Medicine Research Summaries. Volume 10 (with Biographical Sketches)

Zhongwen Liáng (Editor)
Bibao Zhang (Editor)

Series: Medicine Research Summaries
BISAC: MED000000



Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick


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This book is a continuation of the book Medicine Researcher Biographical Sketches and Research Summaries which compiles biographical sketches of top professionals in the field of medicinal research, as well as research summaries from a number of different focuses in this important field. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)


Part I Researcher Biographical Sketches

Chapter 1 Melissa R. Andrews
Chapter 2 Alessandro Aprato
Chapter 3 Andreas Bourdoumis
Chapter 4 Stephen John Dain
Chapter 5 Derek Allen DuBay
Chapter 6 Devin E. Eckhoff
Chapter 7 Tiago Luís do Carmo Bravo Ferreira
Chapter 8 Simone Ferrero
Chapter 9 Alejandro Rodríguez-García
Chapter 10 Vitaly Herasevich
Chapter 11 Yamni Nigam
Chapter 12 Ramnik Patel
Chapter 13 Luiz Pimenta
Chapter 14 Ramanathan K.R.
Chapter 15 Juan Bautista Rodriguez
Chapter 16 Kunihiro Sakuma
Chapter 17 Jan Sarek
Chapter 18 David A. Schwartz
Chapter 19 Rui Shi
Chapter 20 Xiaoguang Wang
Chapter 21 Jared A. White
Chapter 22 Ze Dong Jiang

Part II Research Summaries

Chapter 23 Effects of Embryo Transfer on the Phenotype
(Claudia Rose, Joachim Hanke, Herbert Schwegler and Deniz M. Yilmazer-Hanke)

Chapter 24 Natural Products as a Source of Potential Drugs for the Treatment of Fungal Infections
(Fernanda F. Campos, Susana Johann and Vera L. dos Santos)

Chapter 25 Invasive Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Patients: Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment
(Parisa Badiee)

Chapter 26 Embryo Transfer: State of the Art
(M. E. Hammadeh and K. Refaat)

Chapter 27 Hepatitis E Virus: Morphology, Genomic Organization and Zoonotic Aspects
(Alain Houde, Danielle Leblanc, Pierre Ward and Elyse Poitras)

Chapter 28 Hepatitis E: Morphology, Pathogenesis and Prevention
(Won-Jung Lee and Han Sang Yoo)

Chapter 29 Hepatitis E: Morphology, Pathology and Prevention
(Holger G. Hass and Claus-Thomas Bock)

Chapter 30 Hepatitis E: Morphology, Pathogenesis and Prevention
(Pérez-Gracia María Teresa and Fernández-Barredo Salceda)

Chapter 31 Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Rhinitis: Its Effects Based on the Evidence
(Ji-Eun Lee and Chae-Seo Rhee)

Chapter 32 Embryo Transfer: Preparation, Procedures and Risks
(Rosanna Suriano and Andrea Borini)

Chapter 33 Does Embryo Transfer Technique and Personal Experience Influence Pregnancy Rate?
(Veljko Vlaisavljević, Jure Knez and Borut Kovačič)

Chapter 34 Evaluating Acupuncture for Depression and Identifying a Therapeutic Niche in the UK Context: A Mixed Method Approach
(Sylvia Schroer and Joy Adamson)

Chapter 35 Childhood Tetanus
(Kam Lun Hon and Alexander K. C. Leung)

Chapter 36 Type of Bedding Use and Allergic Rhinitis
(Robert Siebers and Julian Crane)

Chapter 37 Effects of Biologic Agents for Skin Lesions in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
(Masahiro Tada, Tadashi Okano, Yuko Sugioka, Shigeyuki Wakitani, Hiroaki Nakamura and Tatsuya Koike)

Chapter 38 Electrophysiological Studies in Multiple Sclerosis
(Eleftherios S. Papathanasiou and Savvas S. Papacostas)

Chapter 39 ATP as a Regulator in the Hematopoietic Niche
(Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero, Christiano Marcello Vaz Barbosa, Renata Rodrigues, Erika C. Alvarenga and Alice Teixeira Ferreira)

Chapter 40 Stem Cells and Ligament Repair
(Mamun Al-Rashid and Wasim S. Khan)

Chapter 41 Infrared Imaging as a Diagnostic Tool in Dermatology
(M. Pirtini Çetingül and C. Herman)

Chapter 42 Effects, Diagnosis and Management of Extra-Esophageal Reflux
(Nikki Johnston and Robert J. Toohill)

Chapter 43 Adenovirus from Basic Knowledge to Clinical Applications
(Memy H. Hassan, Saleh Bahashwan and Ayman Al-Hendy)

Chapter 44 Molecular Mechanisms in Allergic Rhinitis: Modulation by Microbes
(Toshiharu Hayashi)

Chapter 45 Accepted and Potential Genetic Factors Involved in the Etiology and Pathogenesis of Emphysema
(Aleksandra Topic and Dragica Radojkovic)

Chapter 46 Magnesium Homeostasis (Physiological Facts)
(Ayman Abd Almaksoud Yousef and Ghada Abdulmomen Suliman)

Chapter 47 Cleavage of Fibrinopeptides from Fibrinogen During Fibrin Formation
(Eduard Brynda and Tomas Riedel)

Chapter 48 Magnesium Deficit and Associated Pathology
(Ayman Abd Almaksoud Yousef)

Chapter 49 Assessment of Magnesium Status
(Célia Colli, Cristiane Hermes Sales and Vivianne de Sousa Rocha)

Chapter 50 Structural Lability of Fibrinogen and Its E and D Regions Induced by Free Radical-Mediated Oxidation
(M. A. Rosenfeld, V. B. Leonova, A.V. Bychkova, M. I. Biryukova and M. V. Vasileva)

Chapter 51 In Preeclampsia the Pregnant Mother Experiences an Increase and her Child a Decrease in the Neurotrophic Effect of Microcirculatory Norepinephrine?
(Thomas P. Crotty)

Chapter 52 Fibrin as a Medical Device
(Rossella Di Stefano and Maria Chiara Barsotti)

Chapter 53 Soluble Endoglin in Pre-Eclampsia
(Janita A. Maring and Peter ten Dijke)

Chapter 54 Ultrasound-Assisted Fibrinogen and Fibrin Proteolysis
(E. A. Cherniavsky, I.S. Strakha, I. E. Adzerikho and V. M. Shkumatov)

Chapter 55 The Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on Muscle Magnesium in Healthy Subjects During Prolonged Hypokinesia
(Yan G. Zorbas, Kostas K. Kakuris, Yuri F. Federenko and Viktor A. Deogenov)

Chapter 56 Anticandidal and Antibacterial Activities of Mushroom Extracts, Compounds, and Proteins
(T.B. Ng and Jack H. Wong)

Chapter 57 Cervico-Facial Subcutaneous Emphysema: Case Report and Review of Literature
(Nishul P. Patel, Stewart K. Lazow and Julius Berger)

Chapter 58 A Summary on Reports on Eclampsia from Thailand
(Viroj Wiwanitkit)

Chapter 59 Cell Transplantation in Chronic Kidney Disease
(Shree Ram Singh, Chhavi Chauhan, and Manoj K. Mishra)

Chapter 60 Dendritic Cells in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
(Ping Yu and Chi Lu)

Chapter 61 Chronic Graft Dysfunction in Allogeneic Islet Cell Transplantation
(Daisuke Chujo, Morihito Takita, Zehra Tekin, and Shinichi Matsumoto)

Chapter 62 Ocular Surface Reconstruction Using Cellular Therapies
(Sajjad Ahmad, Rosalind Stewart, Dean Hallam, Charles Osei-Bempong, and Lucy Foley)

Chapter 63 Cell Transplantation and Reconstructive Surgery
(Mei Yang, and Qingfeng Li)

Chapter 64 New Therapeutic Strategy for Veno-Occlusive Disease after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
(Shosaku Nomura, Ryotaro Ozasa, Takahisa Nakanishi, Shinya Fujita, Michihiko Miyaji, Shinichiro Mori, Takashi Yokoi, Tomoki Ito, and Kazuyoshi Ishii)

Chapter 65 Medical Treatment Late Effects, Quality of Life and Psychosocial Sequelae in Paediatric Patients after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
(Sabrina Bonichini, Marta Tremolada, Marta Pillon, Donatella Aloisio, and Chiara Messina)

Chapter 66 Muscarinic and Nicotinic Receptors as Drug Targets in Disorders of the Central Nervous System
(Jaclyn Neo, Madhara Udawela, Brian Dean and Elizabeth Scarr)

Chapter 67 Immune Modulation for Treatment of HSV
(Pernille Damgaard Petersen, Jason Kindrachuk and Håvard Jenssen)

Chapter 68 Pulmonary Edema: State of the Art and a New Approach to Its Diagnosis/Treatment
(Ana Cristina Aguiar dos Santos)

Chapter 69 Complications of Colonoscopy Requiring Surgical or Combined Therapy
(Goran Augustin)

Chapter 70 Combining High Throughput Gene Expression Profiling and Integrative Systems Biology Analysis: A Promising New Approach to Identify Novel Drug Targets
(Mie Rizig and Jonathan Pimm)

Chapter 71 Drug Treatment of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis
(Lyudmila Sizova)

Chapter 72 Placebo, Nocebo and Child Neuropsychiatry: A Fraud or a Possibility?
(Matteo Chiappedi)

Chapter 73 Diagnostic Imaging of Patients with Pancreato-Biliary Diseases: Comparison between Ultrasound, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance
(Simone Maurea, Massimo Imbriaco, Carmine Mollica, Antonio Corvino, Mario Fusari, Pier Paolo Mainenti, Luigi Camera and Marco Salvatore)

Chapter 74 Biliary Atresia, Diagnosis and Clinical Differentiation in the Neonate Jaundice
(Jianghua Zhan, Luo Xirong, Pei Guanghua, Zhao Bin and Zhao Linsheng)

Chapter 75 Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Varicella-Zoster Virus in Sensory Ganglia from Human Cadavers
(Hiroyuki Inoue, Hisako Motani and Hirotaro Iwase)

Chapter 76 Diagnosis of IgG4-Related Sclerosing Cholangitis
(Takahiro Nakazawa, Itaru Naitoh, Kazuki Hayashi, Fumihiro Okumura, Katsuyuki Miyabe, Michihiro Yoshida, Hiroaki Yamashita, Hirotaka Ohara and Takashi Joh)

Chapter 77 Placebo Outcomes in Trials on Inflammatory Bowel Disease
(Mario Cottone, Sara Renna and Ambrogio Orlando)

Chapter 78 Rheumatoid Arthritis: Present and Future
(F. J. Salgado, A. Canda-Sánchez, M. P. Arias, S. Vázquez and M. Nogueira)

Chapter 79 Heart Failure: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment Options
(Nan Li, Jian An Wang, Bernard Man Yung Cheung and Min Zhang)

Chapter 80 Use of Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein in Predicting Pregnancy Complications and Adverse Outcomes: Contribution of Supplemental Biomarkers
(G. J. Mizejewski)

Chapter 81 Efficacy, Safety and Economic Evaluation of Treatments for Rheumatoid Arthritis
(Roberto Pontarolo, Astrid Wiens, Cassyano Januário Correr, |Luana Lenzi and Rafael Venson)

Chapter 82 The Importance of Autoantibodies in the Etiology, Pathogenesis and Diagnosis of Autoimmune Diseases
(Ali A. Al-Jabri, Elias A. Said, Crystal Y. Koh, Mohamed A. Idris, Mohammed S. Al-Balushi and Sidgi S. Hasson)

Chapter 83 Alpha-Fetoproteins: Structure, Functions and Health Implications
(Roberta Elisa Rossi, Sara Massironi and Dario Conte)

Chapter 84 Incidence, Predictors and Management of Restenosis after Percutaneous Revascularization for Left Main Coronary Disease
(Ahmed Rezq, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai and Giuseppe Sangiorgi)

Chapter 85 Paraneoplastic Pemphigus
(Angeline Yong and Hong Liang Tey)

Chapter 86 The Role of the Genetics in the Susceptibility to Restenosis
(Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón, José Manuel Fragoso, Marco Antonio Peña-Duque and Marco Antonio Martínez-Ríos)

Chapter 87 Emerging Trends in Plant Poisonings
(Dan D. Petersen)

Chapter 88 Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning: A Review of Health Hazards and Management Strategy
(Arif Wahab, Shaista Alvi and Raja. B. Panwar)

Chapter 89 Parathyroid Anatomy and Embryology
(Bassam Abboud, Ronald Daher, and James Kirkby-Bott)

Chapter 90 Imaging of the Parathyroid Glands
(Yassar A. Qureshi, Colin Todd, and James Kirkby-Bott)

Chapter 91 Parathyroid Gland and Calcium Physiology
(Rajeev Raghavan and Bushra Ahmad)

Chapter 92 The Effect of Parathyroid Hormone on Bone
(Marina Komrakova, Stephan Sehmisch, Klaus Stuermer, and Ewa K Stuermer)

Chapter 93 Familial Primary Hyperparathyroidism
(Radu Mihai)

Chapter 94 Parathyroid Carcinoma
(Filomena Cetani and Claudio Marcocci)

Chapter 95 Surgery for Primary Hyperparathyroidism
(Ziad El-Khatib and Hiba El Hage Chehade)

Chapter 96 Secondary and Tertiary HPT
(Gianluca Donatini and Bruno Carnaille)

Chapter 97 Predictors of Ectopic Parathyroid Gland Location and Imaging Failure in Patients with Persistent or Recurrent Hyperparathyroidism
(Haridimos Markogiannakis, Bill Fleming, and James Kirkby-Bott)

Chapter 98 Parathyroid Disorders in Children and Adolescents
(Pisit Pitukcheewanont and Rudruidee Karnchanasorn)

Chapter 99 Primary Hyperparathyroidism-Diagnosis and Management
(James Kirkby-Bott)

Chapter 100 Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: Diagnostic Investigation, management and preventive strategies
(Jonathan Gilleland, James Mahony and Bosco Paes)

Chapter 101 Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Clinical Characteristics and Treatment
(Young Yoo)

Chapter 102 Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment
(Beatriz Gómez)

Chapter 103 Cellular Immunity and Immunoproteomics of HLA Class I Ligands in HRSV Infection
(Daniel López)

Chapter 104 Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease and Severity of Illness
(Parthak Prodhan, M.D. and Natan Noviski, M.D.)

Chapter 105 Paralysis in ALS Patients Pathogenesis, Assessment and Treatment
(Paolo Bongioanni)

Chapter 106 Targeting Testosterone Pathways in Prostate Cancer Treatment
(Xuan Huang, Bamidele A. Adesunloye and James L. Gulley)

Chapter 107 The Role of Adrenocorticotropin Beyond the Glucocorticoid Horizon
(Dóra Zelena and Gábor B. Makara)

Chapter 108 Facial Paralysis: Etiology, Classification and Treatment
(Bernardo Hontanilla and Diego Marre)

Chapter 109 Video Evaluation of Kinematics and Dynamics of the Beating Cardiac Syncytium: An Alternative to the Langendorff’s Method
(Lorenzo Fassina, Antonio Di Grazia, Fabio Naro and Giovanni Magenes)

Chapter 110 Neuromuscular Paralysis Induced in Insect Larvae by the Proteinic Venom of a Parasitic Wasp
(Karel Sláma)

Chapter 111 Therapeutic Measures for Prevention of Postmenopausal Symptoms
(Pradeep K. Dabla, Shakti Aggarwal, Vandana Dabla and Sarika Arora)

Chapter 112 Characterization of Surface Proteins of Streptococcus Pneumoniae by Proteomic Approaches
(Chi-Won Choi and Seung Il Kim)

Chapter 113 Morphological Regionalization Using Fetal Magnetic Resonance (MR) Images of Normal Developing Brains
(Hui-Hsin Hu, Wan-Yuo Guo, Hui-Yun Chen, Po-Shan Wang, Chih-I Hung, Jen-Chuen Hsieh and Yu-Te Wu)

Chapter 114 Adipokines as an Important Factor Related to the Prenatal Programming of Nutritional Behaviour
(Julie Bienertova-Vasku and Petr Bienert)

Chapter 115 Development of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Human Digestive Tract
(Goran Radenkovic)

Chapter 116 Sleep Paralysis
(Sona Nevsimalova and Jitka Buskova)

Chapter 117 Bacterial Prophylaxis
(Edibaldo Silva)

Chapter 118 Parvovirus B19 and Hematological Disorders in Children
(Maysaa El Sayed Zaki)

Chapter 119 C. Elegans and Neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis Elegans: Anatomy, Life Cycles and Biological Functions
(Ebany J. Martinez-Finley, Sudipta Chakraborty, Sam Caito, Stephanie Fretham, and Michael Aschner)

Chapter 120 Caenorhabditis elegans as a Host Model for Studying the Pathogenicity and Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus
(Kunyan Zhang, Dinah Tambalo and Kaiyu Wu)

Chapter 121 Understanding the Molecular Basis for the Hazards Associated with Nevirapine Treatment
(Sofia A. Pereira, M. Matilde Marques, Umbelina Caixas, Emília C. Monteiro, Frederick A. Beland and Alexandra M. M. Antunes)

Chapter 122 Impact of Hyperglycemia and/or Hypoglycemia in the Brain
(Susana Cardoso, Sónia Correia, Renato X. Santos, Cristina Carvalho, Maria S. Santos and Paula I. Moreira)

Chapter 123 Classical and Novel Roles of Biotin on Systemic Functions
(I. Z. Olivares-Sandoval and C. Fernandez-Mejia)

Chapter 124 Visualization of Archaic Cancer Attractors and Chromatin Regulators Connecting to Ageing, Robustness and Cellular Reprogramming
(Yue Zhang, Stuart K. Calderwood and Hisashi Moriguchi)

Chapter 125 Insulin-Interfering Hormones, Nutrient Metabolism and Transport in Placentas from Gestational Diabetic Pregnancies
(Louiza Belkacemi, Cathy Vaillancourt, Evemie Dubé and Julie Lafond)

Chapter 126 Anti-Retroviral Therapy and HIV/AIDS-Related Mortality in Resource-Limited Settings in Africa. An Observational Study in Urban and Rural Centers in Burkina Faso
(M. Bettinzoli, L. R. Tomasoni, P. Rodari, F. Buelli, V. Pietra, A. Yonli, M. Martinetto, R. Moret, J. Semporé, K. Sanogo, H. Nitiema, D. Kiema, F. Castelli and J. Simporé)

Chapter 127 Hypoglycemia in Children and Adolescents with T1 Diabetes
(Annalisa Blasetti, Giovanna Di Sabatino, Rosa Maria Chiuri, Concetta Di Giulio, Ferrina Matronola and Francesco Chiarelli)

Chapter 128 Diabetes in Pregnancy and the Long-Term Health of Offspring
(Jenny E. Gunton and Sue Mei Lau)

Chapter 129 AMPK Regulates Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Expression in Osteoblast
(Ippei Kanazawa)

Chapter 130 Gestational Diabetes and Oxidative Stress
(Cristina López-Tinoco and Manuel Aguilar Diosdado)

Chapter 131 Detection and Prevention of Hypoglycemia in Automated Insulin Delivery Systems for Type 1 Diabetes Patients
(Amjad Abu-Rmileh and Winston Garcia-Gabin)

Chapter 132 Dynamics of HIV and Gonorrhea Co-Interaction in Resource Limited Settings: The Impact of Drugs Losing Efficacy against Gonorrhea
(Steady Mushayabasa)

Chapter 133 Biophysical and Technical Aspects of Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia
(V. Yu. Plavskii)

Chapter 134 Genetic Variants in Bilirubin Metabolism Pathway, Serum Bilirubin and Cardiovascular Disease
(Rong Lin and Li Jin)

Chapter 135 Molecular Simulation of Bilirubin Transport and Its pKa Values
(Rok Borštnar)

Chapter 136 Hyperbilirubinemia-Associated Renal Disorders
(Khajohn Tiranathanagul, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Somchit Eiam-Ongand Somchai Eiam-Ong)

Chapter 137 Serum Bilirubin and the Genetic Epidemiology of Complex Disease
(Phillip E. Melton)

Chapter 138 Bilirubin Oxidase
(Takeshi Sakurai and Kunishige Kataoka)

Chapter 139 Brainstem Auditory Impairment in Infants with Hyperbilirubinemia
(Ze Dong Jiang)

Chapter 140 Transcriptional Regulation of Human Bilirubin UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A1 Gene and Implication of Defects in the UGT1A1 Gene Promoter
(Junko Sugatani and Masao Miwa)

Chapter 141 Drug-Induced Cholestatic Liver Injury
(Karel Urbánek, Ondřej Krystyník and Vlastimil Procházka)

Chapter 142 Genetic Service, Counseling and Research for Hyperbilirubinemic Patients in Taiwan
(Ching-Shan Huang)

Chapter 143 Interleukin-12: Effector Mechanisms and Homeostatic Counter-regulation
(Nejat K. Egilmez)

Chapter 144 Cytokines: Sensors of the Nervous System
(Mary Fafutis-Morris and Oscar Kurt Bitzer Q.)

Chapter 145 Role of Cytokines in Hypoxic Periventricular White Matter Damage in Developing Brain
(Madhuvika Murugan, Eng-Ang Ling and Charanjit Kaur)

Chapter 146 Cytokine Network as Attractive Therapeutic Target for Neurodegenerative Diseases
(Marcella Reale)

Chapter 147 Cytokine Dysregulation and its Epigenetic Control in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
(Juhua Zhou, Yin Zhong, Prakash Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti)

Chapter 148 Cytokines, Properties and Role during Wound Healing and Response to Photomodulation
(P. R. Sekhejane and H. Abrahamse)

Chapter 149 Inflammatory Cytokines and Heart Disease: Their Implication in Paracrine Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy
(Alice Le Huu, Guangyong Chen and Dominique Shum-Tim)

Chapter 150 The Role of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Osteoarthritis: New Therapeutic Approaches Using Anti-cytokine Therapy and NF-B Inhibitors
(Ali Mobasheri and Mehdi Shakibaei)

Chapter 151 Scavenger Receptor A (SRA/CD204): A Multifaceted Regulator of Inflammatory Response and Immunity
(Xiaofei Yu, Daming Zuo, John R. Subjeck and Xiang-Yang Wang)

Chapter 152 Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Human Prostate Cancer
(Gonzalo Rodriguez-Berriguete, Benito Fraile, Ricardo Paniagua and Mar Royuela)

Chapter 153 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Receptors in Multiple Myeloma
(Roberto Ria, Antonia Reale and Angelo Vacca)

Chapter 154 The Roles of Cytokines in Periodontal Disease
(Hiromichi Yumoto, Kouji Hirao, Takashi Matsuo and Yoichiro Miyake)

Chapter 155 Corticotropin and Reproduction
(A. Mancini, E. Giacchi, S. Raimondo, C. Di Segni, A. Silvestrini and E. Meucci)

Chapter 156 Actions of Morphine and its Related Drugs on Primary-Afferent Neurons: Their Clinical Significances
(Kotaro Mizuta, Tsugumi Fujita, and Eiichi Kumamoto)

Chapter 157 Morphine: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Clinical Aspects
(Robert Taylor Jr., Joseph V. Pergolizzi Jr., and Robert B. Raffa)

Chapter 158 Laboring through Pain: Body, Mind, and Emotion Work among Midwifery Clients
(Shannon K. Carter and Stephanie Gonzalez-Guittar)

Chapter 159 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Bile in the Diagnosis of Chronic Cholestatic Diseases
(Tedros Bezabeh, Omkar B. Ijare, Sanaz Mohajeri, Jeremy Lipschitz, and Ian C. P. Smith)

Chapter 160 Cold-Active Enzymes: Potential Use in Biotechnology
(Adriana E. Alvarenga, Héctor A. Cristóbal, and Carlos M. Abate)

Chapter 161 “With Woman”: A Comparison of Midwifery Practice in Utah a Century Apart
(Lynn Clark Callister and Elaine S. Marshall)

Chapter 162 Acute Cholangitis: Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment
(Stephen E. Congly and Eldon A. Shaffer)

Chapter 163 The Midwife’s Relational Strengths and the Good Birth
(Neil Pembroke)

Chapter 164 The Timing of Umbilical Cord Clamping: Some Ethical Reflections
(Maria Elena Salvaterra)

Chapter 165 The Classification and Differential Diagnosis of Sclerosing Cholangitis
(Takahiro Nakazawa, Itaru Naitoh, Kazuki Hayashi, Fumihiro Okumura, Katsuyuki Miyabe, Michihiro Yoshida, Hiroaki Yamashita, Hirotaka Ohara, and Takashi Joh)

Chapter 166 Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: Serotonin Protective Role
(A. E. Lychkova)

Chapter 167 A New Path in Drug Addiction Research: The Crayfish Model and Morphine-Sensitive Reward
(Thomas I. Nathaniel, Jaak Panksepp and Robert Huber)

Chapter 168 Tetrahymena and Human Telomerase Enzymes: Model and Dynamics of Processive Nucleotide and Repeat Addition Translocations
(Ping Xie)

Chapter 169 Melanogenesis and Natural Hypopigmentation Agents
(H. M. Chiang, H. W. Chen, Y. H. Huang, S. Y. Chan, C. C. Chen, W. C. Wu and K. C. Wen)

Chapter 170 Fungal Melanins: Biosynthesis and Biological Functions
(Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Joshua Daniel Nosanchuk and Rosely Maria Zancope-Oliveira)

Chapter 171 The Coat Color Genes Regulate Eumelanin and Pheomelanin Synthesis in Melanocytes
(Tomohisa Hirobe)

Chapter 172 The Role of Melanin Production in Gaeumannomyces Graminis Infection of Cereal Plants
(Hanafy Fouly, Shelby Henning, Osman Radwan, Henry Wilkinson and Bruce Martin)

Chapter 173 Skin Anatomy and Physiology Research Developments in Melanocytes
(Naoki Oiso and Akira Kawada)

Chapter 174 Optical Spectroscopy and Structural Properties of Synthetic and Natural Eumelanin
(Giuseppe Perna and Vito Capozzi)

Chapter 175 Melanic Pigmentation in Ectothermic Vertebrates: Occurrence and Function
(Classius de Oliveira and Lilian Franco-Belussi)

Chapter 176 Fairness in a Natural Way - Novel Polyherbal Ingredients Inhibiting Melanin Synthesis and Transfer
(S. Gokulshankar, M. S. Ranjith, K. Babu, M. A. Deepa, B. K. Mohanty and G. Prabhakaran)

Chapter 177 Gastrointestinal Disorders: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention
(Joshua J. Malago)

Chapter 178 Short Bowel Syndrome
(I. Sukhotnik)

Chapter 179 Yeast Plasma Membrane and Vacuolar H+- ATPases
(Norma Silvia Sánchez, Daniela E. Castro, Martha Calahorra, Gloria A. Martínez-Muñoz and Antonio Peña)

Chapter 180 Gastrointestinal Disorders in Pregnant Women: Outcomes, Treatment and Prevention
(Andrew E. Czeizel, János Banai and Ferenc Bánhidy)

Chapter 181 Dual Topology of the Gastric Proton Pump: A Bidirectional Molecular Motor for Simultaneous Uphill Transport of H+ and K+
(Tushar K. Ray, Pratap K. Das, J. Michael Zinkievich and Jyotirmoy Nandi)

Chapter 182 Epithelial Barrier Function in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
(Raquel Martín-Venegas, María José Rodríguez-Lagunas, Ana María Guerrero-Zamora, Maria Teresa Brufau and Ruth Ferrer)

Chapter 183 Treatment of Laryngopharyngeal Symptoms Related to Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease by Proton Pump Inhibitors: A Systematic Review
(Sami Karoui, Norsaf Bibani, Meriem Serghini, Jalel Boubaker and Azza Filali)

Chapter 184 Crohn’s Disease
(Jia-ju Zheng and Yun-di Guo)

Chapter 185 Therapeutic Perspectives of Gastrointestinal Melatonin
(George A. Bubenik)

Chapter 186 Liver Regenerative Medicine: Advances and Challenges
(Dimitry A. Chistiakov)

Chapter 187 Carbon Nanotube Containing Bioceramic and Biopolymer Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering
(Jayachandran Venkatesan and Se Kwon Kim)

Chapter 188 Stretching Bioreactor for Dynamic Engineering of Muscle Tissues
(Marie-Noëlle Giraud, Dominic Bertschi, Anne Géraldine Guex, Céline Fouassier, Fabrizio Romano, Silvio Näther, Giuseppino Fortunato, Thierry P. Carrel and Hendrik T. Tevaearai)

Chapter 189 Strategies for Integration of Tissue Engineered Constructs to Native Cartilage and Bone
(Rupak Dua and Sharan Ramaswamy)

Chapter 190 Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Their Application in Tissue Engineering
(Natsuko Kakudo, Satoshi Kushida, Tsunetaka Ogura, Kenji Suzuki and Kenji Kusumoto)

Chapter 191 Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine for Treatment of Congenital Birth Defects
(Hiroaki Komuro)

Chapter 192 Tissue Engineering Strategies and Stem Cells
(Markus Tammia, Jonathan Rakar and Joanne M. Hackett)

Chapter 193 Molecular Biology of Laryngeal Cancer
(Jaime Lee and Rostam D. Farhadieh)

Chapter 194 Laryngeal Chemoreflexes in Early Life: Potential Involvement in Pathologies Involving Cardiorespiratory Inhibition
(Marie-Laure Specq, Nathalie Samson and Jean-Paul Praud)

Chapter 195 Laryngeal Reconstruction and Voice Rehabilitation: Current Techniques and Outcomes
(Rostam D. Farhadieh, Charles Geoffrey Gordon Rees and Jaime Lee)

Chapter 196 Open Supraglottic Horizontal Laryngectomy: Still Useful in the Endoscopic Era
(Alejandro Castro and Javier Gavilan)

Chapter 197 From Whispers to Normal Speech: Offering Natural Voice to Laryngectomees
(Hamid Reza Sharifzadeh and Ian V. McLoughlin)

Chapter 198 The Lower Esophageal Sphincter and Its Relationship with the Larynx
(Albert L. Merati)

Chapter 199 Endoscopic Laser Microsurgery of Malignant Tumors of the Larynx: Perioperative and Postoperative Complications
(Maik Ellies)


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