Transitions of Care Through a Better Multiciplinary Intervention
(Ana Fajreldines, Laura Davide, Diego Bernárdez and Marcelo Pellizzari)

Chapter 83. Biological and Non-Biological Therapy in Pemphigus: An Updated Therapeutic Guide
(Andrés Tirado-Sánchez)

Chapter 84. Basic Laser Physics and Laser Tissue Interactions
(Ashraf Badawi)

Chapter 85. Practical Tips of Laser Safety
(Ashraf Badawi)

Chapter 86. Lasers in Vascular Lesions
(Adam S. Aldahan, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri and Ashraf Badawi)

Chapter 87. Laser-Assisted Hair Reduction
(Vidhi V. Shah, Stephanie Mlacker and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 88. Laser Treatment of Pigmented Lesions and Tattoos
(Sahal Samarkandy, Mohammed Alsaidan, Adam Aldahan and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 89. Role of Lasers in Facial Rejuvenation
(Ashraf Badawi)

Chapter 90. Lasers for Scars
(Stephanie Mlacker, Vidhi V. Shah, Harleen Arora and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 91. Laser Treatment for Acne
(Faiza Al Ali)

Chapter 92. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)
(Faiza Al Ali)

Chapter 93. BRICS vs. N-11: Population Aging and Health Expenditures in Global Emerging Markets- Historicals Records and UN Forecasts 1975 – 2025
(Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Genc Burazeri, Olivera Milovanovic, Nemanja Rancic and Ulrich Laaser)

Chapter 94. What Can Emerging Markets Learn from a Public Long-Term Care Insurance System from a Mature Country: Experimental Study?
(Weihong Zeng, ChiaChing Chen, Tetsuji Yamada, Joseph Harris III, Osama Hamed, Babu N. S. Dasari, I-Ming Chiu and Tadashi Yamada)

Chapter 95. Incorporation of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis into
Health Technology Assessment: Experiences and Challenges from Bulgaria
(Georgi Iskrov, Ralitsa Kuncheva and Rumen Stefanov)

Chapter 96. Willingness-to-Pay for a New Pharmaceutical: Is It Worth the Money? Whose Money?
(Michèle Sennhauser and Peter Zweifel)

Chapter 97. The Health Economics of Non-Epileptic Attack Disorder in Ireland
(James A. Magee and Gillian M. Fortune)

Chapter 98. Legislative Challenges for the Polish Public Health System in the Opinions of Stakeholders
(Piotr Romaniuk and Katarzyna Brukało)

Chapter 99. How to Measure Family Caregiver’s Experience with Long-Term Care in Traditional East-Asian Societies: An Example of Adjusting the Caregiver Reaction Assessment Scale Using Japanese Data
(Seiritsu Ogura and Bernard van den Berg)

Chapter 100. Molecular Biology Approaches for Dengue Diagnosis and Research in Brazil: An Overview
(Fernanda de Bruycker-Nogueira, Nieli Rodrigues da Costa Faria, Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes, Manoela Heringer, Thaís Chouin-Carneiro, Patricia Carvalho de Sequeira, Monique da Rocha Queiroz Lima, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis and Flavia Barreto dos Santos)

Chapter 101. Predictors of Dengue Fever versus Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Infections among Indonesian Adults in Bandung, West Java
(Charmagne G. Beckett, Herman Kosasih, Bachti Alisjahbana, Irani F Rudiman, Susana Widjaja, Djoko Yuwono, Nurhayati, Nugroho H. Susanto, HadiJusuf , Patrick J. Blair, Timothy H. Burgess, Maya Williams and Kevin R. Porter)

Chapter 102. Pulmonary Manifestations of Reflux Esophagitis in Infancy: Identifying the Problem and Developing Age Appropriate Solutions
(John Bishara, Sindhu Harsha Vardhan and Sathyaprasad Burjonrappa)

Chapter 103. Role of Natural Products on Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease Prevention and Treatment
(Sirima Mahattanadul)

Chapter 104. Pathogenesis of Syringomyelia Induced by Adhesive Arachnoiditis: Experimental Alternations in the Spinal Cord After Kaolin Injection into Subarachnoid Space in Rabbits
(Shigeru Kobayashi)

Chapter 105. Adult Syringomyelia: Classification, Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Approaches
(F. Cacciola, P. Gallina, R. Conti and N. Di Lorenzo)

Chapter 106. Widespread Dissemination of Legionella pneumophila in Aquatic Environments
(Masato Tachibana, Hiroshi Asakura and Masahisa Watarai) 

Chapter 107. The Biomechanics of Ankle Joint and the Design of Total Ankle Replacements
(Madhusudhan Nannaparaju, Wasim S. Khan and Krishna Vemulapalli)

Chapter 108. Aseptic Loosening of Arthroplasty: A Valuable Clinical Model for Nanotoxicology Research
(Chunming Wang and Lei Dong)

Chapter 109. Analysis and Treatment of Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity
(Gabriel Martínez-Capoccioni, Selvyn González-Melgar and Carlos Martín-Martín)

Chapter 110. Augmentation Rhinoplasty with Silicone Implant in Asians
(Apirag Chuangsuwanich)

Chapter 111. Surgical Treatment of Resectable, Borderline Resectable and Locally Advanced Unresectable Pancreatic Cancers
(Vladimir Djordjevic, Aleksandra Buha and Mirko Kerkez)

Chapter 112. Pulmonary Embolism in Old Age: Has It Any Exceptionality and Uniqueness?
(D. Prudius and P. Weber)

Chapter 113. The Dark Side of Zolpidem: A Meeting Point between Emergency Physician and Forensic Toxicologist
(Foscarina Della Rocca, Miranda Zoleo, Francesca Pignatiello, Rossella Snenghi and Donata Favretto)

Chapter 114. Symptoms, Management and Therapy
(Diana Deleanu)

Chapter 115. Peanut Allergens
(Maria Pele and Carmen Cimpeanu)

Chapter 116. Peanut Allergens Cross Reactivity and Stability
(Carmen Cimpeanu and Maria Pele)

Chapter 117. Methods for Detecting, Quantifying and Characterising Peanut Allergens
(Maria Pele and Carmen Cimpeanu)

Chapter 118. Peanut Allergies: Prevention
(Elena Maria Draghici)

Chapter 119. Amenorrhea: Introduction, Definitions and Classification
(Oliver Chukwujekwu Ezechi)

Chapter 120. Menstrual Physiology and Abnormalities
(Endurance Ediriverere Aghahowa and Oliver Chukwujekwu Ezechi)

Chapter 121. Evaluation of Amenorrhea
(Oliver Chukwujekwu Ezechi)

Chapter 122. Pharmacotherapy of Amenorrhea
(Getnet Yimer Ali, Alemayehu Toma and Yifru Berhan)

Chapter 123. Management of Amenorrhea in Adolescents
(Titilola Abike Gbajabiamila, Agatha Eileen Wapmuk, and Oliver Chukwujekwu Ezechi)

Chapter 124. Testicular Feminization Syndrome
(Christian Chigozie Makwe)

Chapter 125. Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
(Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora and Maryjoanne Chinyem Umeora)

Chapter 126. Gonadal Dysgenesis
(Cyril C. Dim)

Chapter 127. Cryptomenorrhea
(Carol Odula and Oliver Chukwujekwu Ezechi)

Chapter 128. Kallmann’s Syndrome
(Leonard Ogbonna Ajah and Oliver Chukwujekwu Ezechi)

Chapter 129. Asherman’s Syndrome
(Tinuade Abimbola Oyebode)

Chapter 130. Sheehan’s Syndrome
(Ayodeji A. Oluwole)

Chapter 131. Hyperprolactinaemia
(Preye Owen Fiebai and Ngozi Clare Orazulike)

Chapter 132. Premature Ovarian Failure
(Ngozi Clare Orazulike and Preye Owen Fiebai)

Chapter 133. Female Athlete Triad
(Oliver Chukwujekwu Ezechi)

Chapter 134. Menstrual Abnormalities in Anorexia Nervosa
(Megan E. Harrison, Amy Robinson and Mark L. Norris)

Chapter 135. Menstrual Irregularities in Obesity
(George Uchenna Eleje and Victor O. Oboro)

Chapter 136. Polycystic Ovarian Disease
(Aigbe Gregory Ohihoin)

Chapter 137. Effective Health Communication for Sustainable Development
(Patchanee Malikhao)

Chapter 138. The Basics: Understanding Your Skin
(Fleta N. Bray, Shadi Damanpour, Brian J. Simmons, Sahal Samarkandy, and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 139. Tanning and Sun Exposure
(Fleta N. Bray, Adam S. Aldahan, Brian J. Simmons and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 140. Botulinum Toxin A (Botox)
(Sanjana Iyengar, Mohammed Alsaidan, Stephanie Mlacker, Leyre A. Falto-Aizpurua and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 141. Fillers
(Brian J. Simmons, Adam S. Aldahan, Vidhi V. Shah, Fleta N. Bray, and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 142. Chemical Peels
(Fleta N. Bray, Adam S. Aldahan, Stephanie Mlacker and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 143. Dermabrasion
(Mohammed Alsaidan, Sanjana Iyengar, Vidhi V. Shah, Fleta N. Bray and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 144. Basics of Lasers
(Adam S. Aldahan, Vidhi V. Shah, Stephanie Mlacker, Sahal Samarkandy and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 145. Lasers for Vascular Lesions
(Adam S. Aldahan, Brian J. Simmons, Vidhi V. Shah, Stephanie Mlacker, and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 146. Lasers for Pigmented Lesions and Tattoos
(Fleta N. Bray, Vidhi V. Shah, Adam S. Aldahan, Stephanie Mlacker and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 147. Lasers for Photorejuvenation
(Adam S. Aldahan, Stephanie Mlacker, Vidhi V. Shah, Mohammed Alsaidan and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 148. Lasers for Hair Removal
(Vidhi V. Shah, Adam S. Aldahan, Stephanie Mlacker, Sahal Samarkany and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 149. Therapies for Hair Growth
(Fleta N. Bray, Harleen Arora, Vidhi V. Shah, Mohammed Alsaidan, and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 150. Nail Therapies
(Vidhi V. Shah, Stephanie Mlacker, Adam S. Aldahan, Sahal Samarkandy and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 151. Treatments for Scars
(Sahal Samarkandy, Mohammed Alsaidan, Adam S. Aldahan and Keyvan Nouri) 

Chapter 152. Fat Reduction and Cellulite
(Brian J. Simmons, Jonathan Kennedy, Vidhi V. Shah and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 153. Radiofrequency
(Brian J. Simmons, Johnathan Kennedy, Adam S. Aldahan, Mohammed Alsaidan and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 154. Makeup
(Stephanie Mlacker, Vidhi V. Shah, Adam S. Aldahan, Mohammed Alsaidan and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 155. Cleansing Agents
(Stephanie Mlacker, Adam S. Aldahan, Vidhi V. Shah and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 156. Topicals
(Mohammed Alsaidan, Daniela Paola Reyes-Capo, Brian J. Simmons and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 157. Who Needs Naloxone?
(Nancy D. Campbell)

Chapter 158. Low Threshold Methadone Program: 13 Years of Experience in Portugal
(Paulo Lopes, Hélder Trigo, Rodrigo Coutinho, Emília Leitão, Nuno Miguel and Jorge Oliveira)

Chapter 159. Law Enforcement and Public Health: How North Carolina Became a Leader in Harm Reduction Policy Change
(Lisa de Saxe Zerden, Corey S. Davis, Tessie Castillo, Robert Childs and Leilani Attilo)

Chapter 160. Power, Politics and the Production of Harm: A Critical Look at the Intersecting, Yet Unequal, Roles of Scientific Evidence, Power, and Politics in the Provision of Harm Reduction Services for People Who Smoke Crack
(Lynne Leonard and Andrée Germain)

Chapter 161. Rethinking Harm Reduction and Pregnancy: A Study of Women’s Expectations and Experiences of Specialist Maternity Care and Opiate Substitution Treatment
(Fiona S. Martin)

Chapter 162. “And the World's Alright with Me”: Harm Reduction and Survival at Blockorama
(Syrus Marcus Ware, Keisha Williams and Nik Redman)

Chapter 163. What’s Glitter Got to Do with It?: Re-Imagining Harm Reduction, Youth Decision-Making, and the Politics of Youth Engagement
(Sarah Switzer, Tumaini Lyaruu, Kamilah Apong, Ocean Bell, Lydia Hernandez, Proud Goddess McWhinney, Carver Manuel-Smith, Fonna Seidu, Sarah Pariah and Andii Bykes)

Chapter 164. Everything About Them, Without Them: Sex Work and the Harms of Misrecognition
(Laura Winters)

Chapter 165. Expanding the Mission of Harm Reduction: A Public Health Population and Its Members’ Perspectives Towards Health
(Kelly Szott)

Chapter 166. Recognition, Exploitation, or Both?: A Roundtable on Peer Labour and Harm Reduction
(Liam Michaud, Robyn Maynard, Zoë Dodd and Nora Butler Burke)

Chapter 167. Harm Reduction Hipsters: Socio-Spatial-Political Displacement and the Gentrification of Public Health
(Christopher B. R. Smith)

Chapter 168. The Role of Ibasho in Face of Adversity: Resilience as a Culturally Defined Phenomenon
(Kay Yoko Tanaka)

Chapter 169. Collective Trauma: Wider Ramifications
(Daya Somasundaram)

Chapter 170. Sexual Violence against Women: Perspectives of Immigrants in the United States
(Pratyusha Tummala-Narra)

Chapter 171. Hidden in Plain Sight: Women’s Experiences of Trauma in the United States
(Stefanie F. Smith)

Chapter 172. Key Challenges in the Dissemination and Implementation of Guidelines for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Interventions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
(Jeremy C. Kane, M. Claire Greene, Jura Augustinavicius, Laura K. Murray, Dorothy Kizza, Raymond Odokonyero and Wietse A. Tol)

Chapter 173. Cumulative Effects of Multiple Traumas in Women Widowed by War and Disaster in the Developing World: The Case of Sri Lanka
(Alyssa Banford, Jessica Lambert and Thulitha Wickrama)

Chapter 174. Role of the International Trauma Specialist in Settings with Complex Trauma Needs
(Elena Cherepanov)

Chapter 175. Posttraumatic Shame: The Key to Unraveling the Effects of Military Trauma on Servicemen from Indigenous Communities. Bedouins in the Israel Defense Forces
(Yael Caspi and Ortal Slobodin)

Chapter 176. “Where Is the World?”: Psychosocial Intervention with Syrian Refugees
(Jacqueline Parke)

Chapter 177. Myth-Based Intervention as Cultural Healing from Collective Trauma: Ethnic Chinese Qiang Children After the Sichuan Earthquake of May 12th, 2008
(Shuguang Wang)

Chapter 178. Treating Trauma in the Context of Human Trafficking: Intersections of Psychological, Social, and Cultural Factors 369
(Patrick L. Kerr)

Chapter 179. Mental Health Care for Culturally Diverse Victims of Trauma and Violence: A Focus on a Community Based Model
(Bita Ghafoori)

Chapter 180. Mucormycosis: Rhino-Orbital Infection. A Brief Review
(Virginia Vanzzini Zago, Ariel Ceriotto Garcia, Abelardo Rodriguez-Reyes, Maria Elisa Pizarro and Sonia Corredor Casa)

Chapter 181. Bone and Joint Infections by Mucormycetes
(Saad J. Taj-Aldeen and Thomas J. Walsh)

Chapter 182. Bilateral Estimation between Muscle Activation and
Joint Moment with Muscle Synergy Extraction via Non-Negative Matrix Factorization
(Zhan Li)

Chapter 183. Lupus Anticoagulant and Lupus Nephritis
(Marta Petrova Baleva and Milena Krasimirova Nikolova-Vlahova)

Chapter 184. Multi-Systemic Effects of Thyroid Hormone
(Aşan Önder and Semra Çağlar Çetinkaya)

Chapter 185. Microfluorimetry of Single Yeast Cells by Fluorescence Microscopy Combined with Digital Photography and Сomputer Image Analysis
(Evgeny Puchkov)

Chapter 186. Possible Effects of Herbal Preparations on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (IMT)
(Tatiana V. Kirichenko, Alexander N. Orekhov and Igor A. Sobenin)

Chapter 187. Ultrasound Finding of the ‘Tulip Sign’ in a Fetus with Chiari II Malformation and Associated Neurogenic Incontinence
(Vesna Harni)

Chapter 188. The ‘No Stitch, No Patch, No Red’ Approach
(Arun C. Gulani and Parth G. Patel)

Chapter 189. cAMP-Me2+-DNA Complex on Gene Induction and Signaling for Coupling the Environment Stimulus to Produce Variety and Its Impact on Evolution
(Alfred Bennun)

Chapter 190. Handwashing by Food Handlers: Prevention of Foodborne Diseases
(Caroline Opolski Medeiros, Lize Stangarlin-Fiori and Renata Labronici Bertin)

Chapter 191. Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS): Symptoms, Surgical Outcomes and Complications
(Dimitrios K. Nasikas and George H. Sakorafas)

Chapter 192. Short Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Features and Management
(José Antonio Rodríguez-Montes, Pedro J. Tárraga López and Juan Solera Albero)

Chapter 193. Surgical Management of Short Bowel Syndrome: Current Intestinal Lengthening Techniques
(Chasen J. Greig and Robert A. Cowles)

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