Medical History: Some Perspectives. Second Edition

Donald E. Greydanus, M.D.
Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Western Michigan University School of Medicine, Kalamazoo, MI, USA

Joav Merrick, M.D.
Division of Adolescent Medicine, KY Children’s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Jerusalem, Israel
Division of Pediatrics, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Centers, Mt Scopus Campus, Jerusalem, Israel
School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Series: Public Health: Practices, Methods and Policies
BISAC: MED078000




Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:



A variety of topics are presented in this book that seek to reflect on medical history before and after the golden age of the Medical Renaissance. These topics include newborn care, the story of adolescence, behavioral pediatrics, psychopharmacology, substance abuse, psychodermatology, the story of diabetes mellitus, specific organ systems that range from the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, kidney and the heart in pediatrics, and other motifs. Reflections on adolescence are provided based on society’s classic disdain and envy of its youth seen throughout the ages of human life.

In this book, the authors include a variety of scholars, who stood on the shoulders of giants and made exponential progress in medicine of their own. Throughout the centuries, from the Mesopotamian masters to present physicians, these giants advanced the field of medicine to represent what has been understood as the standard of current medical care, and perhaps we can learn what it will be like in the future. These esteemed experts learned from the past, made mistakes, exhibited amazing courage, and faced scientific and sometimes sacerdotal criticism. Their courage was astonishing, as many were confronted by minacious, inauspicious, portentous, and unpropitious attacks on their ethics and accomplishments. However, they persisted and were able to develop verifiable data that others could independently substantiate and sometimes improve upon for the benefit of all humans. This book celebrates their astounding, awe-inspiring achievements.

Dedication First Edition

Dedication Second Edition
(John Philip Mol)

Preface: Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Reflections on Newtonian Éminences Grises in Medical History


Chapter 1. Pre-Aesculapian Messages from Ancient Archives of Mesopotamia: The Epic of Gilgamesh and the Library of Ashurbanipal

Chapter 2. From Lilith to Shiphrah and Puah—and Beyond: What Have We Learned about Caring for the Newborn in the past 300 Millennia?

Chapter 3. From Childhood to Adolescence: Reflections of Civilization’s Laureates

Section One: Perspectives in General Medicine

Chapter 4. The Legacy of Smallpox and Polio Vaccines: a Pandora’s Box or Gordian Knot in the 21st Century?

Chapter 5. Behavioral Pediatrics: Historical Dilemmas and Challenges with Faith in the Future

Chapter 6. Substance Use and Abuse down through the Ages of Human History

Chapter 7. Tragedy of Sibling Abuse: Convergence of Fiction, Research, and the Reality of Human Nature

Chapter 8. Perspectives on Incest: a Perplexing Paradox Characterized by Destructive Betrayal of Trust

Chapter 9. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Motor Vehicle Crashes in Children and Adolescents: a Historically Delayed Realization

Section Two: Perspectives in Psychiatry and Pharmacology

Chapter 10. Pediatric Schizophrenia: Perspectives of History

Chapter 11. Pediatric Psychopharmacology: Perspectives of History

Chapter 12. The Scientific Seeds of Pharmacology

Chapter 13. Pediatric Psychopharmacology: The Past Leads to the Future

Section Three: Perspectives in Specific Organ Systems

Chapter 14. The Story of Diabetes Mellitus

Chapter 15. Historical Perspectives in Pediatric Pulmonology

Chapter 16. History of Developments in Understanding the Complexities of the Pediatric Gastrointestinal Tract

Chapter 17. Understanding the Pediatric Heart

Chapter 18. The Pediatric Kidney: a Historic View

Chapter 19. The Skin: Historical Perspectives

Section Four: Acknowledgements

Chapter 20. About the Authors

Chapter 21. About the Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine (WMED), Kalamazoo, Michigan United States

Chapter 22. About the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in Israel

Chapter 23. About Book Series "Public health: Practices, Methods and Policies"

Section Five: Index

[1] Early modern homo sapiens. URL:
[2] McHenry HM. Human evolution. In: Ruse M, Travis J, eds. Evolution: The first four billion years. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 2009:265.
[3] When did human speech evolve? URL:
[4] Bruno AM. Medical responsibility in the Code of Hammurabi. An Paul Med Cir 1951;62(2):97-114.
[5] Kramer SN. The Sumerians. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1963:225-6.
[6] Hammond N. Cracking the Egyptian code: The revolutionary life of Jean-François Champollion. Eur J Archeology 2014;17(1):176-9.
[7] Weissbach MM. Jean François Champollion and the true story of Egypt. 21st Century Sci Technol 2000;12:26-39.
[8] Walker C. Rx — The eye of Horus. J R Coll Physicians Lond 1992;26(1):102.
[9] Taylor JH, ed. Ancient Egyptian book of the dead: Journey through the afterlife. London: British Museum Press, 2010:54.
[10] Codellas PS. Alcmaeon of Croton: his life, work, and fragments. Proceed Royal Soc Med 1931;25(4):1041-6.
[11] Schiefsky MJ. Hippocrates: On ancient medicine. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers, 2005.
[12] Mason, SF. A history of the sciences. New York: Collier Books, 1956.
[13] Dunn PM. Aristotle (384-322 BC): Philosopher and scientist of ancient Greece. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal 2006;91(1):F76-F7.
[14] Shoja MM, Tubbs RS, Loukas M, Ardalan MR. The Aristotelian account of “heart and veins.” Int J Cardiol 2008;125(3):304-10.
[15] Loukas M, Hanna M, Alsaiegh N, Shoja MM, Tubbs RS. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. Clin Anat 2011;24(4):409-15.
[16] Santoro G, Wood MD, Merio L, Anastasi GP, Tomasello F, Germanò A. The anatomical location of the soul from the heart, through the brain, to the whole body and beyond: a journey through Western history, science, and philosophy. Neurosurgery 2009;65(4):633-43.
[17] A history of the heart. URL:
[18] Aird WC. Discovery of the cardiovascular system: from Galen to William Harvey. J Thromb Haemost 2011;9(Suppl 1):118-29.
[19] Bestetti RB, Baraldi C, Restini BA, Couto LB. Development of anatomophysiologic knowledge regarding the cardiovascular system: From Egyptians to Harvey. Arq Bras Cardiol 2014;103(6):538-45.
[20] Pasipoularides A. Historical perspective: Harvey’s epoch-making discovery of the circulation, its historical antecedents, and some initial consequences on medical practice. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2013;114(11):1493-503.
[21] Hanson AE. Doctors’ literacy and papyri of medical content. Stud Anc Med 2010;35:187-204.
[22] Masic I, Dilic M, Solakovic E, Rustemepasic N, Ridjanovic Z. Why historians of medicine called Ibn al-Nafis the second Avicenna? Med Arh 2008;62(4):244-9.
[23] Chamsi-Pasha MAR, Chamsi-Pasha H. Avicenna’ contribution to cardiology. Avicenna J Med 2014;4(1):9-12.
[24] Faridi P, Zarshenas MM. Ibn Sina’s book on drugs for cardiovascular diseases. Int J Cardiol 2010;145:223.
[25] Tekol Y. The medieval physician Avicenna used an herbal calcium channel blocker, Taxus baccata L. Phytother Res 2007;21:701-2.
[26] Zarshenas MM, Zargaran A. A review on the Avicenna’s contribution to the field of cardiology. Int J Cardiol 2015;182:237-41.
[27] Majeed A. How Islam changed medicine. BMJ 2005;331:1486-7.
[28] West JB. Ibn al-Nafis, the pulmonary circulation, and the Islamic Golden age. J Appl Physiol 1985;105(6):1877-80.
[29] Bittar EE. A study of Ibn Nafis. Bull Hist med 1955;29:352-368.
[30] Coppola ED. The discovery of the pulmonary circulation: a new approach. Bull Hist Med 1957;31:44-77.
[31] Cooper H. The Canterbury tales. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
[32] Pezzoni MA. Notice of cases of plague contracted in the Lazeretto of Constantinople, in a letter addressed to Dr. Davy. Med Chir Trans 1842;25:167-91.
[33] Calvert R. An account of the origin and progress of the Plague of Malta, in the year 1813. Med Chir Trans 1815;6:1-64.
[34] Cox WA. On syphilis and gonorrhoea. Prov Med Surg J 1852;16(22):557-8.
[35] Welbank R. Observations on the necessity and method of further investigating the distinctions between syphilis and other varieties of venereal disease. Med Chir Trans 1827;13(Pt 2):563-604.
[36] Rose T. Observations on the treatment of syphilis, with an account of several cases of that disease in which a cure was effected without the use of mercury. Med Chir Trans 1817;8:347-424.

Chapter 1
[1] Magner LN. A history of the life sciences, 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2002.
[2] Zettler RL. Ancient Mesopotamia: the early history of the ancient near East, 9000-2000 BC. Science 1989;244(4902):370-1.
[3] Hole F. Investigating the origins of mesopotamian civilization. Science 1966;153(3736):605-11.
[4] Horejs B, Milić B, Ostmann F, Thanheiser U, Wenninger B, Galik A. The Aegean in the early 7th millennium BC: maritime networks and colonization. J World Prehist 2015;28:259-330.
[5] G Leick. The A to Z of Mesopotamia. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2010.
[6] Wiegand WA, Davis Jr DG, eds. Encyclopedia of library history. New York: Garland, 1994.
[7] Spielmeyer R. The epic of Gilgamesh; resolution of concepts of evil and death in ancient Babylonia. NY State J Med 1979;79(10):1618-21.
[8] Rausch R, Dirks H, Kallioras A, Schüth C. The riddle of the springs of Dilmun — does the Gilgamesh epic tell the truth? Ground Water 2014;52(4):640-4.
[9] Jon Douglas Levenson. Inheriting Abraham: The legacy of the patriarch in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.
[10] Beit-Hallahmi B The foundations of Judaism: psychoanalytic interpretations. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1994;41(3):200-10.
[11] Neiburger EJ, Cohen M, Lieberman J, Lieberman M. The dentition of Abraham’s people. Why Abraham left Mesopotamia. NY State Dent J 1998;64(9):25-9.
[12] Neiburger EJ. Dentistry in ancient Mesopotamia. J Mass Dent Soc 2000;49(2):16-9.
[13] Wilson JV. Scurvy in ancient Mesopotamia. Bull NY Acad Med 1969;45(5):380.
[14] Adamson PB. Absorption of lead in ancient Mesopotamia. Med Secoli 1979;16(3):333-7.
[15] Martins E, Silva J. Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia — part 1. Acta Med Port 2009;22(6):841-54. [Portuguese].
[16] Martins E, Silva J. Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia — part 2. Acta Med Port 2010;23(1):125-40. [Portuguese].
[17] Zuskin E, Lipozencić J, Pucarin-Cvetković, Mustajbegović J, Schachter N, Mucić-Pucić B, et al. Ancient medicine: A review. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2008;16(3):149-57.
[18] Attia A, Buisson G. Some aspects of medicine in ancient Mesopotamia. Rev Prat 2006;56(4):458-61. [French].
[19] André-Leicknam B. Early written medical documents. Blood in Mesopotamia. Noun Rev Fr Hematol 1983;25(2):141-4.
[20] Wolf S. Early medicine in Mesopotamia. Integr Physiol Behav Sci 1999;34(4):217-8.
[21] Coleman M, Scurlock J. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in ancient Mesopotamia. Trop Med Int Health 1997;2(6):603-6.
[22] Reiner E. Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia. J Int Coll Surg 1964;41:544-50.
[23] Retief FP, Cilliers L. Mesopotamian medicine. S Afr Med J 2007;97(1):27-30.
[24] Biggs R. Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia. Hist Sci 1969;8:94-105.
[25] Biggs RD. Medicine, surgery and public healing in ancient Mesopotamia. J Assyrian Acad Stud 2005;19:1-19.
[26] Nickels E. The dawn of history, medicine in Mesopotamia. Rev Med Liege 1985;40(24):850-60. [French].
[27] Fales FM. Chapter 2: Mesopotamia. Handb Clin Neurol 2010;95-15-27.
[28] Greydanus DE. Pediatric and adolescent psychopharmacology. Pediatric Clin North Am 2011;58(1):xv-xxiv.
[29] Greydanus DE, Merrick J. Medical history. Some perspectives. New York: Nova Biomedical, 2016.
[30] Tajima-Pozo K, Zambrano-Enriquez D, de Anta L, Moron MD, Carrasco JL, Lopez-Ibor JJ et al. Practicing exorcism in schizophrenia BMJ Case Rep 2011 Feb 15; 2011. pii:bcr1020092350.
[31] Harris JC. Exorcism: the miracles of St. Ignatius of Loyola: Peter Paul Rubens. JAMA Psychiatry 2014;71(8):866-7.
[32] Campbell J, Stickley T, Crosbie B. Madness, mystery, reality and illusion. J Psychiatry Ment Health Nurs 2011;18(10):924-9.
[33] Niemi M. Magic, myths and molecules. Medicine — from Hippocrates to the future. Duodecim 1997;113(14):1329-35. [Finnish].
[34] Bloch H. Man’s reasoning about diseases. Time and place. NY State J Med 1980;80(12):1888-91.
[35] Robson E. Mesopotamian medicine and religion: current debates, new perspectives. Religion Compass 2018;2/4:455-483.
[36] Adamson PB. The influence of the king on medical practice in ancient Mesopotamia. Med Secoli 1989;1(1):13-22.
[37] Mujais S. The future of the realm: medicine and divination in ancient Syro-Mesopotamia. Am J Nephrol 1999;19(2):133-9.
[38] Böck B. “When you perform the ritual of ‘rubbing’”: on medicine and magic in ancient Mesopotamia. J Near East Stud 2003;62(1):1-16.
[39] Feenstra O, Seybold I. Roots of medicine and law in ancient Mesopotamia. Acta Med Leg Soc (Liege) 1989;39(2):335-8.
[40] Bruno AM. Medical responsibility in the Code of Hammurabi. An Paul Med Cir 1951;62(2):97-114.
[41] Burton JL. A bite into the history of the autopsy: from ancient roots to modern decay. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2005;1(4):277-84.
[42] Ramadan H, Abdulla F, Al-Shimmery E. Mesopotamia. Pract Neurol 2009;9(3):176-8.
[43] Sir D. The story of nephrology. J R Soc Med 1980;73:514-8.
[44] Dunea G. History of nephrology: beginnings. Hektoen Internat: J Med Humanities
[45] Eknoyan G. Beginnings-The kidney and nephrology in ancient Mesopotamian culture. Semin Dial 2016;29(3):236-46.
[46] Kramer SN. The Sumerians. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1963:225-6.

Chapter 2
[1] Magid S. From metaphysics to midrash: Myth, history, and the interpretation of scripture in Lurianic Kabbala. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 2008.
[2] Calvin J. The institutes of the Christian religion. II. 1.8. LCC, 2 vols. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster, 1960.
[3] Moreno MA, Rivara FP. Bed sharing: A controversial but common practice. JAMA Pediatrics 2013;167:1088.
[4] McKenna JJ, Ball HL, Gettler LT. Mother-infant cosleeping, breastfeeding, and sudden infant death syndrome: what biological anthropology has discovered about normal infant sleep and pediatric sleep medicine. Am J Phys Anthropol 2007;45(Suppl):133-61.
[5] McKenna JJ, Thoman EB, Anders TF, Sadeh A, Schechtman VL, Glotzbach SF. Infant- parent co- sleeping in an evolutionary perspective: implications for understanding infant sleep environment and the sudden infant death syndrome. Sleep 1993;16(3):263-82.
[6] Judgement of Salomon. URL:
[7] Cohn RL. Before Israel: The Canaanites as other in Biblical tradition. In: Silberstein LJ, ed. The other in Jewish thought and history: Constructions of Jewish culture and identity. New York: New York University Press, 1994:76-7.
[8] History Channel: The Bible: What really happened at Jericho? URL:
[9] Smith M. A note on burning babies. J Am Oriental Soc 1975;95:477-9.
[10] Child sacrifice. URL:
[11] Berman LA. The Akedah: The binding of Isaac. Northvale, NJ: Rowman Littlefield, 1997.
[12] Greenfield LA, Snell TL. Women offenders. NCJ 175688. US Department of Justice. 1999 Febr 03. URL:
[13] Forrest WG. A history of Sparta 950-192 BC. New York: Norton, 1963.
[14] Plutarch. Life of Lycurgus. Plutarch lives. Chicago, IL: Lycurgus Encyclopedia Britannica, 1990:32-48.
[15] Herodotus. The histories. Book 1, 110.
[16] Plato. Theaetetus, 161a.
[17] Iceton S, Whitelaw WA, Coppes-Zantinga AR. How to recognize the newborn that is worth rearing. Pediatr Res 1999;45:126A.
[18] O’Donnell CPF, Gibson AT, David PG. Pinching, electrocution, ravens’ breaks, and positive pressure ventilation: a brief history of neonatal resuscitation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2006;91(5): F369-73.
[19] Coleman E. Infanticide in the early middle ages. In: Stroud SM, ed. Women in medieval society. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, 1976:47-70.
[20] Hausfater G, Hrdy SB, eds. Infanticide: Comparative and evolutionary perspectives. New York: Aldine Press,1984.
[21] Langer WA. Infanticide: A historical survey. History Childhood Quart 1974;1:353-65.
[22] Brookman F, Nolan J. The dark figure of infanticide in England and Wales. Complexity of diagnosis. J Interpers Viol 2006;21(7): 869-89.
[23] Pritchard C, Davey J, Williams R. Who kills children? The examination of the evidence. Br J Soc Work 2013;43(7):1403-38.
[24] Sim A. The tudor housewife. Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen’s Press, 1998:26.
[25] Patai R. The Hebrew goddess, 3rd enlarged edition. New York: Discus Books, 1978.
[26] Childhood. URL:
[27] Van Sleuwen BE, Engelberts AC, Boere-Boonekamp MM, Kuis W, Schulpen TW, L’Hoir MP. Swaddling: A systemic review. Pediatrics 2007;120(4): e1097-106.
[28] Swaddling. URL:
[29] Locke J. Some thoughts concerning education, 1779. UTL:
[30] Clarke NM. Swaddling and hip dysplasia: an orthopaedic perspective. Arch Dis Child 2014;99(1):5-6.
[31] McDonnell E, Moor RY. Infant deaths and injuries associated with wearable blankets, swaddle wraps, and swaddling. J Pediatr 2014 Jan 30. pii: S0022-3476(13)01591-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.
[32] Greydanus DE, Kaplan G, Patel DR, Merrick J, eds. Substance abuse in adolescents and young adults. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013:1-9.
[33] Gartner LM, Stone C. Two thousand years of medical advice on breastfeeding: comparison of Chinese and Western texts. Semin Perinatol 1994;18(6):532-6.
[34] Pregnancy and childbirth. URL:
[35] Riordan J, Countryman BA. Basics of breastfeeding. Part I: Infant feeding patterns past and present. JOGN Nurs 1980;9(4):207-10.
[36] Colón AR, Colón PA. A history of children: A socio-cultural survey across millennia. Westwood, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
[37] Dunn PM. The development of newborn care in the UK since 1930: AAP Thomas E. Cone, Jr. lecture on perinatal history. J Perinatol 1998;18(6 Pt 1): 471-6.
[38] Woods RI, Løkke A, van Poppel F. Two hundred years of evidence-based perinatal care: late-fetal mortality in the past. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2006;91(6):F445-7.
[39] Bruinsma GW. Aanteekeningen op een paar ministerieele circulaires. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 1883;27:61-8. [Dutch].
[40] Holland EL, Lane-Claypon JE. Child life investigations: a clinical and pathological study of 1,673 cases of dead-births and neo-natal deaths. Medical Research Council, London: HMSO, Special Report Series No 109, 1926.
[41] Baird D. The influence of social and economic factors on stillbirths and neonatal deaths. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Empire 1945;52:217-34.
[42] Dunn PM. The British Association of Perinatal Medicine: The first 25 years (1976-2000). Arch Dis Child 2003;88(3):181-4.
[43] Desmond MM. A review of newborn medicine in America: European past and guiding ideology. Am J Perinatol 1991;8(5):308-22.
[44] Dunn PM. Stéphane Tarnier (1828-1897), the architect of perinatology in France. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2002;86(2):F137-9.
[45] Fraser M. Stéphane Tarnier and the origin of incubators for premature babies. Rep Proc Scott Soc Hist Med 1994-1996: 1-2.
[46] Dunn PM. Professor Pierre Budin (1846-1907) of Paris, and modern perinatal care. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1995;73(3):F193-5.
[47] Lussky RC. A century of neonatal medicine. Minn Med 1999;82:1-8.
[48] Budin P: Le Nourisson, Paris, Octave Doin, 1900. [French].
[49] Dunn PM. Adolphe Pinard (1844-1934) of Paris and intrauterine paediatric care. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2006;91(3):F231-2.
[50] Silverman WA. Incubator-baby slide shows. Pediatrics 1979;64(2):127-41.
[51] Schenkein S, Coney M. Infant incubators (letter-to-the-editor). Lancet 1897;2:744.
[52] Dunn P. Dr Carl Credé (1819-1892) and the prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2000;83(2):F158-9.
[53] Accardo P. William John Little and cerebral palsy in the nineteenth century. J Hist Med Allied Sci 1989;44(1):56-71.
[54] Dunn PM. Dr William Little (1810-1894) of London and cerebral palsy. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1995;72(3):F209-10.
[55] Hansen AC. William Osler MD. J Natl Med Assoc 1986;78(10):919.
[56] Administration for Children and Families. URL:
[57] MacDorman MF, Mathews TJ, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Infant deaths-United States, 2005-2008. MMWR Surveill Summ 2013;62(Suppl 3):171-5.
[58] Lu MC, Johnson KA. Toward a national strategy on infant mortality. Am J Public Health 2014;104 (Suppl 1):S13-6.
[59] Dunn PM. Dr Emmett Holt (1855-1924) and the foundation of North American paediatrics. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2000;83(3):F221-3.
[60] Meckel RA. Save the Babies: American Public Health Reform and the prevention of infant mortality, 1850-1929. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1998:118.
[61] Ligon-Borden BL. Abraham Jacobi, MD: Father of American pediatrics and advocate for children’s health. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2003;14(3): 246-9.
[62] Kessler-Harris A. In pursuit of equity: Women, men, and the quest for economic citizenship in the Twenty-First Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
[63] Wilson BA, O’Connor WG, Willis MS. The legacy of Charles R. Drew MD, CM, MDSC. Immunohematology 2011;27(3):94-100.
[64] Ligon BL. Sir Alexander Fleming: Scottish researcher who discovered penicillin. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2004;15(1):58-64.
[65] Mackey DA. 2005 Gregg Lecture: Congenital cataracts — from rubella to genetics. Clin Experiment Opthalmol 2006;34(3):199-207.
[66] Pearson CH. Replacement transfusion as a treatment of erythroblastosis fetalis, by Louis K Diamond, MD. Pediatrics 1948;2:520-4; Pediatrics 1998;102(1 Pt 2):203-5.
[67] Dunn PM. The birth of perinatal medicine in the United Kingdom. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2007;12(3):27-38.
[68] Desmond MM. A review of newborn medicine in America: European past and guiding ideology. Am J Perinatol 1991;8(5):308-22.
[69] Dudenhausen JW. 40 years of the Journal of Perinatal Medicine. J Perinatal Med 2013;41(1):3-4.
[70] Schaffer AJ. Diseases of the newborn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1960.
[71] Apgar V. Infant resuscitation, 1957. Conn Med 2007;71(9):553-5.
[72] Galanakis E. Apgar score and Soranus of Ephesus. Lancet 1998;352(9145):2012-3.
[73] Baskett TF. Virginia Apgar and the newborn Apgar score. Resuscitation 2000;47(3):215-7.
[74] Appelgren L. The woman behind the Apgar score, Virginia Apgar. The woman behind the scoring system for quality control of the newborn. Läkartidningen 1991;88(14):1304-6.
[75] Finster M, Wood M. The Apgar score has survived the test of time. Anesthesiology 2005;102(4):855-7.
[76] Avery ME, Mead J. Surface properties in relation to atelectasis and hyaline membrane disease. AMA J Dis Child 1959;97(5 Pt 1):517-23.
[77] Pincock P. Mary Ellen Avery. Lancet 2012;379(9816): 610.
[78] Silverman WA. Compassion or opportunism? Pediatrics 2004;113(2):402-3.
[79] Watts G. William Silverman. BMJ 2005;330(7485):257.
[80] Oransky I. William Silverman. Lancet 2005;365(9454):116.
[81] Northway WHJr, Rosan RC, Porter DY. Pulmonary disease following respirator therapy of hyaline-membrane disease. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. N Engl J Med 1967;276(7):357–68.
[82] Fujiwara T, Chida S, Wataba Y, Maeta H, Morita T, Abe T. Artificial surfactant therapy in hyaline-membrane disease. Lancet 1980;315(8159): 55-9.
[83] Khan A. Avicenna (Ibn Sina): Muslim physician and philosopher of the eleventh century. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2006.
[84] Raju TN. History of neonatal resuscitation. Tales of heroism and desperation. Clin Perinatol 1999;26(3):629-40.
[85] Rubin LP. Abstract. The development of newborn resuscitation in Europe and North America from the 18th to early 20th centuries. Pediatric Res 1998;43:118.
[86] Baskett TF, Nagele F. Bernhard Schultze and the swinging neonate. Resuscitation 2001;51(1):3-6.
[87] Obladen M. History of neonatal resuscitation. Part 1: Artificial ventilation. Neonatology 2008;94(3):144-9.
[88] Zaichkin J, Wiswell TE. The history of neonatal resuscitation. Neonatal Netw 2002;21(5):21-8.
[89] Basket TF. The resuscitation greats. Benjamin Pugh: the air-pipe and neonatal resuscitation. Resuscitation 2000;44(3):153-5.
[90] Wilkinson DJ. Benjamin Pugh and his air-pipe. In: Marshall Barr A, Boulton T, Wilkinson DJ, eds. Essays on the history of anaesthesia: Selected and revised contributions by members of the History of Anaesthesia Society series 1, 1986-1989. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press, 1996.
[91] Obladen M. History of neonatal resuscitation-part 3: endotracheal intubation. Neonatology 2009;95(3):198-202.
[92] Blundell J. Dr. Blundell’s reason for his retirement from the Medical School of Guy’s Hospital. Lancet 1834-5;i:28.
[93] Young JH. James Blundell (1790-1878) Experimental physiologist and obstetrician. Med Hist 1964;8(2):159-69.
[94] No authors. James Blundell (1790-1877) physiologist and obstetrician. JAMA 1968;204(9):822-3.
[95] Sørensen T. James Blundell, 27 December 1790-15 January 1878. Professor of physiology and obstetrics at Guy’s Hospital 1823-1834. Ugeskr Laeger 1983;145:5-49. [Danish].
[96] Dunn PM. Dr. James Blundell (1790-1878) and neonatal resuscitation. Arch Dis Child 1989;64(4 Spec No):494-5.
[97] Moore W. The knife man: The extraordinary life and times of James Hunter, father of modern surgery. New York: Crown Publishing Group, 2005.
[98] Toledo-Pereyra LH. Birth of scientific surgery. John Hunter versus Joseph Lister as the father or founder of scientific surgery. J Invest Surg 2010;23(1):6-11.
[99] Cataldi L, Fanos V. Neonatal resuscitation: a fascinating story! Acta Biomed Ateneo Parmense 2000;71(Suppl 1):671-2.
[100] Obladen M. History of neonatal resuscitation. Part 2: oxygen and other drugs. Neonatology 2009;95(1):91-6.
[101] Obladen M. History of neonatal resuscitation – Part 3: endotracheal intubation. Neonatology 2009;95(3):198-202.
[102] Paraskos JA. History of CPR and the role of the national conference. Ann Emerg Med 1993;22(2 Pt 2):275-80.
[103] Kattwinkel J, Niermeyer S, Nadkami V, Tibballs J, Phillips B, Ziderman D, et al. Resuscitation of the newly born infant: an advisory statement from the Pediatric Working Group of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. Resuscitation 1999;40(2):710-88.
[104] International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) consensus on science with treatment recommendations for pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic and advanced life support. Pediatrics 2006;117(5):e955-77.
[105] Escobedo M. Moving from experience to evidence: changes in the US Neonatal Resuscitation Program based on International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Review. J Perinatol 2008;28(Suppl 1):S35-40.
[106] Raghuveer TS, Cox AJ. Neonatal resuscitation: an update. Am Fam Physician 2011;83(8):911-8.
[107] Davis PG, Dawson JA. New concepts in neonatal resuscitation. Curr Opin Pediatr 2012;24(2):147-53.
[108] O’Donnell CP. Turn and face the to neonatal resuscitation guidelines in the past decade. J Paediatr Child Health 2012; 48(9):735-9.
[109] Wyckoff MH. Neonatal resuscitation guidelines versus the reality of the delivery room. J Pediatr 2013;163(6):1542-3.
[110] McCarthy LK, Morley CJ, Davis PG, Kamlin CO, O’Donnell CP. Timing of interventions in the delivery room: does reality compare with neonatal resuscitation guidelines. J Pediatr 2013;163(6):553-1557.e1.
[111] Nightengale B. A lifetime of “firsts.” Adv Neonatal Care 2009;9(5):259-51.
[112] Henderson Y. The prevention and treatment of asphyxia in the newborn. JAMA 1928;90:583-6.
[113] Souza J, WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health Research Network. The World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health project at a glance: the power of collaboration. BJOG 2014;121(Suppl 1):v-viii.
[114] Vogel J, Souza J, Mori R, Morisaki N, Lumbiganon P, Laopaiboon M, et al. Maternal complications and perinatal mortality: Findings of the The World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. BJOG 2014;121(Suppl 1):76-88.
[115] Ganchimeg T, Ota E, Morisaki N, Laopaiboon M, Lumbignon P, Zhang J, et al. Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among adolescent mothers: A World Health Organization multicountry study. BJOG 2014;121(Suppl 1):40-8.
[116] Linderkamp O, Gharavi B, Schott C. The concept of tender care of premature infants: A review. Kinderkrankenschwester 2004;23(8):312-6.
[117] Singh M. The art, science and philosophy of newborn care. Indian J Pediatr 2014;81(6):552-9.
[118] Ben-Ezra M, Palgi Y, Walker R, Many A, Hamam-Raz Y. The impact of perinatal death on obstetrics nurses: a longitudinal and cross-sectional examination. J Perinat Med 2014; 42(1):75-81.
[119] Harrison MR. Unborn: historical perspectives of the fetus as a patient. Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Med Soc 1982;45(1):19-24.
[120] National Vital Statistics Report. URL:
[121] Carter J. A call to action: Women, religion, violence, and power. New York: Simon Schuster, 2014.

Chapter 3
[1] Magner LN. A history of the life sciences, 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Decker, 2002:502.
[2] Hare EH. Masturbation insanity: The history of an idea. J Ment Sci 1962;108:1.
[3] Greydanus DE. Adolescent sexuality: An overview and perspective. Pediatr Ann 1982;11:714-26.
[4] Violato C. History of adolescents. In: Friedman SB, Fischer M, Schonberg S, eds. Comprehensive adolescent health care. St Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishers, 1992:3-6.
[5] Greydanus DE, Geller B. Masturbation: Historic perspective. NY State J Med 1980;80:1892-6.
[6] Park R. An epitome of the history of medicine. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis, 1897.
[7] Violato C, Wiley AJ. Images of adolescence in English literature: The Middle Ages to the modern period. Adolescence 1990;25:253-65.
[8] Ares P. Centuries of childhood. New York: Vintage Publishers, 1962.
[9] Shakespeare W. The winter’s tale, 1623.
[10] Browning R. The ring and the book. London: Smith Elder, 1868.
[11] Symmonds JA. Gaudeamus Igitur, Poem, 1881.
[12] Heine H. Mein kind, wir waren kinder. Hamburg: Hoffman Campe, 1827.
[13] Stevenson RL. Virginibus Puerisque. Eat Aurora, NY: Roycrofters, 1881.
[14] Longfellow HW. Morituri Salutamus. New York: Hapter Brothers, 1875.
[15] Conrad J. Youth. Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1902.
[16] Hall SG. Adolescence: Its psychology and its relationship to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime, religion, and education. New York: D. Appleton and Company, two volumes, 1904.
[17] Gallagher JR: Medical care of the adolescent, First ed. New York: Appleton- Century-Crofts, 1960.
[18] Gallagher JR: The origins, development, and goals of adolescent medicine. J Adolesc Health Care 1982;3(1):57-63.
[19] Gallagher JR, Heald FP, Garell DC, eds. Medical care of the adolescent, Third edition. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1976.
[20] Hofmann AD. Adolescent medicine. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1983.
[21] Hofmann AD, Greydanus DE. Adolescent medicine, 2nd ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton Lange, 1989.
[22] Hofmann AD, Greydanus DE: Adolescent Medicine. Stamford, CT: Appleton Lange, 1997.
[23] Greydanus DE, Patel DR, Pratt HD, eds. Essential adolescent medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishers, 2006.
[24] Greydanus DE, Patel DR, Omar HA, Feucht C, Merrick J, eds. Adolescent medicine: Pharmacotherapeutics in general, mental, and sexual health. Berlin, De Gruyter, 2012.
[25] Greydanus DE, Patel DR, Omar HA, Feucht C, Merrick J, eds. Adolescent medicine: pharmacotherapeutics in medical disorders. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012.
[26] Evans AC, Brain Development Cooperative Group. The NIH MRI study of normal brain development. NeuroImage 2006;30(1):184-202.

Chapter 4
[1] Greydanus DE. Perspectives on pediatric immunizations: proven protection for the world’s children and adolescents. In: Roach RR, Greydanus DE, Merrick J, eds. Tropical pediatrics, Second edition. New York: Nova Biomedical Science, 2016::20-45.
[2] Huygelen C. Jenner’s cowpox vaccine in light of current vaccinology. Verh K Acad Geneedskd Belg 1996;58:479-536. [Dutch].
[3] Whitney CG, Zhou F, Singleton J, Schuchat A. Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC). Benefits from immunizations during the vaccines for children era-United States, 1994-2013. MMWR 2014;63(16):352-5.
[4] Cherian T, Okwo-Bele JM. The decade of vaccines global action plan: shaping immunization programmes in the current decade. Expert Rev Vaccines 2014;13(5):573-5.
[5] Greydanus DE, Toledo L. Historical perspectives on autism: historical perspectives on autism: Its past record of discovery and its present state of solipsism, skepticism and sorrowful suspicion. Pediatr Clin North Am 2012;59(1):1-11.
[6] Fichman M, Keelan JE. Register’s logic: the anti-vaccination arguments of Alfred Russel Wallace and their role in the debates over compulsory vaccination in England, 1870-1907. Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 2007;38:585-607.
[7] Tafuri S, Martinelli D, Prato R, Germinario C. From the struggle for freedom to the denial of scientific evidence: history of antivaccinationists in Europe. Ann Ig 2011;23:93-9. [Italian].
[8] Larbre F, Thivolet J, Hermier M, Cotton JB, Gaudin G, Fatal acute myocarditis after smallpox vaccination. Pediatrie 1966;21(3):345-50. [French].
[9] Lane JM, Goldstein J. Adverse events occurring after smallpox vaccination. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2003;14(3):189-95.
[10] Belongia EA, Naleway AL. Smallpox vaccine: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Clin Med Res 2003;1(2):87-92.
[11] Wortley PM, Schwartz B, Levy PS, Quick LM, Evans B, Burke B. Healthcare workers who elected not to receive smallpox vaccination. Am J Prev Med 2006;30(3):258-65.
[12] Bicknell W, James K. The new cell culture smallpox vaccine should be offered to the general population. Rev Med Virol 2003;13(1):5-15.
[13] Casey CG, Iskander JK, Roper MH, Mast EE, Wen XH, Török TJ, et al. Adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States, January-October 2003. JAMA 2005;294(21):2734-43.
[14] Offit PA. The Cutter Incident: How America’s first polio vaccine led to a growing vaccine crisis. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.
[15] Greydanus DE: Historical perspectives on the current anti-vaccine hysteria in the 21st century. J Clin Trials 2013;S5:001. doi:10.4172/2167-0870.S5-001.
[16] Wittigney WA, Mootrey GT, Braun MM, Chen RT. Surveillance for poliovirus vaccine adverse events, 1991 to 1998: impact of a sequential vaccination schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine followed by oral poliovirus vaccine. Pediatrics 2001;107(5):E83.

Chapter 5
[1] King A. Adolescence. In: Lewis M, ed. Child and adolescent psychiatry. A comprehensive textbook, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams Wilkins, 2002:332-42.
[2] Magner LN. A history of the life sciences, 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2002.
[3] Greydanus DE, Geller B. Masturbation: Historical perspective. NY State Med J 1980;80:1892-6.
[4] Bloch H. Thomas Phaer, MD (1510-1560): Father of English pediatrics. South Med J 1990;83(6):672-4.
[5] Beall OT Jr, Shryock RH. Cottom Mather: First signifcant figure in American medicine. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1954.
[6] Von Rosenstein R. The diseases of children and their remedies. London: T Cadell, 1776:31.
[7] Eberle J. Treatise on the diseases and physical education of children. Philadelphia, PA: Grigg Elliot, 1837.
[8] Scudder NJM. The eclectic practice of diseases of children, Cincinnati, OH: American Publishing, 1869:19.
[9] Osler W. The principles and practice of medicine: Designed for the use of practitioners and students of medicine. New York: D Appleton, 1892.
[10] Greydanus DE, Patel DR, Pratt HD, Calles JL, Nazeer A, Merrick J, eds. Behavioral pediatrics, 4th Edition. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2015.
[11] Bradley C. The behavior of children receiving benzedrine. Am J Psychiatry 1937;94:577-85.
[12] Greydanus DE, Pratt HD, Rappley M. ADHD psychopharmacology. Pediatr Clin North Am 2003;50:555.
[13] Stern AM, Markel H. Formative years: Children’s health in the United States, 1880-2000. Ann Arbor, MI: University Michigan Press, 2002.
[14] Radbill SX. The first treatise on pediatrics. Am J Dis Child 1971;122: 369-76.
[15] Haggerty RJ. Preface. Behavioral pediatrics. In: Greydanus DE, Wolraich ML, eds. Behavioral pediatrics. New York: Springer, 1992:1.
[16] Friedman SB, ed. Introduction: Behavioral pediatrics. Pediatr Clin North Am 1975;22:55.
[17] Haggerty RJ, Friedman SB: History of developmental-behavioral pediatrics. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2003;24:S1-S18.

Chapter 6
[1] McHenry HM. Human Evolution. In: Ruse M, Travis J, eds. Evolution: The first four billion years. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 2009:265.
[2] Houston SD. The first writing: Script invention as history and process. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
[3] Greydanus DE, Kaplan G, Baxter LE Sr., Patel DR, Feucht CL. Cannabis: the never-ending, nefarious nepenthe of the 21st century: what should be clinician know? Dis Mon 2015;61(4):118-75.
[4] Abel EL. Marijuana: The first twelve thousand years. URL:
[5] Grollman AP. Alternative medicine: The importance of evidence in medicine and medical evidence. Is there wheat among the chaff? Acad Med 2001;76(3):221-3.
[6] Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture, 1913;288.
[7] Belda A, Peiró V, Seva E. The relationship between plants used to sustain finches (Fringillidae) and uses for human medicine in southeast Spain. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012; 2012: 360913.
[8] Rawlinson G. The Histories. Herodotus of Halicarnassus. 430 BC. Translated in 1858. URL:
[9] Medical cannabis. A short graphical history of China. URL:
[10] Scholl R. Der Papyrus Ebers. Die grösste Buchrolle zur Heilkunde Altägyptens (Schriften aus der Universitätsbibliothek 7). Leipzig, Germany: Universitat von Leipzig, 2002. [German].
[11] Greydanus DE, Patel DR, Feucht C, eds. Preface: Pediatric and adolescent psychopharmacology. Pediatric Clin North Am 2011;58(1):iii-iv.
[12] Eddy NB. The history of development of narcotics. Law Contemp Prob 1957;22(1):22-5.
[13] Greydanus DE, Feucht C. Performance-enhancing drugs and supplements. In: Patel DR, Greydanus DE, Baker RJ, eds. Pediatric practice: Sports medicine. New York: McGraw Hill Medical, 2009:63-77.
[14] History of beer. URL:
[15] Escohotada A. A brief history of drugs. London: Park Street Press, 1999.
[16] Courtwright DT. Forces of habit. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 2001.
[17] Niemann A. [“Ueber eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern.” Arch der Pharmazie 1860; 153(2):129–256. [German].
[18] Greydanus DE, Patel DR. The adolescent and substance abuse: Current concepts. Dis Mon 2005;51(7):387-432.
[19] United States. Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General Luther Terry Surgeon General Report. Rockville, MD: Surgeon General, 1964.
[20] Preventing tobacco use among youth and youth adults. A report of the Surgeon General, US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Office. Office of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: Surgein General, 2012. URL:
[21] Freud S. Über Coca. Centralblatt für die ges. Therapie 1884;2:289–314. [German].
[22] Koelbing HM. [Cocaine addiction 100 years ago. A. Erlenmeyer: Uber cocainsucht. [Deutsch] Medizinal Zeitung 31 Mai 1886]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1986;75:1565-8. [German].

[23] History of heroin. URL:
[24] Waley A. The opium war through Chinese eyes. London: Allen Unwin, 1958; Reprinted Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1968.
[25] Toledo-Pereyra LH: Vignettes on surgery, history and the humanities. Austin, TX: Landes Bioscience, 2005.
[26] Methamphetamine. URL:
[27] Greydanus DE, Pratt HD. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: interventions for a complex costly clinical conundrum. Pediatr Clin North Am 2003;50:1049-92.
[28] Hanion CA, Canterberry M. The use of brain imaging to elucidate neural circuit changes in cocaine addiction. Subst Abuse Rehabil 2012;3(1):115-28.
[29] de Los Rios F, Kleindorfer DO, Khoury J, Broderick JP, Moomaw CJ, Adeove O, et al. Trends in substance abuse preceding stroke among young adults: a population-based study. Stroke 2012; 43(12):3179-83.
[30] Jouanjus E, Pourcel J, Saivin S, Molinier L, Lapeyre-Mestre M. Use of multiple sources and capture-recapture method to estimate the frequency of hospitalizations related to drug abuse. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2012 May 2. doi: 10.1002/pds.3280.
[31] Beletsky L, Rich JD, Walley AY. Prevention of fatal opioid overdose. JAMA 2012;308(18):1863-4.
[32] Alexander GC, Kruszewski SP, Webster DW. Rethinking opioid prescribing to protect patient safety and public health. JAMA 2012;308(18):1865-6.
[33] Currie CL, Wild TC. Adolescent use of prescription drugs to get high in Canada. Can J Psychiatry 2012;57(12):745-51.
[34] McGuire J, Want B, Zhang L. Substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Mississippi public high school students. J Miss State Med Assoc 2012;53(10):323-8.
[35] Brown JH, Clarey AM. The social psychology of disintegrative shaming in education. J Drug Educ 2012;42(2):229-53.
[36] Salvo N, Bennett K, Cheung A, Chen Y, Rice M, Rush B, et al. Prevention of substance use in children/adolescents with mental disorders: a systematic review. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2012;21(4):245-252.
[37] Kuehn BM. WHO documents worldwide need for better drug abuse treatment — and access to it. JAMA 2012;308(5):442-3.
[38] Greydanus DE, Feucht C, Patel DR. Pharmacologic management of substance abuse disorders in adolescents: Current concepts. In: Merrick J, ed. Child and adolescent health yearbook. New York: Nova Science, 2010:297-309.
[39] Greydanus DE. Drug addiction and our youth. Int J Child Adolesc Health 2011;4(3):211-2.
[40] Miech R, Bohnert A, Heard K, Boardman J. Increasing use of nonmedical analgesics among younger cohorts in the United States: A birth cohort effect. J Adolesc Health 2013;52(1):25-41.
[41] Vaughn LM, Wagner E, Jacquez F. A review of community-based participatory research in child health. Am J Matern Child Nurs 2013;38(1):48-53.
[42] Peloquin SM, Ciro CA. Self-development groups among women in recovery: Client perceptions of satisfaction and engagement. Am J Occup Ther 2013;67(1):82-90.
[43] Rucklidge JJ, Kaplan BJ. Broad-spectrum micronutrient formulas for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms: a systematic review. Expert Rev Neurother 2013;13(1):49-73.
[44] Padwa H, Urada D, Antonini VP, Ober A, Crèvecoeur-MacPhail DA, Rawson RA. Integrating substance use disorder services with primary care: the experience in California. J Psychoactive Drugs 2012;44(4):299-306.
[45] Greydanus DE, Feucht C, Hawver EK. Substance abuse disorders. In: Greydanus DE, Patel DR, Omar HA, Feucht C, Merrick J, eds. Adolescent medicine: Pharmacotherapeutics in general, mental, and sexual health. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012:157-99.

Chapter 7
[1] Hotaling GT, Straus MA, Lincoln A. Intrafamily violence and crime and violence outside the family. In: Straus MA, Gelles RJ, eds. Physical violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptions to violence in 8,145 familes. New Brunswick, NY: Transaction Publishers, 1990:431-70.
[2] Straus MA, Gelles RJ. Physical violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptions to violence in 8,145 families. New Brunswick, NY: Transaction Publishers, 1990.
[3] Sibling abuse. URL: https://en.wikipedia-org/wiki/Sibling_abuse
[4] Mukaddes NM, Topcu Z. Case report: Homicide by a 10-year-old girl with autistic disorder. J Autism Dev Dis 2006;36(4):471-4.
[5] Sabuncuoglu O, Irmak MY, Demir NU, Murat D, Tumba C, Yilmaz Y. Sibling death after being thrown from window by brother with autism: defenestration, an emerging high-risk behavior. Case Rep Psychiatry 2015. Article ID 463694.
[6] Straus MA, Gelles RJ, Steinmetz SK. Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2006.
[7] Apple R, Greydanus D, White K. Sibling abuse: an often unrecognized family history. Clin Pediatr Open Access 2016;1(2):10-6.
[8] Finkelhor D. Psychological, cultural, and family factors in incest and family sexual abuse. J Marriage Fam Couns 1978;4:41-79.
[9] Dunn J. Sibling influences on childhood development. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1988;29(2):119-27.
[10] Katz C, Hammama L. From my own brother in my own home: children’s experiences and perceptions following alleged sibling incest. J Internpers Violence 2015 Aug 30. pii: 0886260515600876.
[11] Caffaro J, Conn-Carraro A. Treating sibling abuse families. Aggression Violent Behav 2005;10(5):604-23.
[12] Caffaro J. Sibling abuse trauma, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2013.
[13] Charles Perrault. URL: htts//
[14] Pfouts J, Schopler J, Henley C. Forgotten victims of family violence. Soc Work 1982;27(3):367.
[15] Archer J. Can evolutionary principles explain patterns of family violence? Psychol Bull 2013;139(2):403-40.
[16] Witte S, Fegert JM, Walper S. Risk of maltreatment for siblings: Factors associated with similar and different childhood experiences in a dyadic sample of adult siblings. Child Abuse Negl 2017;76:321-333.

Chapter 8
[1] Greydanus DE, Shearin RB. Adolescent sexuality and gynecology. Philadelphia, PA: Lea Febiger, 1990:244-61.
[2] Wikipedia. Incest. URL:
[3] Shaw BD. Explaining incest: brother-sister marriage in Graeco-Roman Egypt. Man, New Series 1992;27(2):267-99.
[4] Wikipedia. Oedipus the King. URL:
[5] Erickson MT. Rethinking Oedipus: an evolutionary perspective of incest avoidance. Am J Psychiatry 1993;150(3):411-6.
[6] Schein M. Thinking forbidden thoughts: The Oedipus Complex as a complex of knowing. Psychoanal Rev 2016;103(2):251-63.
[7] Fraley RC, Marks MJ. Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo: does familial resemblance activate sexual attraction? Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2010;36(9):1202-12.
[8] Abbas HA, Yunis K. The effect of consanguinity on neonatal outcomes and health. Hum Hered 2014;77(1-4):87-92.
[9] Joseph N, Pavan KK, Ganapathi K, Apoorva P, Sharma P, Ihamb JA. Health awareness and consequences of consanguineous marriages: a community-based study. J Prim Care Commun Health 2015;6(2):121-7.
[10] Maghsoudlou S, Cnattingius S, Aarabi M, Montgomery SM, Semnani S, Stephansson O, et al. Consanguineous marriage, prepregnancy maternal characteristics and stillbirth risk: a population-based case-control study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2015;94(10):1095-101.
[11] Denic S, Nicholls MG. Genetic benefits of consanguinity through selection of genotypes protective against malaria. Hum Biol 2007;79(2):145-58.
[12] Lieberman D, Fessler DM, Smith A. The relationship between familial resemblance and sexual attraction: an update of Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2011;37(9):1229-32.
[13] Farrelly C. The case for re-thinking incest laws. J Med Ethics 2008;34(9):e11. doi:10.1136/jme.2008.025346.
[14] Lieberman D, Tooby J, Cosmides L. Does morality have a biologic basis? An empirical test of the factors governing moral sentiments relating to incest. Proc R Soc Lond 2003;270:819-826.
[15] American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC, 2013:685- 705,718.
[16] Gushurst CA, Palusci VJ. Medical evaluation of child sexual abuse. In: Greydanus DE, Patel DR, Reddy VN, Feinberg AN, Omar HA, eds. Handbook of clinical pediatrics. An update for the ambulatory pediatrician. Singapore: World Scientific, 2010:665-96.
[17] Palusci VJ, McHugh MT. Child abuse and maltreatment. In: Merrick J, Greydanus DE, eds. Sexuality: Some international aspects. New York: Nova Science, 2016:109-37.
[18] Alexander R, Hyden PW. Abuse. In: Greydanus DE, Wolraich ML, eds. Behavioral pediatarics. New York: Springer, 1992:139-50.
[19] Weinberg SK. Incest behavior. New York: Citadel, 1963.
[20] Roberts SJ. The sequelae of childhood sexual abuse: a primary care focus for adult female survivors. Nurs Pract 1996;21(12 Pt 1):49-52.
[21] Carlson BE, Maciol K, Schneider J. Sibling incest: reports from forty- one survivors J Child Sex Abus 2006;15(4):19-34.
[22] Mian M, Wehrspann W, Klainer-Diamond H, LeBaron D, Winder C. Review of 125 children 6 years of age and under who were sexually abused. Child Abuse Negl 1986;10(2):223-9.
[23] Dube R, Hebert M. Sexual abuse of children under 12 years of age: a review of 511 cases. Child Abuse Negl 1988;12(3):321-30.
[24] Fischer DG, McDonald WL. Characteristics of intrafamilial and extrafamilial sexual abuse. Child Abuse Negl 1998;22(9):915-29.
[25] Elliott AN, Carnes CN. Reactions of the nonoffending parents to the sexual abuse of their child: a review of the literature. Child Maltreat 2001;6(4):314-1.
[26] Fruman LS. Sexual misuse of children by family members: the dynamics of a complex problem. Med Law 1992;11(7-8):501-25.
[27] Seto MC, Babchishin KM, Pullman LE, McPhail IV. The puzzle of intrafamilial child sexual abuse: A meta-analysis comparing intrafamilial and extrafamilial offenders with child victims. Clin Psychol Rev 2015;39:42-57.
[28] Finkel KC. Sexual abuse and incest. What can you do? Can Fam Physician 1994;40:935-944.
[29] Finkelhor D. Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press, 1979.
[30] Finkelhor D. What’s wrong with sex between adults and children? Ethics and the problem of sexual abuse. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1979;49:692-697.
[31] Finkelhor D. Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. New York: Free Press, 1984.
[32] Yildirim A, Ozer E, Bozkurt H, Ozsoy S, Enginyurt O, Evcuman D, et al. Evaluation of social and demographic characteristics of incest cases in a university hospital in Turkey. Med Sci Monit 2014;20:693-7.
[33] Bigras J. Father-daughter incest: 25 years of experience of psychoanalytic psychotherapy with the victims. Can J Psychiatry 1989;34(8):804-6.
[34] Cole PM, Woolger C, Power TG, Smith KD. Parenting difficulties among adult survivors of father-daughter incest. Child Abuse Negl 1992;16:239-49.
[35] Ventegodt S, Clausen B, Merrick J. Clinical holistic medicine: The case story of Anna. II. Patient diary as a tool in treatment. ScientificWorldJournal 2006;6:2006-34.
[36] No authors listed. Incest and parental contact: a psychologist’s personal case and literature review. J Child Sex Abus 2008;17(1):1-12.
[37] Carlisle LL, McClellan J. Psychopharmacology of schizophrenia in children and adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am 2011;58:205-218.
[38] Nazeer A, Calles JL Jr. Schizophrenia in children and adolescents. In: Greydanus DE, Calles J Jr, Patel DR, Merrick J, eds. Clinical aspects of psychopharmcology. New York: Nova Science, 2nd Ed, 2017:191-204.
[39] Exley H. The love between fathers and daughters. A Helen Exley giftbook. New York: Exley Publishers, 1995.
[40] Hopkins K. Brother-sister marriage in Roman Egypt. Comparative Stud Soc Hist 1980;22(3):303-54.
[41] Canturk KM, Emre R, Gurkan C, Komur I, Muslumanoglu O, Dogan M. An incest case with three biological brothers as alleged fathers: even 22 autosomal STR loci analysis would not suffice without the mother. Med Sci Law 2016;56(3):210-2.
[42] Rudd JM, Herzberger SD. Brother-sister incest — Father-daughter incest: a comparison of characteristics and consequences. Child Abuse Negl 1999;23(9):915-28.
[43] Cyr M, Wright J, McDuff P, Perron A. Intrafamilial sexual abuse: brother-sister incest does not differ from father-daughter and stepfather- stepdaughter incest. Child Abuse Negl 2002;26(9):957-73.
[44] Stroebel SS, O’Keefe SL, Beard KW, Kuo SY, Swindell S, Strope W. Brother-sister incest: data from anonymous computer-assisted self interviews. J Child Sex Abus 2013;22(3):255-76.
[45] Banning A. Mother-son incest: confronting a prejudice. Child Abuse Negl 1989;13:563-70.
[46] Lawson C. Mother-son sexual abuse: rare or underreported? A critique of the research. Child Abuse Negl 1993;17:261-9.
[47] Kelly RJ, Wood JJ, Gonzalez LS, MacDonald V, Wateman J. Effects of mother-son incest and positive perceptions of sexual abuse experiences on the psychosocial adjustment of clinic-referred men. Child Abuse Negl 2002;26(4):425-41.
[48] Goodwin J, DeVasto P. Mother-daughter incest. Child Abuse Negl 1979;3:933-57.
[49] Peter T. Speaking about the unspeakable: exploring the impact of mother-daughter sexual abuse. Violence Against Women 2008;14(9):1033-53.
[50] Lamy S, Delavenne H, Thibaut F. A case of female hypersexuality and child abuse and a review. Arch Womens Ment Health 2015 Sep 28.
[51] Krug RS, Adult report of childhood sexual abuse by mothers: case descriptions, motivations, and long-term consequences. Child Abuse Negl 1989;13:111-9.
[52] Denoy MS. The long-term effects of child sexual abuse by female perpetrators: a qualitative study of male and female victims. J Interpers Violence 2004;19(10):1137-56.
[53] Stroebel SS, O’Keefe SL, Griffee K, Kuo SY, Beard KW, Kommor MJ. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey. J Child Sex Abus 2013;22(6):695-719.
[54] Goodwin J, Cormier L, Owen J. Grandfather-Granddaughter incest: a trigenerational view. Child Abuse Negl 1983;7:163-70.
[55] Margolin L. Sexual abuse by grandparents. Child Abuse Negl 1992;16:735-41.
[56] De Jong AR. Sexual interactions among siblings and cousins: experimentation or exploitation? Child Abuse Negl 1989;13(2):271-9.
[57] Margolin L. Child sexual abuse by uncles: a risk assessment. Child Abuse Negl 1994;18(3):215-24.
[58] Kendler KS, Bulik CM, Silberg J, Hettema JM, Myers J, Prescott CA. Childhood sexual abuse and adult psychiatric and substance use disorders in women: an epidemiological and co-twin control analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57(10):953-9.
[59] US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adverse childhood experiences(ACE) study, 2012. URL:
[60] Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Giles WH, Anda RF. The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900. Prev Med 2003;37:268-77.
[61] Dube SR, Anda RF, Whitfield CL, Brown DW, Felitti VJ, Dong M, et al. Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim. Am J Prev Med 2005;28(5):430-8.
[62] McCrae JS, Chapman MV, Christ SL. Profile of children investigated for sexual abuse:Association with psychopathology symptoms and services. Am J Orthopsychiatry 2006;76(4):468-81.
[63] Maniglio R. The impact of child sexual abuse on health: A systematic review of reviews. Clin Psychol Rev 2009;29:647-57.
[64] Ten Kate LP, Rath M, Felbor U, Frints SM. Birth defects after incestuous mating: calculating the probability of causality and reflecting on the desirability of genetic testing. Eur J Med Genet 2013;56(5):243- 4.
[65] Irish L, Kobayashi I, Delahanty DL. Long-term physical health consequences of childhood sexual abuse: A meta-analytic review. J Pediatric Psychol 2010;35(5):450-61.
[66] Hornor G. Child sexual abuse: consequence and implications. J Pediatr Health Care 2010;24(6):358-64.
[67] Australian Institute of Family Studies. The long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Melbourne: Child Family Community Australia CFCA, 2013.
[68] Legano L, McHugh M. Adolescents as victims and perpetrators of violence. Adolesc Med 2013;24:155-66.
[69] Ben Natan M. Child sexual abuse: a review of the recent literature. Minerva Pediatr 2015;67(1):91-7.
[70] Essabar L, Khalgallah A, Dakhama BSB. Child sexual abuse: a report of 311 cases with review of the literature. Pan Afr Med J 2015;20:47. doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.47.4569.
[71] Joyal CC, Carpentier J, Martin C. Discriminant factors for adolescent sexual offending: on the usefulness of considering both victim age and sibling incest. Child Abuse Negl 2016;54:10-22.
[72] O’Dougherty Wright M, Fopma-Loy J, Obele K. In their own words: the experience of mothering as a survivor of childhood sexual abuse. Dev Psychopathol 2012;24(2):537-52.
[73] DeLisi M, Kosloski AE, Vaughn MG, Caudill JW, Trulson CR. Does childhood sexual abuse victimization translate into juvenile sexual offending? New evidence. Violence Vict 2014;29(4):620-35.
[74] Bachman GA, Moeller TP, Benett J. Childhood sexual abuse and the consequences in adult women. Obstet Gynecol 1988;71(4):631-42.
[75] Sobot V, Ivanovic-Kovecevic S, Markovic J, Misic-Pavkov G, Novovic Z. Role of sexual abuse in development of conversion disorder: case report. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012;16(2):276-9.
[76] Daalman K, Diederen KM, Derks EM, van Lutterveld R, Kahn RS, Sommer IE. Childhood trauma and auditory verbal hallucinations. Psychol Med 2012;42(12):2475-84.
[77] McCarthy-Jones S. Voices from the storm: a critical review of quantitative studies of auditory verbal hallucinations and childhood sexual abuse. Clin Psychol Rev 2011;31(6):983-92.
[78] Katz C, Barnetz Z. The behavioral patterns of abused children as described in their testimonies. Child Abuse Negl 2014;38(6):1033-40.
[79] Ehrmin JT. No more mother blaming: a feminist nursing perspective on the mother’s role in father-daughter incest. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 1996;10(4):252-60.
[80] Breckenridge J. “Speaking of mothers...”How does the literature portray mothers who have a history of child sexual abuse? J Child Sex Abus 2006;15(2):57-74.
[81] Cole PM, Woolger C. Incest survivors: the relation of their perceptions of their parents and their own parenting attitudes. Child Abuse Negl 1989;13(3):409-16.
[82] Kreklewetz CM, Piotrowski CC. Incest survivor mothers: protecting the next generation. Child Abuse Negl 1998;22(12):1305-12.
[83] DiGiorgio-Millere J. Sibling incest: treatment of the family and the offender. Child Welfare 1998;77(3):335-46.
[84] Cahill C, Liewelyn SP, Pearson C. Long-term effects of sexual abuse which occurred in childhood: a review. Br J Clin Psychol 1991;30(Pt 2):117-30.
[85] Rentoul L, Appleboom N. Understanding the psychological impact of rape and serious sexual assault of men: a literature review. J Pschiatr Ment Health Nurs 1997;4(4):267-74.
[86] Easton SD, Leone-Sheehan DM, Sophis EJ, Willis DG. “From that moment on my life changed”: turning points in the healing process for men recovering from child sexual abuse. J Child Sex Abus 2015;24(2):152-73.
[87] Ventegodt S, Clausen B, Merrick J. Clinical holistic medicine: the case story of Anna. I. Long-tem effect of childhood sexual abuse and incest with a treatment approach. ScientificWorldJournal 2006;6:1696-76.
[88] Draucker CB, Martsolf DS, Roller C, Knapik G, Ross R, Stidham AW. Healing from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical model. J Child Sex Abus 2011;20(4):435-66.
[89] Arias BJ, Johnson CV. Voices of healing and recovery from childhood sexual abuse. J Child Sex Abus 2013;22(7):833-41.
[90] McGuigan WM, Stephenson SJ. A single-case study of resiliency after extreme incest in an old order Amish family. J Child Sex Abus 2015;24(5):526-37.
[91] Skovmand S, Astrup BS. Trends in child sexual abuse cases referred for forensic examination in Southern Denmark from 2000 to 2010 — Did the ‘Tønder-case’ have an impact? J Forensic Leg Med 2015;36:121-5.
[92] Zambon MP, Jacintho AC, Medeiros MM, Guglielminetti R, Marmo DB. Domestic violence against children and adolescents: a challenge. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2012;58(4):465-71. [English, Portuguese].
[93] Middleton W. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood. J Trauma Dissociation 2013;14(3):251-72.
[94] Apple RW, Greydanus DE. Caring for youth with chronic illness in the 21st century: The clinician’s duty. J Comm Med Health Educ 2016;3(6):1000e127.
[95] Backe L, Leick N, Merrick J, Michelsen N. Incest. En bog om blodskam. Copenhagen: Hans Reitzel, 1983. [Danish].
[96] Haliburn J. Mother-child incest, psychosis, and the dynamics of relatedness. J Trauma Dissociation 2017; 18(3):409-426.
[97] McDonald C, Martinez K. Victims’ retrospective explanations of sibling sexual violence. J Child Sex Abus 2017;26(7):874-888.
[98] Yates P, Sibling sexual abuse: why don’t we talk about it? J Clin Nurs 2017;26(15-16):2482-2494.
[99] Fletcher S, Elklit A, Shevlin M, Armour C. Predicting time spent in treatment in a sample of Danish sexual abuse. J Child Sex Abus 2017;26(5):535-552.
[100] Shevlin M, Murphy S, Elklit A, Murphy J, Hyland P. Typologies of child sexual abuse: An analysis of multiple abuse acts along a large sample of Danish treatment-seeking survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Psychol Trauma 2017 Apr 3. doi: 10.1037/tra0000268.

Chapter 9
[1] Greydanus DE, Merrick J. Post-traumatic stress disorder and motor vehicle accidents. J Pain Manage 2016;9(1):3-7.
[2] Setright LJK. Drive on! A social history of the motor car. London: Granta Books, 2004.
[3] Ford H: My life and work: The autobiography of Henry Ford. New York: Barnes Noble, 1923.
[4] List of traffic collisions. URL:
[5] Bailey LS. 1881 Lambert: A new claim for America’s first gasoline automobile. Antique Automobile 1960;24(5):340-400.
[6] Henry H Bliss. URL:
[7] Committee on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention. American Academy of Pediatrics Policy statement: Pedestrian safety. Pediatrics 2009;124(2):802-12.
[8] Durbin DR. Committee on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention. Pediatrics 2011;127(4):e1050-66.
[9] Margolis LH, Foss FD, Tolbert WG. Alcohol and motor vehicle-related deaths of children as passengers, pedestrians, and bicyclists. JAMA 2000;283(17):2245-8.
[10] Quinlan K, Shults RA, Rudd RA. Child passenger deaths involving alcohol-impaired drivers. Pediatrics 2014;133(6):966-72.
[11] Patel DR. Greydanus DE, Rowlett JD. Romance with the automobile in the 20th century: implications for adolescents in a new millennium. Adolesc Med 2000;11(1):127-39.
[12] Greydanus DE, Kaplan G, Baxter LE Sr., Patel DR, Feucht CL. Cannabis: The never-ending, nefarious nepenthe of the 21st century: what should the clinician know? Dis Mon 2015;61(4):118-75.
[13] Gonzales MM, Dickinson LM, DiGuiseppi C, Lowenstein SR. Student drivers: a study of fatal motor vehicle crashes involving 16-year-old drivers. Ann Emerg Med 2005;45(2):140-6.
[14] Shope JT, Bingham CR. Teen driving: motor-vehicle crashes and factors that contribute. Am J Prev Med 2008;35(3 Suppl):S261-71.
[15] Williams AF, Oesch SL, McCartt AT, Teoh ER, Sims LB. On-road-all-terrain vehicle (ATV) fatalities in the United States. J Safety Res 2014;50:117-23.
[16] Jung S, Xiao Q, Yoon Y. Evaluation of motorcycle safety strategies using the severity of injuries. Accid Anal Prev 2013;59:357-64.
[17] Dua A, Wei S, Safarik J, Furlough C, Desai SS. National mandatory motorcycle helmet laws may save $2.2 billion annually: an inpatient and value of statistical life analysis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2015;78(6):1182-6.
[18] Tyano S, Iancu I, Solomon Z, Sever J, Goldstein I, Touviana Y, et al. Seven-year follow-up of child survivors of a bus-train collision. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996;35(3):365-73.
[19] Murphy JM. Child passenger safety. J Pediatr Health Care 1998;12(3):130-8.
[20] Wilson WP, Hohman LB, Workman SN. Psychiatric sequelae of automobile accidents. NC Med J 1965;26(10):453-7.
[21] Culpan R, Taylor C. Psychiatric disorders following road traffic and industrial injuries. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 1973;7(1):32.
[22] Walker JI. Posttraumatic stress disorder after a car accident. Postgrad Med 1981;69(2):82,84,86.
[23] Sparr LF, Boehnlein JK. Posttraumatic stress disorder in tort actions: forensic minefield. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 1990;18(3):283-302.
[24] Miller H. Accident neurosis Part I & 2. BMJ 1961;1:919-25;992.
[25] Tarsh MJE, Royston C. A follow-up of accident neurosis. Br J Psychiatry 1985;146:18-25.
[26] Freeman HL. The cost of traffic casualties to the community. (Letter). J R Soc Med 1992;85(2):121-2.
[27] Thompson A, McArdle P. Dunne F. Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents. Children may also be seriously affected. (Letter). BMJ 1993;307(6914):1282-3.
[28] Robertson RC. The automobile accident victim and skeletal injuries. Bull Am Coll Surg 1955;40(6):516-9.
[29] Anderson MX. Injuries caused by motor vehicles; a statistical analysis. Calif Med 1957;86(2):115-8.
[30] Reed MH. Pelvic fractures in children. J Can Assoc Radiol 1976;27(4):255-61.
[31] Cumming DC, Wren FD. Fetal skull fracture from an apparently trivial motor vehicle accident. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1978;132(3):342-3.
[32] American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd Edition (DSM III). Washington, DC: APA, 1980.
[33] Van der Kolk B. Posttraumatic stress disorder and the nature of trauma. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2000;2(1):7-22.
[34] Blanchard EB, Hickling EJ, Barton KA, Taylor AE, Loos WR, Jones-Alexander J. One-year prospective follow-up of motor vehicle accident victims. Behav Res Ther 1996;34(10):775-86.
[35] Fearnley D. Psychological consequences of road accidents in children and adolescents. Br J Psychiatry 1997;171:393.
[36] Mayou R, Bryant B, Duthie R. Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents. BMJ 1993;307(6905):647-51.
[37] Mayou R, Tyndel S, Bryant B. Long-term outcome of motor vehicle accident injury. Psychosom Med 1997;59(6):578-84.
[38] Tonkin R. One adolescent’s injury — a continuing saga. Inj Prev 1999;5(2):88-9.
[39] Curle CE, Williams C. Post-traumatic stress reactions in children: gender differences in the incidence of trauma reactions at two years and examination of factors influencing adjustment. Br J Clin Psychol 1996;35(Pt 2):297-309.
[40] Stallard P, Velleman R, Baldwin S. Prospective study of post-traumatic stress disorder in children involved in road traffic accidents. BMJ 1998;317(7173):1619-23.
[41] Di Gallo A, Barton J, Parry-Jones WL. Road traffic accidents: early psychological consequences in children and adolescents. Br J Psychiatry 1997;170(4):358-362.
[42] Mirza KA, Bhadrinath BR, Goodyer IM, Gilmour C. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents. Br J Psychiatry 1998;172:443-7.
[43] Ellis A, Stores G, Mayou R. Psychological consequences of road traffic accidents in children. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1998;7(2):61-8.
[44] De Vries AP, Kassam-Adams N, Cnaan A, Sherman-Slate E, Gallagher PR, Winston FK. Looking beyond the physical injury; Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and parents after pediatric traffic injury. Pediatrics 1999;104(6):1293-9.
[45] Weatherwax M, Coddington J, Ahmed A, Richards EA. Child passenger safety policy and guidelines: Why change is imperative. J Pediatr Heatlh Care 2015 oct 27. pii: S0891-5245(15)00305-3.
[46] Diels C, Bos JE. Self-driving carsickness. Appl Ergon 2016;53(Pt B):374-382.
[47] Murphy JM, Child passenger safety. J Pediatr Health Care 1998;12(3):130-8.
[48] Mather FJ, Tate RL, Hannan TJ. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children following road traffic accidents: a comparison of those with and without mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 2003;17(12):1077-87.
[49] Hu H, Zhou Y, Wang Q, Su S, Qiu Y, Ge J, et al. Association of abnormal white matter integrity in the acute phase of motor vehicle accidents with post-traumatic stress disorder. J Affect Disord 2016;190:714-22.
[50] Roitman P, Gilad M, Ankri YL, Shalev AY. Head injury and loss of consciousness raise the likelihood of developing and maintaining PTSD symptoms. J Trauma Stress 2013;26(6):727-34.
[51] Su S, Xiao Z, Lin Z, Qui Y, Jin Y, Wang Z. Plasma-brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatr Res 2015;229(1-2):365-9.
[52] Boccia M, Piccardi L, Cordellieri P, Guariglia C, Giannini AM. EMDR therapy after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analystic evidence for specific treatment. Front Hum Neurosci 2015 Apr 21. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00213.
[53] Olofsson E, Bunketorp O, Andersson AL. Children and adolescents injured in traffic-associated psychological consequences: a literature review. Acta Paediatr 2009;98(1):17-22.
[54] Bui E, Brunet A, Allenou C, Camassel C, Raynaud JP, Claudet I, et al. Peritraumatic reactions and posttraumatic stress symptoms in school-aged children victims of road traffic accidents. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2010; 32(3): 330-3.
[55] Auxéméy Y. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a consequence of the interaction between an individual genetic susceptibility, a traumatogenic event and a social context. Encephale 2012;38(5):373-80. [French].
[56] Tierens M, Bal S, Crombez G, Van de Vorde P, Rosseel Y, Antrop I et al. The traumatic impact of motor vehicle accidents in high school students. J Pediatr Psychol 2012;37(1):1-10.
[57] Nickerson A, Aderka IM, Bryant RA, Hofmann SG. The role of attribution of trauma responsibility in posttraumatic stress disorder following motor vehicle accidents. Depress Anxiety 2013;30(5):483-8.
[58] Wittman L, Zehnder D, Schredl M, Jenni OG, Landolt MA. Posttraumatic nightmares and psychopathology in children after road traffic accidents. J Trauma Stress 2010;23(2):232-9.
[59] Kassam-Adams N, Marsac ML, Hildenbrand A, Winston FK. Postraumatic stress following pediatric injury: update on diagnosis, risk factors, and intervention. JAMA Pediatr 2013;167(12):1158-65.
[60] Marsac ML, Kassam-Adams N, Delahanty DL, Widaman KF, Barakat LP. Posttraumatic stress following acute medical trauma in children: a proposed model of bio-psycho-social processes during the peri-trauma period. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2014;17(4):399-411.
[61] Lewis GC, Platts-Mills TF, Liberzon I, Bair E, Swor R, Peak D, et al. Incidence and predictors of acute psychological distress and dissociation after motor vehicle collision: a cross-sectional study. J Trauma Dissociation 2014;15(5):527-47.
[62] Haag AC, Zehnder D, Landolt MA. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents. Eur J Psychotraumatol 2015;6:29074. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v6.29074.
[63] Ivanova JI, Birnbaum HG, Chen L, Duhig AM, Dayoub EJ, Kantor ES, et al. Cost of post-traumatic stress disorder vs major depressive disorder among patients covered by Medicaid or private insurance. Am J Manag Cost 2011;17(8):e314-23.
[64] Stallard P, Velleman R, Langsford J, Baldwin S. Coping and psychological distress in children involved in road traffic accidents. Br J Clin Psychol 2001;40(Pt 2):197-208.
[65] Saxe G, Chawia N, Stoddard F, Kassam-Adams N, Courtney D, Cunningham K, Lopez C, et al. Child stress disorders checklist: a measure of ASD and PTDS in children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatr 2003;42(8):972-8.
[66] Winston FK, Kassam-Adams N, Garcia-España F, Ittenback R, Cnaan A. Screening for risk of persistent posttraumatic stress in injured children and their parents. JAMA 2003;290(3):643-9.
[67] Kramer DN, Herti MB, Landolt MA. Evaluation of an early risk screener for PTSD in preschool children after accidental injury. Pediatrics 2013;132(4):e945-51.
[68] Dow BL, Kenardy JA, Le Brocque RM, Long DA. The utility of the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale in screening for concurrent PTSD following admission to intensive care. J Trauma Stress 2012;25(5):602-5.
[69] van Meijel EP, Gigengack MR, Verlinden E, Opmeer BC, Heil HA, Goslings JC, et al. Predicting posttraumatic stress disorder in children and parents following accidental child injury: evaluation of the Screening Tool for Early Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (STEPP). BMC Psychiatry 2015;15:113. doi: 10.1186/s12888-015-0492-z.
[70] Meiser-Stedman R, Smith P, Glucksman E, Yule W, Dalgieish T. The posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis in preschool- and elementary school-age children exposed to motor vehicle accidents. Am J Psychiatry 2008;165(10):1326-37.
[71] Baker AS, Litwack SD, Clapp JD, Beck G, Sloan DM. The driving behavior survey as a measure of behavioral stress responses to MVA-related PTSD. Behav Ther 2014;45(3):444-53.
[72] American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
[73] Shorter E. The history of nosology and the rise of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2015;17(1):59-67.
[74] Stevens A, Fabra M. Forensic assessment of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder: a commentary on the transition from DSM-IV-TR. Versicherungsmedizin 2013;65(4):191-6. [German].
[75] Kassam-Adams N, Winston FK. Predicting child PTSD: the relationship between acute stress disorder and PTSD in children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;43(4):403-11.
[76] Meisser-Stedman R, Yule W, Smith P, Glucksman E, Dalgleish T. Acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents involved in assaults or motor vehicle accidents. Am J Psychiatry 2005;162(7):1381-3.
[77] Meisser-Stedman R, Dalgleish T, Smith P, Yule W, Glucksman E. Diagnostic, demographic, memory, quality, and cognitive variables associated with acute stress disorder in children and adolescents. J Abnorm Psychol 2007;116(1):65-79.
[78] Dalgleish T, Meisser-Stedman R, Kassam-Adams N, Ehlers A, Winston FK, Smith P, et al. Predictive validity of acute stress disorder in children and adolescents. Br J Psychiatry 2008;192(5):392-3.
[79] Ziegler MF, Greenwald MH, De Guzman MA, Simon HK. Posttraumatic stress responses in children: awareness and practice among a sample of pediatric emergency care providers. Pediatrics 2005;115(5):1261-7.
[80] Meisser-Stedman R, Smith P, Glucksman E, Yule W, Dalgleish T. Parent and child agreement for acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychopathology in a prospective study of children and adolescents exposed to single-event trauma. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2007;35(2):191-201.
[81] Bryant RA, Salmon K, Sinclair E, Davidson P. A prospective study of appraisals in childhood posttraumatic stress disorder. Behav Res Ther 2007;45(10):2502-7.
[82] Birmes P, Escande M, Gourdy P, Schmitt L. Biological factors of post-traumatic stress: neuroendocrine aspects. Encephale 2000;26(6):55-61. [French].
[83] Langeland W, Olff M. Psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder in pediatric injury patients: a review of the literature. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2008;32(1):161-74.
[84] Pervanidou P, Kolaitis G, Charitaki S, Lazaropoulou C, Papassotiriou I, Hindmarsh P, et al. The natural history of neuroendocrine changes in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after motor vehicle accidents: progressive divergence of noradrenaline and cortisol concentrations over time. Biol Psychiatry 2007;62(10):1095-102.
[85] Kassam-Adams N, Garcia-España JF, Fein JA, Winston FK. Heart rate and posttraumatic stress in injured children. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62(3): 335-40.
[86] Pervanidou P, Chrousos G. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: from Sigmund’s Freud’s “trauma” to psychopathology and the (Dys)metabolic syndrome. Horm Metab Res 2007;39(6):413-9.
[87] Pervanidou P, Chrousos G. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: Neuroendocrine perspectives. Sci Signal 2012;5(245):6. doi. 10. 1126/scisignal.2003327.
[88] Landolt MA, Vollrath M, Timm K, Gnehm HE, Sennhauser FH. Predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005;44(12):1276-83.
[89] Winston FK, Kassam-Adams N, Vivarelli-O’Neill C, Ford J, Newman E, Baxt C, et al. Acute stress disorder symptoms in children and their parents after pediatric traffic injury. Pediatrics 2002;109(6):e90.
[90] Brand S, Otte D, Petri M, Decker S, Stübig T, Krettek C, et al. Incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder after traffic accidents in Germany. Int J Emerg Ment Health 2014;16(1):233-6.
[91] Noll-Hussong M, Herberger S, Grauer MT, Otti A, Gündel H. Aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder after a traffic accident. Versicherungsmedizin 2013;65(3):132-5. [German].
[92] Hours M, Chossegros L, Charnay P, Tardy H, Nhac-Vu HT, Boisson D, et al. Outcomes one year after a road accident: results from the ESPARR cohort. Accid Anal Prev 2013;50:92-102.
[93] Hours M, Khati I, Charnay P, Chossegros L, Tardy H, Tournier C, et al. One year after mild injury: Comparison of health status and quality of life between patients with whiplash versus other injuries. J Rheumatol 2014;41(3):528-38.
[94] Batailler P, Hours M, Maza M, Charnay P, Tardy H, Tournier C, et al. Health status recovery at one year in children injured in a road accident: A cohort study. Accid Anal Prev 2014;71:267-72.
[95] Tournier C, Charnay P, Tardy H, Chossegros L, Carnis L, Hours M. A few seconds to have an accident, a long time to recover: Consequences to road victims from the ESPARR cohort 2 years after the accicent. Accid Anal Prev 2014;72:422-32.
[96] Zink KA, McCain GC. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents with motor vehicle-related injuries. J Spec Pediatr Nurs 2003;8(3):99-106.
[97] Kramer DN, Landolt MA. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2-16: A randomized controlled trial. Eur J Psychotraumatol 2014 Jun 27. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v5.24402.
[98] Stallard P, Velleman R, Salter E, Howse I, Yule W, Taylor G. A randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of an early psychological intervention with children involved in road traffic accidents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2006;47(2):127-34.
[99] Gillies D, Taylor F, Gray C, O’Brien L, D’Abrew N. Psychological therapies for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Evid Based Child Health 2013;8(3):1004-116.
[100] Duzinski SV, Lawson KA, Maxson RT, Garcia NM, Calfa N, Metz K, et al. The association between positive screen for future persistent posttraumatic stress symptoms and injury incident variables in the pediatric trauma care setting. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2012;72(6):1640-6.
[101] Suliman S, Stein DJ, Seedat S. Clinical and neuropsychological predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder. Medicine (Baltimore) 2014;93(22):e113. doi: 1097/MD.0000000000000113.
[102] Forman-Hoffman V, Knauer S, McKeenan J, Zolotor A, Bianco R, Lloyd S, et al. Child and adolescent exposure to trauma: comparative effectiveness of interventions addressing trauma other than maltreatment or family violence. Rockville (MD): Agency Healthcare Research and Quality, Report No: 13-EHC054-EF, 2013.
[103] Bisson JI, Roberts NP, Andrew M, Lewis C. Psychological therapies for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;12:CD003388. doi: 10.1002/
[104] Amos T, Stein DJ, Ipser JC. Pharmacologic interventions for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;7:CD006239. doi: 10. 1002/14651858.CD006239.pub2.
[105] Parker AM, Sricharoenchai T, Raparla S, Schneck KW, Bienvenu OJ, Needham DM. Posttraumatic stress disorder in critical illness survivors: A metaanalysis. Crit Care Med 2015;43(5):1121-9.
[106] Meiser-Stedman R, Shepperd A, Glucksman E, Dalgleish T, Yule W, Smith P. Thought control strategies and rumination in youth with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder following single-event trauma. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2014;24(1):47-51.
[107] Scheeringa MS, Salloum A, Arnberger RA, Weems CF, Amaya-Jackson L, Cohen JA. Feasibility and effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in preschool children: two case reports. J Trauma Stress 2007;20(4):631-6.
[108] Ehlers A, Mahyou RA, Bryant B. Cognitive predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder in children: results from a prospective longitudinal study. Behav Res Ther 2003;41(1):1-10.
[109] Caffo E, Belaise C. Psychological aspects of traumatic injury in children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin North Am 2003;12(3):493-535.
[110] Salter E, Stallard P. Posttraumatic growth in child survivors of a road traffic accident. J Trauma Stress 2004;17(4):335-40.
[111] Di Gallo A. Injury to body and soul — psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents in children and adolescents. Praxis (Bern 1994) 2005;94(12):467-70. [German].
[112] Schäfer I, Barkmann C, Riedesser P, Schulte-Markwort M. Posttraumatic syndromes in children and adolescents after road traffic accidents — a prospective cohort study. Psychopathology 2006;39(4):159-64.
[113] Bryant B, Mayou R, Wiggs L, Ehlers A, Stores G. Psychological consequences of road traffic accidents for children and their mothers. Psychol Med 2004;34(2):335-46.
[114] Wittman L, Zehnder D, Jenni OG, Landolt MA. Predictors of children’s sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents. Eur J Psychotraumatol 2012;3:8402. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v3i0.8402.
[115] Stallard P, Smith E. Appraisals and cognitive coping styles associated with chronic post-traumatic symptoms in child road traffic accident survivors. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2007;48(2):194-201.
[116] Williams JL, Rheingold AA, Knowlton AW, Saunders BE, Kilpatrick DG. Associations between motor vehicle crashes and mental health problems: Data from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication. J Trauma Stress 2015;28(1):41-8.
[117] Cody MW, Beck JG. Physical injury, PTSD symtoms, and medication use: Examination in two trauma types. J Trauma Stress 2014;27(1):74-81.
[118] Landolt MA, Vollrath ME, Gnehm HE, Sennhauser FH. Post-traumatic stress impacts quality of life in children after road traffic accidents: prospective study. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 2009;43(8):746-53.
[119] Vermetten E, Olff M. Psychotraumatology in the Netherlands. Eur J Psychotraumatol 2013 May 2. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v4i0.20832.
[120] Undavailli C, Das P, Dutt T, Bhoi S, Kashyap R. PTSD in post-road traffic accident patients requiring hospitalization in Indian subcontinent: A review on magnitude of the problem and management guidelines. J Emerg Trauma Shock 2014;7(4):327-31.
[121] Wu F, Meng WY, Hao CZ, Zhu LL, Chen DQ, Lin LY, et al. Analysis of post-traumatic stress disorder in children with road traffic injury in Wenzhou, China. Traffic Inj Prev 2016;17(2):159-62.
[122] Merecz-Kot D, Waszkowska M, Wezyk A. Mental health status of drivers — Motor vehicle accidents perpetrators. Med Pr 2015;66(4):525-38. [Polish].
[123] Karsberg SH, Lasgaard M, Elkit A. Victimisation and PTSD in a Greenlandic youth sample. Int J Circumpolar Health 2012;71. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v71i0.18378.
[124] Mehta S, Ameratkunga SN. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among children and adolescents who survive road traffic accidents: A systematic review of international literature. J Paediatr Child Health 2012;48(10):876-85.
[125] Lilleston PS, Goldmann L, Verma RK, McCleary-Sills J. Understanding social norms and violence in childhood: theoretical underpinnings and strategy for intervention. Psychol Health Med 2017 Jan 9. doi: 10.1080/13548506.2016.1271957. [Epub ahead of print].
[126] Craig A, Tran Y, Guest R, Gopinath B, Jagnoor J, Brant RA, et al. Psychological impact of injuries sustained in motor vehicle crashes: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2016;6(9):e011993. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011993.
[127] Guest R, Tran Y, Gopinath B, Cameron ID, Craig A. Prevention of the development of psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash: study protocol for a randomized control trial. Trials 2016;17(1):317. doi: 10.1186/s13063-016-1455-5.
[128] Guest R, Tran Y, Gopinath B, Cameron ID, Craig A. Psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash: A systematic review of preventative interventions. Injury 2016;47(11):2415-23.

Chapter 10
[1] Greydanus DE, Merrick J. Behavioral pediatrics: Dilemmas, challenges, and faith in the future. In: Greydanus DE, Patel DR, Pratt HD, Calles Jr JL, Nazeer A, Merrick J, eds. Behavioral pediatrics, 4th edition. New York: Nova Biomedical, 2015:xxv-xxxiii.
[2] Nazeer A, Calles JL Jr. Schizophrenia in children and adolescents. In: Greydanus DE, Calles Jr JL, Patel DR, Nazeer A, Merrick J, eds. Clinical aspects of psychopharmacology in childhood and adolescence. New York: Nova Biomedical, 2011:145-61.
[3] Commentary on Plato's Apology of Socrates. URL:
[4] Park R. An epitome of the history of medicine. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis, 1897.
[5] Alexander WM. Demonic possession in the New Testament. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, 2003.
[6] Marrone SP. Magic and the physical world in thirteenth-century scholasticism. Early Sci Med 2009;14(1-3):158-85.
[7] Irmak MK. Schizophrenia or possession? J Relig Health 2014;53(3):773-7.
[8] Reed P, Clarke N. Effect of religious context on the content of visual hallucinations in individuals high in religiosity. Psychiatry Res 2014;215(3):594-8.
[9] Bhavsar V, Bhugra D. Religious delusions: finding meaning in psychosis. Psychopathology 2008;41(3):165-72.
[10] Greenberg D, Brom D. Nocturnal hallucinations in ultra-orthodox Jewish Israeli men. Psychiatry 2001;64(1):81-90.
[11] Beer MD. Psychosis: from mental disorder to disease concept. Hist Psychiatry 1995;6(22 Pt 2):177-200.
[12] No authors listed. Emil Kraepelin. BMJ 1926;2(3436):914.
[13] Farrar CB. I remember Kraepelin. Am J Psychiatry 1954;111(5):379-81.
[14] Mayer W. Emil Kraepelin;1856-1926. Am J Psychother 1956;10(2):273-4.
[15] Hoff P. Eugen Bleuler’s concept of schizophrenia and its relevance to present-day psychiatry. Neuropsychobiology 2012;66(1):6-13.
[16] No authors listed. Professor Emil Kraepelin. BMJ 1926;2(3435):859.
[17] Benon R. Demential praecox; Magnan, Kraepelin, Bleuler. Concours Med 1952;74(33):2803-4.
[18] Engstrom EJ, Weber MM. The directions of psychiatric research by Emil Kraepelin. 1887. Hist Psychiatry 2005;16(63 Pt 3):345-64.
[19] Trede K, Salvatore P, Baethge C, Gerhard A, Maggini C, Baldessarini RJ. Manic-depressive illness: evolution in Kraepelin’s Textbook, 1883-1926. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2005;13(3):155-78.
[20] Engstrom EJ, Kendler KS. Emil Kraepelin: icon and reality. Am J Psychiatry 2015;172(12):1190-6.
[21] Bender L. Childhood schizophrenia. Psychiatr Q 1953;27(4):663-81.
[22] Bender L. The life course of children with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1973;130(7):783-6.
[23] Bender L. The family patterns of 100 schizophrenic children observed at Bellevue, 1935-1952. J Autism Child Schizophr 1974;4(4):279-92.
[24] Chess S. In memoriam. Lauretta Bender 1899-1987. Biol Psychiatry 1987;22(8):1040-42.
[25] Carrey N. Interview with Sir Michael Rutter. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;19(3):212-7.
[26] Kolvin I. The contribution of Michael Rutter. Br J Psychiatry 1999;174:471-5.
[27] Rutter M, Tizard J, Whitmore K. Education, health, and behaviour. London: Longman, 1970.
[28] Douglas JWB. Review of Michael Rutter, Philip Graham, and William Yule. A neuropsychiatric study In childhood. Psychol Med 1971;1:437-9.
[29] Rutter M. Autism research: lessons from the past and prospects for the future. J Autism Dev Disord 2005;35(2):241-57.
[30] Rutter M. Changing concepts and findings on autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2013;43(8):1749-57.
[31] Shorter E. The history of nosology and the rise of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2015;17(1):59-67.
[32] Rutter J. Childhood schizophrenia reconsidered. J Autism Child Schizophr 1972;2(4):315-37.
[33] American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
[34] Jacobsen LK, Rapoport JL. Research update: Childhood onset schizophrenia: implication of clinical and neurobiological research. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 1998;39:101-13.
[35] McGrath JJ. Variations in the incidence of schizophrenia: data versus dogma. Schizophr Bull 2006;32(1):195-7.
[36] Gudmundsen GR, McClellan JM. Schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence. In: Greydanus DE, Patel DR, Pratt HD, Calles Jr JL, eds. Behavioral pediatrics, 3rd edition. New York: Nova Science, 2011:349-68.
[37] Picchioni MM, Murray RM. Schizophrenia. BMJ 2007;335(7610):91-5.
[38] Van Os J, Kapur S. Schizophrenia. Lancet 2009;374(9690):635-45.
[39] Cromby J, Chung E, Papadopoulos D, Talbot C. Reviewing the epigenetics of schizophrenia. J Ment Health 2016 Aug 25:1-9.
[40] Schmitt A, Rujescu D, Gawlik M, Hasan A, Hashimoto K, Iceta S, et al. Consensus paper of the WFSBP Task Force on schizophrenia part II: Cognition, neuroimaging and genetics. World J Biol Psychiatry 2016;17(6):406-28.
[41] Collier DA, Eastwood BJ, Malki K, Mokrab Y. Advances in the genetics of schizophrenia: toward a network and pathway view for drug discovery. Ann NY Acad Sci 2016;1366(1):61-75.
[42] Davis J, Eyre H, Jacka FN, Dodd S, Dean O, McEwen S, et al. A review of vulnerability and risks for schizophrenia: beyond the two hit hypothesis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2016;65:185-94.
[43] Rutter M. Some complexities involved in gene-environment interplay. Int J Epidemiol 2015;44(4):1128-9.
[44] Rutter M. Achievements and challenges in the biology of environmental effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012;109(Suppl 2):17149-53.
Lewis A. Ebb and flow in social psychiatry. Yale J Biol Med 1962;35:62–83.

Chapter 11
[1] Magner LN. A history of the life sciences, 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2002.
[2] Grollman AP. Alternative medicine: The importance of evidence in medicine and medical evidence. Foreward: Is there wheat among the chaff? Acad Med 2001;76 (3):221-3.
[3] Greydanus DE, Patel DR. Sports doping in athletes. Pediatr Clin North Am 2010;57(3):729-50.
[4] Porter R. The greatest benefit to mankind: A medical history of humanity. New York: WW Norton, 1998.
[5] Scholl R. Der Papyrus Ebers. Die grösste Buchrolle zur Heilkunde Altägyptens. Leipzig: Schriften aus der Universitätsbibliothek 7, 2002. [German].
[6] Greydanus DE, Patel DR, Feucht C. Preface. Pediatric and adolescent psychopharmacology: The past, the present, and the future. Pediatr Clin North Am 2011;58(1):xv-xxiv.
[7] Greydanus DE, Geller B. Masturbation: historical perspectives. NY State Med 1980;80:1892-1896.
[8] Hjarne U. The life and work of Nils Rosen von Rosenstein. Nord Med 1957;57(21):740-3. [Swedish].
[9] Segerstedt TT. Nils Ros’en von Rosenstein and his textbook on Paediatrics. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1964;156 (Suppl):7-8.
[10] Lind J. Nils Rosen Von Rosenstein, Swedish pioneer in pediatrics, on the occasion of the 2D centenary of the publication of his book: “Treatice on Pediatrics.” Presse Med 1964;72:2073-4. [French].
[11] Sjögren I. Nils Rosén von Rosenstein — the father of paediatrics. Ups J Med Sci 2006;111(1):3-16.
[12] von Rosenstein NR. The diseases of children and their remedies. London: T Cadell, 1776:31.
[13] Rey JM, Assumpçăo FB, Bernad CA, Çuhadaroğlu FC, Evans B, Fung D, et al. History of child and adolescent psychiatry. In: Rey JM, ed. IACAPAP e-textbook of child and adolescent mental health. Geneva: International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions, 2015.
[14] Weimerskirch PJ. Benjamin Rush and John Minson Gait, II. Pioneers of bibliotherapy in America. Bull Med Libr Assoc 1965;53(4):510-26.
[15] Kopperman PE. The attitude of Benjamin Rush (1746-1813) towards Native American medicine. J Med Biogr 2012;20(2):49-56.
[16] Shapiro D. Lessons from Benjamin Rush. Conn Med 2013;77(6):361-4.
[17] Thome J, Jacobs KA. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 19th century children’s book. Eur Psychiatry 2004;19(5):303-6.
[18] Bonazza S, Scaglione C, Poppi M, Rizzo G. Did Goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Eur Neurol 2011;65(2):70-1.
[19] Martinez-Badia J, Martinez-Raga J. Who says this is a modern disorder? The early history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. World Psychiatry 2015;5(4):379-86.
[20] Merzon E, Merzon T, Kitai E, Golan-Cohen A. Psychohistory: What can we learn about ADHD from the Old Testament? Atten Def Hyp Disord. 2015;7(Suppl 1):S111–2.
[21] Foley PB. Sons and daughters beyond your control: Episodes in the prehistory of the attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord. 2014;6:125–51.
[22] Barclay A. Does Peter have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? J Religion Disabil Health 2008;12:330–46.
[23] Scudder JM. The eclectic practice of diseases of children. Cincinnati, OH: American Publishing, 1869:19.
[24] Dietze HJ, Voegele GE. Wilhelm Griesinger’s contributions to dynamic psychiatry. Dis Nerv Syst 1965;26(9):579-82.
[25] Marx OM. Wilhelm Griesinger and the history of psychiatry: a reassessment. Bull Med Hist 1972;46(6):519-44.
[26] Nica-Udanglu S. Wilhelm Griesinger (1817-1868). Rev Med Intern Neurol Psihiatr Neurochir Dermatovenerol Neurol Psihiatr Neurochir 1987; 32(2):155-60. [Romanian].
[27] Hoff P, Hippius H. Wilhelm Griesinger (1817-1868) — his knowledge of psychiatry from the historical and current perspective. Nervenartz 2001; 72(11):885-92. [German].
[28] Morozov VM. Evolution trend in psychiatry; 70th anniversary of death of Charles Darwin. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 1957;57(4):417-37. [Russian].
[29] Karlik LN. Evolutionary theory and medicine (on the 100th anniversary of the discovery by Charles Darwin of the law of evolution). Klin Med (Mosk) 1959;37:5-12. [Russian].
[30] Van Wyhe J. Charles Darwin 1809-2009. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2009;41(2):251-3.
[31] Keynes RD. Steps on the path to the origin of species. J Theor Biol 1997;187(4):461-7.
[32] Pavesi PE. Charles Darwin and the discovery of the time. Acta Psiquiatr Psicol Am Lat 1992;38(4):329-30. [Spanish].
[33] Bajema CJ. Charles Darwin on man in the first edition of the Origin of species. J Hist Biol 1988;21(3):403-10.
[34] Knapp T, Rasmussen C. Wagner MJ. What psychology students know and believe about Charles Darwin. Psychol Rep 1997;81(3 Pt 2):1372-4.
[35] Alter SG. Race, language, and mental evolution in Darwin’s descent of man. J Hist Behav Sci 2007;43(3):239-55.
[36] Burghardt GM. Darwin’s legacy to comparative psychology and ethology. Am Psychol 2009;64(2):102-11.
[37] Jacyna S. The most important of all the organs: Darwn on the brain. Brain 2009;132(Pt 12):3481-7.
[38] Pearn AM. This excellent observer…: The correspondence between Charles Darwin and James Crichton-Browne, 1969-75. Hist Psychiatry 2010;21(82Pt 2):160-75.
[39] Delisle RG. Evolution in a fully constituted world: Charles Darwin’s debts towards a static world in the Origin of Species (1859). Endeavour 2014;38(3-4):197-210.
[40] Ferreira FR, Nogueira MI,Defelipe J. The influence of James and Darwin on Cajal and his research into the neuron theory and evolution of the nervous system. Front Neuroanat 2014;8:1. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2014.00001.
[41] Goodnick B. Sigmund Freud and the countenance of Moses. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1995;32(2):120-33.
[42] Gedo JE. The enduring scientific contributions of Sigmund Freud. Perspect Biol Med 2002;45(2):200-11.
[43] Rössner S. Sigmund Freud: In the Middle Ages they would have burned me, now they are satisfied with burning my books. Lakartidningen 2005;102(35):2405. [Swedish].
[44] Tan SY, Takeyesu A.Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Father of psychoanalysis. Singapore Med J 2011;52(5):322-3.
[45] Freud S. Critical introduction to neuropathology (1885-1887). Luzif Amor 2012;25(49):33-82. [German].
[46] Coum B. Sigmund Freud. Soins Psychiatr 2012;280:45-6. [French].
[47] Daute KH, Lobert W. Hermann Emminghaus — 100 years of the psychopathology of childhood and adolescence. Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol (Leipz) 1987;39(11):682-5. [German].
[48] Lobert W. Psychodynamic aspects of depression and suicidal behavior in childhood and adolescence — with reference to the monograph by Hermann Emminghaus 1887. Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol (Leipz) 1987;39(11):686-92. [German].
[49] Oehme J. Pioneers of pediatric medicine. Hermann Emminghaus (1845-1904). Kinderkrankenschwester 1990;9(2):5,4-5. [German].
[50] Harms E. At the cradle of child psyciatry. Hermann Emminghaus’ Psychische Stoerungen des Kindesalters (1887). Am J Orthopsychiatry 1960;30:186-90.
[51] Nissen G. Hermann Emminghaus. Founder of scientific child and adolescent psychiatry. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr 1986;14(1):81-7.
[52] No authors listed. Emil Kraepelin. Br Med J 1926;2(3436):914.
[53] Farrar CB. I remember Kraepelin. Am J Psychiatry 1954;111(5):379-81.
[54] 54Mayer W. Emil Kraepelin;1856-1926. Am J Psychother 1956;10(2):273-4.
[55] No authors listed. Professor Emil Kraepelin. Br Med J 1926;2(3435):859.
[56] Benon R. Demential praecox; Magnan, Kraepelin, Bleuler. Concours Med 1952;74(33):2803-4.
[57] Engstrom EJ, Weber MM. The directions of psychiatric research by Emil Kraepelin. Hist Psychiatry 2005;16(63 Pt 3):345-64.
[58] Trede K, Salvatore P, Baethge C, Gerhard A, Maggini C, Baldessarini RJ. Manic- depressive illness: Evolution in Kraepelin’s Textbook, 1883-1926. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2005;13(3):155-78.
[59] Engstrom EJ, Kendler KS. Emil Kraepelin: icon and reality. Am J Psychiatry 2015;172(12):1190-6.
[60] Durand-Fardel M. Traité Clinique et Pratique des Maladies des Vieillards. Paris: Germer Baillière, 1854. [French].
[61] Poirier J, Derouesné C. The concept of cerebral lacunae from 1838 to the present. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1985;141(1):3-17. [French].
[62] Hauw JJ. Leuko-araiosis: The brain interstitial atrophy (atrophie interstitielle du cerveau) of Durand-Fardel. Arch Neurol 1988;45(2):141-1.
[63] Román GC. On the history of lacunes, etat criblé, and the white matter lesions of vascular dementia. Cerebrovasc Dis 2002;13(Suppl 2):1-6.
[64] Paciaroni M, Bogousslavsky J. How did stroke become of interest to neurologists? A slow 19th century saga. Neurology 2009;73(9):724-8.
[65] Shinn GL. Dr. William James: physician-philosopher (1842-1910). Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Med Soc 1995;58(2):14-9.
[66] Gregory RL. Perceptions of William James — at the centenary of the principles of psychology. Perception 1990;19(6):701-4.
[67] Stone AA. William James, 1842-1910. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157(10):1583.
[68] No authors listed. Daniel Hack Tuke. Br J Psychiatry 1995;166(3):403-5.
[69] Gerhard UJ, Schönberg A, Blanz B. Johanes Trüper — mediator between child and adolescent psychiatry and pedagogy. Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 2008;36(1):55-63. [German].
[70] Schotte A: Heilpädagogik und Sozialpädagogik. Johannes Trüper und die Sophienhöhe in Jena. Jena: Garamond Vergal, 2010. [German].
[71] Maudsley H. Is insanity on the increase? BMJ 1872;1(576):36-9.
[72] Maudsley H. An address on medical psychology. BMJ 1872;2(606):163-7.
[73] Lewis A. Henry Maudsley: his work and influence. J Ment Sci 1951;97(407):259-77.
[74] Johnston W, Williams JF. Henery Fitzgerald Maudsley. Med J Aust 1962;49(2):520-2.
[75] Bynum WF. Theory and practice in British psychiatry from J.C. Prichard (1785-1848) to Henry Maudsley (1835-1918). Nihon Ishigaku Zasshi 1981;27(1):94-73. [Japanese].
[76] Turner T. Henry Maudsley — Psychiatrist, philosopher and entrepreneur. Psychol Med 1988;18(3):551-74.
[77] No authors listed. The Maudsley Hospital. Opening Ceremony. BMJ 1923;1(3240):196.
[78] Manheimer M. Les troubles mantaux de l’enfance (review). J Ment Sci 1900;46(193):342-343. doi. 10.1192/bjp.46.193.342.
[79] Roberts AR, Brownell P. A century of forensic social work: bridging the past to the present. Soc Work 1999;44(4):359-69.
[80] Bradley K. Juvenile delinquency, the juvenile courts, and the settlement movement 1908-1950: Basil Henriques and Toynbee Hall. 20 Century Br Hist 2008;19(2):133-55.
[81] Soulier MF, Scott CL. Juveniles in court. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2010;18(6):317-25.
[82] Callahan L, Cocozza J, Steadman HJ, Tillman S. A national survey of U.S. juvenile mental health courts. Psychiatr Serv 2012;63(2):130-4.
[83] Meng A, Segal R, Boden E. American juvenile justice system: history in the making. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2013;25(3):275-8.
[84] Bath E, Reba-Harrelson L, Peace R, Shen J, Liu H. Correlates of competency to stand trail among youths admitted to a juvenile mental health court. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015;43(3):329-39.
[85] Fukuchi S. Ellen Key — Swedish woman. Kangogaku Zasshi 1966;30(5):112-3. [Japanese].
[86] Borthwick M, Friedman AT. Frank Lloyd Wright and feminism: Mamah Borthwick’s letters to Ellen Key. J Soc Archtect Hist 2002;61(2):140-51.
[87] Gerhard UJ, Blanz B. Theodor Ziehen as child and adolescent psychiatrist. A belated commemoration on the 50th anniversary of his death. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 2002;30(2):127-33. [German].
[88] Frings M. Wilhelm Strohmayer (1874-1936). Nervenartz 2004;75(7):694-5. [German].
[89] Gerhard UJ, Blanz B. Wilhelm Strhmayer (1874-1936). Remarks on the cover illustration. Nervenartz 2003;74(7):626-8. [German].
[90] Gerhard UJ, Gerhard C, Blanz B. Rudolf Lemke’s contribution to the development of child neuropsychiatry in Jena, Germany. Nervenartz 2007;78(6):706-12. [German].
[91] Hall GS. Adolescence: Its psychology and its relationship to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime, religion, and education. New York: D Appleton,1904.
[92] Cole TR. The prophecy of senescence: G Stanley Hall and the reconstruction of old age in America. Gerontologist 1984;24(4):360-6.
[93] Hall GS. Senescence: The last half of life. Am J Public Health 2006;96(7):1160-2.
[94] Parry M. G. Stanley Hall: Psychologist and early gerontologist. Am J Public Health 2006;96(7):1161.
[95] Leary DE. Between Peirce (1878) and James (1898): G.Standley Hall, the origins of pragmatism, and the history of psychology. Hist Behav Sci 2009;45(1):5-20.
[96] Agris J. “Jane Addams.” Medical student, social worker and activist, humanitarian. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1979;5(12):936.
[97] Johnson AK. Social work is standing on the legacy of Jane Addams: But are we sitting on the sidelines? Soc Work 2004;49(2):319-22.
[98] Cromie TR. Jane Addams and the “devil baby tales”: The usefulness of perplexity in “sympathetic understanding,” a tool in learning empathy. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2015;63(1):101-36.
[99] Browne WJ. Jane Addams and the rescue fantasy. Psychiatr Commun 1970;13(1):13-8.
[100] Platt HL. Jane Addams and the ward boss revisited: class, politics, and public health in Chicago, 1890-1930. Environ Hist Durh N C 2000;5(2):194-222.
[101] Richmond JB. The Hull House era. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1995;65(1):10-20.
[102] Snodgrass J. William Healy (1869-1963): Pioneer child psychiatrist and criminologist. J Hist Behav Sci 1984;20(4):332-9.
[103] Gardner GE. William Healy. 1869-1963. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 1972;11(1):1-29.
[104] Healy, William. The individual delinquent: A text-book of diagnosis and prognosis for all concerned in understanding offenders. Boston: Little Brown, 1915.
[105] Healy W, Bronner A. Delinquents and criminals, their making and unmaking: Studies in two American cities. New York: Macmillan, 1926.
[106] Healy W, Bronner A. New light on delinquency and its treatment. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1936.
[107] Mundie GS. Child guidance clinics. Can Med Assoc J. 1924;14(6):508-11.
[108] No authors listed. Dealing with delinquency through mental-health and child- guidance clinics. Underst Child 1947;16(3):81.
[109] Barrett JE. Child guidance clinics. Va Med Mon (1918) 1950;77(8):433-4.
[110] Horn, Margo. Before it's too late: The child duidance movement in the United States 1922–1945. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1989.
[111] Specht F. Development of child guidance clinics in Germany: An overview. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr 2000;49(10):728-36. [German].
[112] Kramer DA. History of family psychiatry: From the social reform era to the primate social organ system. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2015;24(3):439-55.
[113] Triarhou LC, del Cerro M. An early work (1910-1013) in biological psychology by pioneer psychiatrist, criminologist and philosopher, José Ingenieros, MD (1877-1925) of Buenos Aires. Biol Psychol 2006;72(1):1-14.
[114] Silverman HL, Krenzel K. Alfred Binet: Prolific pioneer in psychology. Psychiatr Q Suppl 1964;38:323-35.
[115] Martin O. Psychological measurement from Binet to Thurstone, (1900-1930). Rev Synth 1997;4:457-93. [French].
[116] Boake C. From the Binet-Simon to the Wechsler-Bellevue: tracing the history of intelligence testing. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2002;24(3):383-405.
[117] Cicciola E, Foschi R, Lombardo GP. Making up intelligence scales: De Sanctis’s and Binet’s tests, 1905 and after. Hist Psychol 2014;17(3):223-36.
[118] Lombardo GP, Cicciola E. The clinical differential approach of Sante De Sanctis in Italian ‘scientific" psychology’. Physis Rivista Int Storia Sci 2006;43(1–2): 443–57. [Italian].
[119] Hilgard ER. Lewis Madision Terman: 1877-1956. Am J Psychol 1957;70(3):472-9.
[120] Sears RR. LM Terman, pioneer in mental measurment. Science 1957;125:978-9.
[121] Haggbloom SJ, Warnick JE, Jones VK, Yarbrough GL, Russell TM, Borecky CM, et al. The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century. Rev Gen Psychol 2002;6(2):139-152.
[122] Wechsler D. Historical bases for psychological tests. Proc Annu Meet Am Psychopathol Assoc 1950;Discussion 39-44.
[123] Wechsler D. Intellectual development and psychological maturity. Child Dev 1950;21(1):45-50.
[124] Spitz JC. The Wechsler-Bellevue test. Ned Tijdschr Psychol 1950;5(2):126-36. [Dutch].
[125] Skinner BF. Psychology in the year 2000. J Exp Anal Behav 2004;81(2):207-13.
[126] Labrador FJ. Skinner and the rise of behavioral modification and behavior therapy. Span J Psychol 2004;7(2):178-87.
[127] Gewirtz JL, Peláez-Nogueras M. B. F. Skinner’s legacy to human infant behavior and development. Am Psychol 1992;47(11):1411-22.
[128] Keller FS. Burrhus Frederick Skinner (1904-1990) (a thank-you). J Exp Anal Behav 1990;54(3):155-8.
[129] Keller FS. Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990). J Hist Behav Sci 1991;27(1):3-6.
[130] Holland JG. B.F. Skinner, 1904-1990. Behav Modif 1991;15(2):131-3.
[131] Marr MJ. A still great voice: the golden sovereignty of science and human behavior. J Exp Anal Behav 2003;80(3):311-2.
[132] Von Stockert. The life-work of a scholar: Moritz Tramer. Acta Paedopsychiatr 1963;30:288-91. [German].
[133] Desanctis C. A promoter of child mental hygiene: Moritz Tramer. Acta Paedopsychiatr 1963;30:284-7. [Italian].
[134] Kanner L. A tribute to Moritz Trarmer. Acta Paedopsychiatr 1963;30:281-4.
[135] Eliasberg WG. In memoriam: Moritz Tramer, MD (1882-1963). Am J Psychiatry 1964;121:103-4.
[136] Greydanus DE, Toledo-Pereyra LH. Historical perspectives of autism: Its past record of discovery and its present state of solipsism, skepticism, and sorrowful suspicion. Pediatr Clin North Am 2012;59(1):1-11.
[137] Eisenberg L. Leo Kanner, MD, 1894-1981. Am Psychiatry 1981;138(8):1122-5.
[138] Bender L. In memoriam. Leo Kanner, MD, June 13, 1894-April 4, 1981. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 1982;21:88-9.
[139] Sanua VD. Leo Kanner (1894-1981): The man and the scientist. Child Psychiatr Hum Dev 1990;21(1):3-23.
[140] Eisenberg L. Leo Kanner, MD, 1894-1981. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1981;22(4):317-22.
[141] Kanner L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv Child 1943;2:217-50.
[142] Kanner L. Irrelevant and metaphorical language in early infantile autism. Am J Psychiatry 1946;103:242-6.
[143] Kanner L, Eisenberg L Early infantile autism, 1943-1955. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1956;26:55-66.
[144] Sanchez-Cardenas M, Robin D. Introductory comment on the translation of Leo Kanner’s article: Follow-up study of eleven autistic children originally reported in 1943. Journal of Autims and Childhood Scizophrenia, 1971;1-2:119-45. Psychiatr Enfant 1995;38(2):413-9. [French].
[145] Neumärker KJ. Leo Kanner: His years in Berlin, 1906-24. The roots of autistic disorder. Hist Psychiatry 2003;14(54 Pt 2):205-18.
[146] Volkmar FR, McPartland JC. From Kanner to DSM-5: Autism as an evolving diagnostic concept. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2014;10:193-212.
[147] Volkmar FR, Reichow B, McPartland J. Classification of autism and related conditions: progress, challenges, and opportunities. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2012;14(3):229-37.
[148] Harris J. Leon Eisengerg, MD (1922-2009). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;49(2):199-201.
[149] Eisenberg L. Psychiatry and human rights: putting the good of the patient first. Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2009;37(1):1-8.
[150] Eisenberg L. Is biology destiny? Is it all in our genes? J Psychiatr Pract 2002;8(6):337-43.
[151] Eisenberg L, Belfer M. Prerequisites for global child and adolescent mental health. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2009;50(1):26-35.
[152] Eisenberg L, Guttmacher LB. Were we all asleep at the switch? A personal reminiscence of psychiatry from 1940-2010. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2010;122(2):89-102.
[153] Eisenberg L. Furor therapeutics: Benjamin Rush and the Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic of 1793. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164(4):552-5.
[154] Carrey N. Interview with Sir Michael Rutter. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;19(3):212-217.
[155] Kolvin I. The contribution of Michael Rutter. Br J Psychiatry 1999;174:471-5.
[156] Rutter M, Tizard J, Whitmore K. Education, health, and behaviour. London: Longman, 1970.
[157] Douglas JWB. Review of Michael Rutter, Philip Graham, and William Yule “A neuropsychiatric study in childhood.” Psychol Med 1971;1:437-9.
[158] Rutter M. Talking with Michael Rutter. Br J Psychiatry 1999;174:494-9.
[159] Rutter M. Introduction: Autism — the challenges ahead. Novartis Found Symp 2003;251:1-9,109-11,281-97.
[160] Rutter J. Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1987;57(3):316-31.
[161] Rutter M. Autism research: Lessons from the past and prospects for the future. J Autism Dev Disord 2005;35(2):241-57.
[162] Rutter M. Changing concepts and findings on autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2013;43(8):1749-57.
[163] Rutter M. Implications of resilience concepts for scientific understanding. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006;1094:1-12.
[164] Rutter M. Resilience as a dynamic concept. Dev Psychopathol 2012;24(2):335-44.
[165] Rutter M. Annual research review: resilience — clinical implications. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2013;54(4):474-87.
[166] Rutter M. Developmental psychopathology: A paradigm shift or just a relabeling? Dev Psychopathol 2013;25(4 Pt 2):1201-13.
[167] Rutter M. Some complexities involved in gene-environment interplay. Int J Epidemiol 2015;44(4):1128-9.
[168] Rutter M. Achievements and challenges in the biology of environmental effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109 Suppl 2:17149-53.
[169] Rutter M. Categories, dimensions, and the mental health of children and adolescents. Ann NY Acad Sci 2003;1008:11-21.
[170] Musto DF. History of child psychiatry. In: Lewis M, ed. Child and adolescent psychiatry. A comprehensive text, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams Wilkins, 2002:1448-9.
[171] Werry JS, Aman MG. Preface to the first edition. Practitioner’s guide to psychoactive drugs for children and adolescents. New York: Plenum, 1999.
[172] Bradley C. The behavior of children receiving benzadrine. Am J Psychiatry 1937;94:577-85.
[173] Molitch M, Sullivan J: The effect of benzedrine sulfate on children taking the new Stanford achivement test. Am J Orthopsych 1937;7:519-22.
[174] Still GF. Some abnormal psychical conditions in children: The Goulstonian lectures.” Lancet 1902;1:1008-12.
[175] Still GF. Some abnormal psychical conditions in children: Excerpts from three lectures. J Atten Disord 2006;10:126.
[176] Barkley RA. The relevance of the Still Lectures to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder- a commentary. J Atten Disord 2006;10:137.
[177] McDermott JJ. The writings of William James: A comprehensive edition, Revised edition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1977.
[178] Ferreri AM. The contribution of William James to the origins of ‘scientific” psychology. Physis Riv Int Stor Sci 2006;43(1-2):373-85.
[179] Taylor E. Antecedents of ADHD: a historical account of diagnostic concepts. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2011;3(2):69-75.
[180] López-Munoz F, Alamo C. Monoaminergic neurotransmission: the history of the discovery of antidepressants from 1950s until today. Curr Pharm Des 2009;15:1563-86.
[181] Delini-Stula A. Discovery of the tricyclic antidepressants. Pharm Unserer Zeit 2008;37:194-7.
[182] Knobel M, Wolman M, Mason A. Hyperkinesis and organicity in children. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1959;1(3):310-21.
[183] Nikapota AD. Child psychiatry in developing countries. Br J Psychiatry 1991;158:743-51.
[184] Greydanus DE, Patel DR. The role of pharmaceutical influence in education and research: The clinician’s response. Asian J Paediatr Pract 2006;9:35-41.
[185] Tan JO, Koeich M. The ethics of psychopharmacological research in legal minors. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Ment Health 2008;2:39-43.
[186] Vitiello B, Heiligenstein JH, Riddle MA et al: The interface between publicly funded and industry-funded research in pediatric psychopharmacology: Opportunities for integration and collaboration. Biol Psychiatry 2004;56:3-9.
[187] MTA: A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The MTA Cooperative Group. Multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56:1073-86.
[188] Molina BS, Hinshaw SP, Eugene Arnold L, Swanson JM, Pelham WE, Hechtman L, et al. Adolescent substance use in the multimodal treatment study of attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a function of childhood ADHD, random assignment to childhood treatments, and subsequent medication. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013;52(3):250-63.
[189] March J, Silva S, Petrycki S. Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;292:807-20.
[190] FDA panel OKs 3 antipsychotic drugs for pediatric use, cautions against overuse. JAMA 2009;302:833-4.
[191] Parry-Jones WL. The history of child and adolescent psychiatry: Its present day relevance. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1989;30(1):3-11.
[192] Swedo SE, Leonard HL, Garvey M, Mittleman B, Allen AJ, Perlmutter S, et al. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: Clinical description of the first 50 cases. Am J Psychiatry 1998;155:264-71.
[193] Singer HS, Gilbert DL, Wolf DS, Mink JW, Kurlan R. Moving from PANDAS to CANS. J Pediatr 2011;160(5):725-31.
[194] Swedo SE, Leckman JF, Rose NR. From research subgroup to clinical syndrome: Modifying the PANDAS criteria to PANS (pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome). Pediatr Therapeut 2012;2:113. doi: 10.4172/2161-0665.1000113.
[195] Orefici G, Cardona F, Cox CJ, Cunningham MW. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsyciatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). In: Ferretti JJ, Stevens DL, Fischetti VA, eds. Streptococcus pyogenes: Basic biology to clinical manifestions [Internet]. Oklahoma City, OK: University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 2016.
[196] Lorberg B, Robb A, Pavuluri M, Chen DTW, Wilens T. Pediatric psychopharmacology: Food and Drug Administration approval through the evidence lens. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014;53(7):716-9.
[197] Stoyanova-Beninska VV, Wohlfarth T, Isaac M, Kalverdijk LJ, van den Berg H, Gispen-de-Wied C. The EU paediatric regulation: effects on paediatric psychopharmacology in Europe. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011;21(8):565-70.
[198] Dittmann RW. The new German drug market law AMNOG fomr a child and adolescent psychiatry perspective. Nervenartz 2016;87(4);367-75. [German].
[199] Merikangas KR, He JP, Burstein M, Swanson SA, Avenevoli S, Cui L, et al. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in US adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication — Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;49(10):980-9.
[200] American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fifth edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
[201] Crocq MA. French perspectives on psychiatric classification. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2015;17(1):51-7.
[202] Chazaud J. Savages. Hist Sci Med 1999;33(1):53-9. [French].
[203] Hess V, Mendelsohn A. Sauvages’ paperwork: how disease classification arose from scholarly notetaking. Early Sci Med 2014;19(4):471-503.
[204] Starkstein SE, Berrios GE. The “preliminary discourse” to methodical nosology, by François Boissier de Sauvages (1772). Hist Psychiatry 2015;26(4):477-91.
[205] Kaiser W. Trenckmann U. In memory of Christian Friedrich Nasse (1778-1851) on the 200th anniversary of his birth on 18 April 1978. Z Gesamte Inn Med 1978;33(10):317-25. [German].
[206] Kaplan RM. Being Bleuler: The second century of schizophrenia. Australas Psychiatry 2008;16(5):305-11.
[207] Tölle R. Eugene Bleuler (1857-1939) and Germany psychiatry. Nervenartz 2008;79(1):90-6.
[208] van Bergen L. Emil Kraepelin, grandfather of the DSM. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2015;159:A9232. [Dutch].
[209] Shorter E. The history of nosology and the rise of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2015;17(1):59-67.
[210] Sharma SL. A historical background of the development of nosology in psychiatry and psychology. Am Psychol 1970;25(3):248-53.
[211] Singerman B. DSM-III: historical antecdents and presents significance. J Clin Psychiatry 1981;42(11):409-10.
[212] Kendler KS. An historical framework for psychiatric nosology. Psychol Med 2009;39(12):1935-41.
[213] Laurenti R. Analysis of information on health: 1893-1993, one hundred years of the International classification of diseases. Rev Saude Publica 1991;25(6):407-17. [Portuguese].
[214] Bartolomé JM, Sartorius N. Classifications of mental disorders; from Bertillon to ICD-10, the century of international collaboration. Actas Luso Esp Neurol Psiquiatr Cienc Afines 1994;22(5):193-9. [Spanish].
[215] Morabia A. Epidemiology’s 350th anniversary: 1662-2012. Epidemiology 2013;24(2):179-83.
[216] Rothman KJ. Lessons from John Graunt. Lancet 1996;347(8993):37-9.
[217] Langmuir AD. William Farr: founder of modern concepts of surveillance. Int J Epidemiol 1976;5(1):13-8.
[218] Farr W. “On Prognosis” by William Farr (British Medical Almanack 1838; Supplement 199-216) Part 1 (pages 199-208). Soz Praventivmed 2003;48(4):219-24.
[219] Greydanus DE, Truba N, Pratt HD. Asperger syndrome in young adulthood: The physician as supportive coach and medical advisor. Adolesc Med State Art Rev 2013; 24(3): 629-42.
[220] Leibenluft E. Severe mood dysregulation, irritability, and the diagnostic boundaries of bipolar disorder in youths. Am J Psychiatry 2011;168(2):129-42.
[221] Brecht B. Life of Galileo. In: J Willet, R Manheim, eds. New York: Arcade Publishing, 1994.
[222] DeVeaugh-Geiss J, March J, Shapiro M, Andreason PJ, Emslie G, Ford LM, et al. Child and adolescent psychopharmacology in the new millennium: A workshop for academia, industry, and government. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006;45(3):261-70.
[223] Steinberg-Epstein R, Book T, Wigal SB. Controversies surrounding pediatric psychopharmacology. Adv Pediatrics 2011;58(1):153-79.
[224] Greydanus DE, Calles JL Jr., Patel DR, Nazeer A, Merrick J, eds. Clinical aspects of psychopharmacology in hildhood and adolescence. New York: Nova Science, 2017.
Lewis A. Ebb and flow in social psychiatry. Yale J Biol Med 1962;35:62–83.

If you have any questions or comments with regards to this book, please fill out the form below. Thank you!

You have not viewed any product yet.