Medicine Research Summaries. Volume 12

Zhongwen Liáng (Editor)
Bibao Zhang (Editor)

Series: Medicine Research Summaries
BISAC: MED000000



Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick


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This book is a continuation of the book Medicine Researcher Biographical Sketches and Research Summaries which compiles research summaries from a number of different focuses in this important field. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)


Chapter 1 Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia - An Overview
(Gustavo Rocha)

Chapter 2 Strategies to Obtain Lectins from Distinct Sources
(Andréa F. S. Santos, Thiago H. Napoleão, Rosiely F. Bezerra, Elba V. M. M. Carvalho, Maria T. S. Correia, Patrícia M. G. Paiva and Luana C. B. B. Coelho)

Chapter 3 Role of N-Acetylcysteine on the Prophilaxys of Contrast Induced Nephropathy
(Oliva Concepción Fernández Cimadevilla, Vicente Barriales Alvarez and Iñigo Lozano Martínez –Luengas)

Chapter 4 Pharmacokinetically-Guided Chemotherapy with Fluorouracil
(Akiko Kuwahara and Toshiyuki Sakaeda)

Chapter 5 Arabinose as a Very Rare Subject to Bind by Mushroom Lectins
(Olga M. Tsivileva, Phuong Thao Nguyen, Ngoc Long Vu and Alexei N. Pankratov)

Chapter 6 Clinical Benefits for Liver Regeneration of Oral Supplementation with Carbohydrates Together with Branched-chain Amino Acids
(Takehiro Okabayashi, Tatsuaki Sumiyoshi, Akihito Kozuki and Yasuo Shima)

Chapter 7 The Feedforward and Feedback Loop between ChREBP and Its Target Genes in the Regulation of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism
(Katsumi Iizuka)

Chapter 8 Psychosocial Issues in Lung Transplantation for Children
(Laura A. Nabors)

Chapter 9 Application of Nitrous Oxide and Current Inhalational Anesthetics
(Robert J. Weinstock and Barry Ettinger)

Chapter 10 Fibroblast Growth Factor-23, Phosphate Metabolism and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease
(Supawat Ratanapo, Narat Srivali, Patompong Ungprasert, Wonngarm Kittanamongkolchai and Wisit Cheungpasitporn)

Chapter 11 Comparison between Conventional CPAP Treatment with Heating Humidification CPAP Device in OSAS Patients
(Fawzia Cheliout-Heraut, Fatiha Djouadi and Florence Bour)

Chapter 12 Global Public Health Policy
(Michael W. Popejoy and Chinua Akukwe)

Chapter 13 Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Related Signal Pathways and Neuronal Diseases
(Yuki Murakami, Yukio Imamura, Satoko Mitani, Masato Hoshi, Yuko Arioka, Yasuko Yamamoto, Akitoshi Seiyama and Kuniaki Saito)

Chapter 14 Role of TNF- in Rheumatoid Arthritis
(Guangjie Chen and Jian Hong)

Chapter 15 The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Autoimmunity
(Mariana Postal and Simone Appenzeller)

Chapter 16 The Presence of -308A TNF Allele Is Associated with Clinical Parameters of Myelodysplastic Syndromes
(Yesica Bestach, María G. Flores, Francisco Sakamoto, Raquel Bengió, Irene Larripa and Carolina B. Belli)

Chapter 17 Significance of TNF in the Immune Response Against Tuberculosis
(Guadalupe García-Elorriaga and Guillermo del Rey-Pineda)

Chapter 18 TNF-α Signaling and Cathepsin B
(Zhou Wu and Hiroshi Nakanishi)

Chapter 19 Constipation in Children: Diagnosis and Treatment
(Ramón Núñez and Maria Angelica Fabbro)

Chapter 20 The Cardiac Signaling of Insulin and Estrogen Hormones: Protein Kinase B As the Site of Cross-Talk
(Goran Koricanac, Tijana Milosavljevic, Snezana Tepavcevic, Snjezana Romic, Mojca Stojiljkovic, Esma Isenovic and Zorica Zakula)

Chapter 21 The Politics of Recognition and Respect: Collaboration and Conflict within Maternity Care
(Karen Lane)

Chapter 22 Mass Spectrometry Studies in Carnitine Homeostasis: What Mass Spectrometry Taught Us about Carnitine?
(Judit Bene, Katalin Komlósi and Bela Melegh)

Chapter 23 Role of Protein Kinase B (PKB)/Akt Signaling in Nociception and Chronic Pain Conditions
(Weiya Ma and Remi Quirion)

Chapter 24 Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Weight Gain during Pregnancy in Asia
(Madoka Inoue and Colin W. Binns)

Chapter 25 Construction of a Small Bioreactor Using Nitrogenase of Streptomyces thermoautotrophicus
(Yasuhiko Shizawa, Kazukiyo Onodera, Dilip Gadkari and Ortwin Meyer)

Chapter 26 Progress and Challenges in Maternal Health Care in China
(Li Tang, Xiaoping Pan, Andy H. Lee and Colin W. Binns)

Chapter 27 Clinical Relevance of Integration of L-Acetylcarnitine in the Diet Plus Rehabilitation Treatment in Patients with Rett Syndrome
(Maria Pia Riccio, Maria Marino, Giuseppina Borriello, Francesco Brando, Maria Esposito, Antonio Pascotto and Carmela Bravaccio)

Chapter 28 Somatostatin and Its Receptors
(Roberto Baldelli, Agnese Barnabei, Francesca Rota, Antonella Paoloni, Valerio Adinolfi and Marialuisa Appetecchia)

Chapter 29 The Diode Laser in Stapes Surgery
(M. L. Navarrete, R. L. Boemo, M. Darwish, J. Monzón, P. Rojas and C. Companyó)

Chapter 30 From a Conserved Structure to Regulation: CWH Ubiquitin Ligases Tightly Regulate Key Cellular Events
(Guillaume Desrochers, Luc Corbeil and Annie Angers)

Chapter 31 Risk Assessment of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infections Through Water
(Masaaki Kitajima and Toru Watanabe)

Chapter 32 Biosecurity Measures against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Free-Range Flocks and Commercial Poultry in Developing Countries: A Review
(Nma Bida Alhaji and Ismail Ayoade Odetokun)

Chapter 33 Outbreak Control and Viral Evolution of the Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza in Thailand
(Witthawat Wiriyarat, Kridsada Chaichoune, Parntep Ratanakorn and Prasert Auewarakul)

Chapter 34 How Quickly Did Bird Flu Go Off the Public Radar? Results of a Follow-up CATI Survey of Australian Adults
(Sandra C. Jones, Don Iverson, Louise Waters, Max Sutherland, Julian Gold and Chris Puplick)

Chapter 35 Osteoporosis: Potent Treatment with Combination of Functional Food Factors
(Masayoshi Yamaguchi)

Chapter 36 Anti-Diabetes Drug Discovery: Transglycating Imidazole-Containing Peptide-Based Compounds with Concomitant Free Radical-Scavenging Properties
(Mark A. Babizhayev, Vadim Z. Lankin, Ekaterina L. Savel’yeva, Anatoliy I. Deyev and Yegor E. Yegorov)

Chapter 37 Barrett's Esophagus in the Chinese Population
(Qin Huang)

Chapter 38 The Emerging Role of Fluoroquinolones in the Treatment of Tuberculosis
(Marilyn N. Bulloch, Christin May and Carol A. Morreale)

Chapter 39 Cardiac Impairment in Therapy with Fluoroquinolones
(Thomas Kibbel, Hasib Djonlagić and Sven Suefke)

Chapter 40 The Use of Platelet Rich Plasma in Sports Injuries: Where Do We Stand?
(Nikolaos E. Koukoulias, Georgios Ath. Konstantinidis, Evangelia Germanou, Athanasios Papavasiliou and Christos Sinopidis)

Chapter 41 Heritability of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Evidence and Implications
(Adam Domonkos Tarnoki, David Laszlo Tarnoki and Gyorgy Baffy)

Chapter 42 Esophageal Stent Placement for Benign Esophageal Strictures, Leaks, Fistulas and Perforations
(Disaya Chavalitdhamrong, Peter V. Draganov and Mihir S. Wagh)

Chapter 43 Characterization of Gastroesophageal Reflux
(Valter Nilton Felix)

Chapter 44 Proximal Extension of the Flexor Retinaculum: A Cadaveric Study
(Thisara Weerasuriya, Surangi Yasawardene and Narendra Pinto)

Chapter 45 Learning from Our Patients: Clinical Teaching Associates in Gynaecological Examination
(Marie O’Sullivan and Kevin Jones)

Chapter 46 Anti-Personnel Mine Injuries: Experience from a Thirty Year Conflict
(Thisara Weerasuriya and Narendra Pinto)

Chapter 47 Health Status and Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
(Koichi Nishimuraand Paul W. Jones)

Chapter 48 Ageing Outside: An Integrative Approach to the Daily Mobility of the Elderly in Spain
(Pilar Zueras, Antonio D. Cámara, Amand Blanesand Marc Ajenjo)

Chapter 49 Functional Upper Limb Evaluation of Activities of Daily Living in People with Neurological Disorders
(Ana De Los Reyes-Guzmán, Soraya Pérez-Nombela, Iris Dimbwadyo-Terrer, Diego Torricelli and Angel Gil-Agudo)

Chapter 50 Influences of Activities of Daily Living Dependency on Family Caregiver Burden and the Strategies of Adaptation
(Pi-Ming Yeh)

Chapter 51 Status of Capability ADL and Performance ADL (ADL Gap) in Community Elderly with Disabilities and Development of ADL Gap Self-Efficacy Scale
(Yasuko Fukaya and Takanori Kitamura)

Chapter 52 Intervention with Modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy in Occupational Therapy and Influence on Activities of Daily Living
(Miguel Gómez Martínez, Cristina Labrador Toribio, Francisco Tomás Aguirre and Cinthya Torregrosa Castellanos)

Chapter 53 Impact of Mobility Equipment on Performance and Quality of Life
(Danielle P. Formosa and Brendan J. Burkett)

Chapter 54 Severity of Unilateral Spatial Neglect and Activities of Daily Living at Discharge
(Satoru Watanabe)

Chapter 55 Rehabilitation Strategies for People with Cognitive Impairments
(Karen P. Y. Liu, Katie Lam and Xin Wang)

Chapter 56 Flow Experience in Daily Living and Health-Related Quality of Life
(Kazuki Hirao and Ryuji Kobayashi)

Chapter 57 Addressing the U.S. Government's "Healthy People" Breastfeeding Goals using a Theory-Based Program for Expecting Parents
(Clare T. Pettis and Monica K. Miller)

Chapter 58 A Lifespan Developmental Approach to Assessing and Addressing Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Comprehensive Guide to Meeting Individual and Caregiver Needs
(Rebecca H. Foster, Elliott W. Simon, Elizabeth B. B. Lee, LaNaya Shackelford and Sarah H. Elsea)

Chapter 59 The Family Caregivers of Patients with Cancer: Roles and Challenges
(Sabrina Cipolletta)

Chapter 60 Zooming (In) – Zooming (Out): From Feeling Exclusively Like a Caregiver to Integrating Caregiving in Daily Life Understanding Sudden Informal Caregivers’ Paths
(Helder Rocha Pereira)

Chapter 61 Parental and Educators’ Judgments and Attitudes toward Life Challenges of People with Intellectual Disabilities: Functional Measurement Contributions to Special Education from a Cognitive Algebra Approach
(Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales, Ernesto Octavio Lopez, David Jose Charles, Claudia Castro Campos and Martha Patricia Sanchez)

Chapter 62 The Experience of Caregiving across Myths and Cultures
(Camilla Pietrantonio, Francesco Pagnini, Paolo Banfi, Gianluca Castelnuovo and Enrico Molinari)

Chapter 63 Resilience in Caregivers
(Violeta Fernández-Lansac and María Crespo)

Chapter 64 Caregiver Burden in a Hong Kong Chinese Population: Risk Factors, Consequences and Remedies
(P. H. Chau, T. Kwok and J. Woo)

Chapter 65 Managing Compassion Fatigue among Professional Cancer Caregivers: Understanding the Problem and Possible Treatment Strategies
(Amanda C. Kracen and Teresa L. Deshields)

Chapter 66 Caregiving in Clinical Oncology
(Carola Locatelli, Marcella Cicerchia and Lazzaro Repetto)

Chapter 67 Caregiver Burden of Older Adults: A Southeast Asian Aspect
(Panita Limpawattana and Jarin Chindaprasirt)

Chapter 68 Community-Based Education Concerning Palliative Care for the Elderly in Japan
(Yoshihisa Hirakawa and Kazumasa Uemura)

Chapter 69 Does Caregiver Perception Reflect Oral Health in Cerebral Palsy Children?
(Renata Oliveira Guaré, Daniel Cividanis Gomes Nogueira Fernandes and Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues Santos)

Chapter 70 Role of Assistive Technologies for Person-Centered Dementia Care: An Exploratory Case Study in Japan
(Taro Sugihara and Tsutomu Fujinami)

Chapter 71 Management of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy: Practice, Challenges and Outcomes
(Nehad Nasef, Islam Nour and Hesham Abdel-Hady)

Chapter 72 Taking Care of Patients with Brain Tumor-Related Epilepsy
(Marta Maschio)

Chapter 73 Patient Management: Optimization of Blood and Blood Products Utilization
(Gurmukh Singh and Jay E. Menitove)

Chapter 74 Using Entertainment-Education in HIV Prevention: A Process Evaluation of an International HIV Prevention Program Targeting Adolescents
(Barbara Schouten, Annemiek Linn, Silvia Hermanns and Julia van Weert)

Chapter 75 Challenges in Health Provider-Patient Communication: Importance of a Dynamic Approach
(Omar Breik and Hazim Sadideen)

Chapter 76 Incorporating Cost Considerations into Medical Decision Making
(Bradley K. Weiner, Ennio Tasciotti, Joseph Fernandez-Moure and Preston Smith)

Chapter 77 Angiogenesis: Something Old, Something New
(Evangeli Lampri and Elli Ioachim)

Chapter 78 A Historical Appraisal of Angiogenesis Assays Since Judah Folkman and Before...
(Anca Maria Cîmpean, Domenico Ribatti and Marius Raica)

Chapter 79 Angiogenesis and Pulmonary Hypertension
(Daling Zhu, Cui Ma and Jing Li)

Chapter 80 Stem Cells and Angiogenesis in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration and Disease
(Carlos Hermano da Justa Pinheiro, Lucas Guimarães Ferreira and Marco Aurélio Salomão Fortes)

Chapter 81 Angiogenesis in Peripheral Artery Disease: An Emerging Therapy Targeting Skeletal Muscle
(Brian D. Duscha, Jennifer L. Robbins, Christopher D. Kontos, William E. Kraus and Brian H. Annex)

Chapter 82 Angiogenesis in Thalassemia
(Seref Olgar and Duran Canatan)

Chapter 83 Fibroblasts and Endothelial Cells: The Basic Angiogenic Unit
(François Berthod)

Chapter 84 Regulating Functions of Angiogenesis in Prevention and Therapy of Gastric Ulcers
(Snehasikta Swarnakar, Krishnendu Ganguly and Sumit Paul)

Chapter 85 The Role of Angiogenesis in Renal Allograft
(B. Handan Özdemir)

Chapter 86 Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis as Molecular Therapeutic Targets in Human Pterygium and Its Recurrences
(Anca Maria Cîmpean, Mihai Poenaru Sava and Marius Raica)

Chapter 87 The Role of Heparin Mimetic Peptide Nanofibers in Angiogenesis Process
(Rashad Mammadov, Elif Duman, Mustafa O. Guler and Ayse B. Tekinay)

Chapter 88 Mast Cells and Angiogenesis in Tumoral and Non-Tumoral Disease
(Azize Yasemin Goksu Erol and Fatma Aktepe)

Chapter 89 Angiogenesis in Tumor Microenvironment: Potential Approaches in Cancer Therapy
(Mehmet Sahin, Emel Sahin and Sadi Koksoy)

Chapter 90 Angiogenesis in Breast Neoplasia
(Evangeli Lampri and Elli Ioachim)

Chapter 91 Targeting VEGF-Mediated Tumor Angiogenesis in Neuroblastoma
(Danielle Hsu and Eugene S. Kim)

Chapter 92 Molecular Pathways of Angiogenesis in Cervical Cancer
(Oana Tudoran, Ovidiu Balacescu and Ioana Berindan-Neagoe)

Chapter 93 Role of Mast Cells in Health and Disease
(Zoulfia Allakhverdi)

Chapter 94 Spatial Patterns in Mast Cell Activation
(Kathrin Spendier and James L. Thomas)

Chapter 95 Mast Cell within the Microenvironment: Cellular and Matrix Cross-Talk in Physiopathological Conditions
(Barbara Frossi, Elena Betto and Giorgia Gri)

Chapter 96 Mast Cell in Immune Function and Leukocyte Recruitment
(Albert F. De Felice)

Chapter 97 The Function of Mast Cells in Innate Immunity: Interaction of Mast Cells with Gram-Negative Bacteria
(Sibylle A. Brenner and Axel Lorentz)

Chapter 98 Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome
(Lawrence B. Afrin)

Chapter 99 Multiple Roles of Mast Cells in Heterotopic Ossification
(Lixin Kan)

Chapter 100 The Role of Mast Cells in Neoplasm Angiogenesis and Bacterial and Viral Infections
(Moges Woldemeskel)

Chapter 101 Mast Cells and Their Evolving Role in the Human Testis
(Artur Mayerhofer, Christoph Schell, Katrin Spinnler, Marion Adam and Harald Welter)

Chapter 102 Mast Cells in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Intestinal Inflammation and Fibrosis
(Kenji Suzuki, Masaki Nagata, Tomoyuki Kawase, Yutaka Honda, Yusuke Kawauchi, Junji Yokoyama, Somasundaram Arumugam, Hiroyuki Yoneyama, Kenichi Watanabe and Hitoshi Asakura)

Chapter 103 The Candida albicans Cell Wall: Structure and Role in Morphogenesis and Immune Recognition
(R. A. Hall, M. D. Lenardon, F. J. Alvarez, F. M. Nogueira, L. Mukaremera and N. A. R. Gow)

Chapter 104 Sporothrix schenckii Cell Wall
(Leila M. Lopes-Bezerra, Luiz R. Travassos, Paula Kubitschek- Barreira and Marcel M. Lyra da Cunha)

Chapter 105 The Cell Wall of Dimorphic Pathogenic Species of Paracoccidioides
(Rosana Puccia, Alisson L. Matsuo, Milene C. Vallejo and Larissa V. G. Longo)

Chapter 106 A Genomic Inventory of Cell Wall Biosynthesis in the Ubiquitous Plant Pathogen Botrytis cinerea
(Piet W. J. De Groot, Ana Isabel Martinez and Luis Castillo)

Chapter 107 The Septal Cell Wall of Filamentous Fungi
(Julia Beck, Johannes Wagener and Frank Ebel)

Chapter 108 Adherence, Virulence and Cell Wall Proteins of
(Candida glabrata Alejandro De Las Peñas, Emmanuel Orta-Zavalza, Verónica Martínez-Jiménez and Irene Castaño)

Chapter 109 Aspartyl Proteases in Human Pathogenic Fungi: Roles in Physiology and Virulence
(Gaurav Bairwa, Sriram Balusu and Rupinder Kaur)

Chapter 110 Fungal Cell-Wall Antigens for the Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infections
(Estela Ruiz-Baca, Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz, Everardo López-Romero, María del Rocío Reyes-Montes and Conchita Toriello)

Chapter 111 Polysaccharides and Glycoproteins from Emerging Filamentous Pathogenic Fungi
(Eliana Barreto-Bergter and P.A.J. Gorin)

Chapter 112 Endoglucanase Expression and Virulence in Plant Fungal Pathogens
(Maria Aragona and Maria Teresa Valente)

Chapter 113 Altering the Fungal Cell Wall Integrity and Practical Aspects of These Modifications
(Joanna S. Kruszewska and Sebastian Piłsyk)

Chapter 114 Transglutaminases: Critical Components of the Cell Wall Architecture in Fungi
(Roberto Zazueta-Sandoval, Salvador Mormeneo, Maria Iranzo, Reyna Lucero Camacho, Arelí Durón and Vanesa Zazueta-Novoa)

Chapter 115 Signal Transduction Mediated via Extracellular Calmodulin and Extracellular Calmodulin Binding Proteins
(Danton H. O’Day)

Chapter 116 Kinase Coupled Receptors and G-Protein Coupled Receptors Regulate Neural Stem Cell Differentiation via Common Signaling Pathways: Emerging Evidence for Convergent Regulation
(Shelley B. Hooks)

Chapter 117 Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide Receptors (PBANRs) in Moths: New Developments Regarding Alternative Splice Variants and the Potential for Targeted Disruption of PBANR in Pest Control
(J. Joe Hull and Shogo Matsumoto)

Chapter 118 Cdk5 Acts as a Surveillance System in the Nervous System
(Jared S. Rosenblum)

Chapter 119 The Role of Signal Transduction in Abnormal Embryonic Development
(Carolyn M. Kapron)

Chapter 120 Regucalcin, a Suppressor Protein in Signal Transduction
(Masayoshi Yamaguchi)

Chapter 121 Isolation and Partial Characterization of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Resistant Mutants with High Yielding in
(Oryza Sativa Cv Koshihikari Kohji Hasunuma, Yusuke Yoshida, Haruna Matsuya, Ken Nomura, Osamu Miyoshi and Md. Emdadul Haque)

Chapter 122 Antimicrobial Lipids as Food Sanitizers
(Halldor Thormar, Hilmar Hilmarsson and Gudmundur Bergsson)

Chapter 123 Melatonin as a Therapeutic Resource for Uveitis Treatment
(Ruth E. Rosenstein, Diego C. Fernandez, Daniel A. Sáenz, Mónica Chianelli, María José Del Sole and Pablo H. Sande)

Chapter 124 Traumatic Diaphragmatic Rupture
(Mohd. Shahbaaz Khan)

Chapter 125 Qualification and Quantification of Pre-Implantation Embryo Health
(Christiana Kyvelidou, George J. Tserevelakis, Katerina Vardaki, George Filippidis, Anthi Ranella, Costas Fotakis and Irene Athanassakis)

Chapter 126 Infection Control in Endodontics
(Jelena Popovic, Jovanka Gasic, Slavoljub Zivkovic, Aleksandar Petrovic, Aleksandar Mitic and Marija Nikolic)

Chapter 127 Application of the Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin (IgY) to Gastrointestinal Infectious Diseases
(S. Rahman, H. Mori and K. Oguma)

Chapter 128 Cachexia, Obesity and Lipoprotein Lipase
(Masataka Kusunoki and Kazuhiko Tsutsumi)

Chapter 129 The Incidence of Side Effects Related to Prednisone in Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT’s) with a Follow-Up of One Year or More
(Marcelo Derbli Schafranski, Alexandre Bueno Merlini, Conrado Auer Trentini, Filipe Fernandes Justus and João Remí de Freitas Junior)

Chapter 130 Effect of Endurance Exercise without Diet Modification on Body Weight and Body Composition
(Surabhi Bhutani and Krista A. Varady)

Chapter 131 Exercise and Caloric Intake: Researching Nutrition and Body Composition of Men and Women Practicing Indoor Cycling
(Jaqueline Girnos Sonati, Roberto Vilarta, Érika da Silva Maciel, Dênis Marcelo Modeneze, Bianca Muciacito and Vanessa Oliveira Lazari)

Chapter 132 Update in Pathophysiology and Management of Cardiorenal Syndrome
(Saeed Ahmed, Supawat Ratanapo, Narat Srivali, Promporn Suksaranjit, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Daych Chongnarungsin and Edward F. Bischof)

Chapter 133 Assessing the Effects of Vaccination, Case Findings and Educational Campaigns on Controlling Cholera Epidemic
(Steady Mushayabasa)

Chapter 134 Sucrose: Properties, Biosynthesis and Health Implications
(G. Baños, R. Carbó, V. Guarner, I. Pérez-Torres and M.E. Rubio-Ruíz)

Chapter 135 Colonization of Oral and Dental Tissues by Uncommon Bacteria: Its Relevance to General and Oral Health
(Claudio Passariello, Alessandra Virga and Pierangelo Gigola)

Chapter 136 Usage of Chlorhexidine as an Adjunct Therapy in Oral Candidal Infection
(Arjuna N. B. Ellepola and H.M.H.N. Bandara)

Chapter 137 Biofilms and Otitis Media
(Javan Nation, Dennis Bojrab and James Coticchia)

Chapter 138 Periodontal Disease: A Risk Factor for Systemic Conditions
(Devinder Preet Singh and Mohit Gupta)

Chapter 139 Fentanyl: From Analgesia to Hyperalgesia
(Irene Asouhidou and Christallia Vitoula)

Chapter 140 Post Laryngectomy Voice Rehabilitation and Gastroesophageal Reflux
(A. Serra, S. Cocuzza, R. Chiaramonte and M. Bonfiglio)

Chapter 141 Acute Otitis Media in Developing Countries: Pediatric Tertiary Care Hospital Experience in Argentina
(Patricia A. Sommerfleck and Patricia C. Bernáldez)

Chapter 142 Fentanyl: General Properties and Therapeutic Uses
(Sang Ryong Jeon, Jin Hoon Park and Yongchel Ahn)

Chapter 143 The Natural History of LPR: Long Term Follow-Up of a Cohort of Patients Treated for LPR
(A. Printza, P. Giaramazidis, S. Triaridis, I. Konstantinidis and J. Constantinidis)

Chapter 144 Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the Area of Donostialdea Diagnosed by Telemedicine: Our Experience for Four Years
(Ane Gibelalde, Sergio Pinar-Sueiro, Javier Mendicute, Miguel Ruiz Miguel and Beatriz Macias-Murelaga)

Chapter 145 Scars and Scarring: Causes, Types, and Treatment Options
(Anna Chacon, Katlein França, Jennifer Ledon and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 146 Psychological Impact of Scars
(Katlein França, Anna Chacon, Jennifer Ledon, Jessica Savas and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 147 Pathogenesis of Scars: An Overview
(Chao-Kai Hsu, Julia Yu-Yun Lee and Ming-Jer Tang)

Chapter 148 Redox-Signaling during Wound Healing: A Role for Cytoprotective Enzymes in Scar Prevention?
(Ditte M. S. Lundvig and Frank A. D. T. G. Wagener)

Chapter 149 Moving Beyond Inflammation in Cutaneous Scar Formation
(Victor W. Wong and Geoffrey C. Gurtner)

Chapter 150 Prevention of Scars
(Rei Ogawa)

Chapter 151 Radiation Therapy for Scars
(Rei Ogawa)

Chapter 152 Surgical Therapy for Scars
(Rei Ogawa)

Chapter 153 Non/minimally Invasive Treatment Options
(Jennifer Ledon, Jessica Savas, Katlein Franca, Anna Chacon, Yongsoo Lee and Keyvan Nouri)

Chapter 154 Lasers: Physics and Principles
(Yongsoo Lee and Inja Bogdan Allemann)

Chapter 155 Classification of Scars: Conventional and New
(Yongsoo Lee)

Chapter 156 Treatment Options - Combination Treatments: Combination of Lasers / Combination of Lasers and Surgical Scar Revision
(Yongsoo Lee)

Chapter 157 Recommended Treatment Protocols
(Yongsoo Lee)

Chapter 158 Striae Distensae
(J. A. Savas, J. Ledon, K. Franca, A. Chacon and K. Nouri)

Chapter 159 Research on Scar Treatments
(Yongsoo Lee)

Chapter 160 The Role of Store-Operated Calcium Channel in Chronic Inflammation
(Sheng-Yu Yang and Wei-Chiao Chang)

Chapter 161 The Role of NF-B in Chronic Inflammation
(Rosa Carnuccio, Maria Chiara Maiuri and Daniela De Stefano)

Chapter 162 The Role of Autophagy in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
(Valentina Izzo, Daniela De Stefano, Rosa Carnuccio and Maria Chiara Maiuri)

Chapter 163 Chronic Inflammation of Ankylosing Spondylitis
(Ming-Shiou Janand James Cheng-Chung Wei)

Chapter 164 Chronic Inflammation of Kawasaki Disease
(Ying-Hsien Huang and Ho-Chang Kuo)

Chapter 165 Chronic Inflammation of Atopic Dermatitis
(Stephen Chu-Sung Hu and Cheng-Che E. Lan)

Chapter 166 Chronic Inflammation of Psoriasis
(Chuang-Wei Wang, Wen-Hung Chung and Shuen-Iu Hung)

Chapter 167 Chronic Inflammation of Osteoarthritis
(Dongquan Shi and Qing Jiang)

Chapter 168 Chronic Inflammation of Obesity
(Ling Zhao)

Chapter 169 Chronic Inflammation of Biliary Atresia
(Ho-Chang Kuo, Jiin-Haur Chuang and Ying-Hsien Huang)

Chapter 170 Chronic Inflammation of Tuberculosis
(Anas Khalil, Kuan-Jen Bai and Shawn Hsiang-Yin Chen)

Chapter 171 Macrophage-Targeted Therapy of Chronic Wounds
(Dmitrij Hristodorov, Radoslav Mladenov, Eric Aslanian, Michael Huhn, Stefan Barth and Theo Thepen)

Chapter 172 Natural Products Identification for the Treatment of Chronic Inflammation
(S. Bhaskaran, K. V. Dileep, C. Sadasivan, J. Padikkala and H. B. Nair)

Chapter 173 Designing Communication to Improve Comprehension in Populations at Risk for Low Health Literacy
(Carolyn R. Ahlers-Schmidt and Amy K. Chesser)

Chapter 174 Mental Health Literacy in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Issues, the Controversies and Doing the Needful
(Olayinka Atilola)

Chapter 175 Cancer and Health Literacy: Establishing a Concept of Cancer Literacy
(Nicola Diviani)

Chapter 176 Mental Health Literacy: Impact on Youth Mental Health
(Jackie C. Robinson, Huijun Li and Yue Li)

Chapter 177 Mental Health Literacy of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
(Viren Swami)

Chapter 178 Ways to Integrate Health Literacy into Health Professional Practice: New Trends to Enable Clients’ Empowerment and Participation
(Mélanie Levasseur and Annie Carrier)

Chapter 179 Health Literacy and People with Mental Illness
(Cherrie Galletly, Alisa K. Lincoln and Tammi Arford)

Chapter 180 Readability of Canadian Newspaper Articles About Renewable Energy Technologies and Health: Implications for Health Literacy
(Benjamin Deignan and Laurie Hoffman-Goetz)

Chapter 181 Health Education is Health Literacy: Maximizing the Impact of Health Education Interventions by Focusing on How Individuals Acquire Skills for Behavior Change
(Ariela M. Freedman, Katharina V. Echt, Kathleen R. Miner, Ruth Parker and Hannah L. F. Cooper)

Chapter 182 The Health Literacy of Children Who Are ‘Looked After’ by the State
(Paul Rees and Michael Holding)

Chapter 183 Who Are the Patients with Better Health Literacy?
(Aleksandra Jovic-Vranes, Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Dejana Vukovic and Jelena Marinkovic)

Chapter 184 Illness Recognition and Aggression-Dangerousness Perception of Schizophrenia: Impact on Public’s Consideration of the Insanity Defense
(Ana Fresán, Rebeca Robles-García, Carlos Berlanga, Nicolás Martínez-López and Lino Palacios-Cruz)

Chapter 185 The Health Belief Model and Health Literacy: The Case of Perfect Knowledge
(Michael Mackert and Marie Guadagno)


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