Mastitis: Symptoms, Triggers and Treatment


Series: New Developments in Medical Research
BISAC: HEA024000

Mastitis is the most widespread and economically important disease of dairy cattle occurring throughout the world. It is of particular concern for farmers in developing countries like India. The economic loss due to mastitis is associated with reduced milk production, discard of milk due to antibiotic residues, treatment and management costs, and occasional deaths. The menace has a serious zoonotic threat due to shedding of bacteria and their toxins through the milk. Mastitis is caused by a wide spectrum of pathogens and, it is categorized into contagious and environmental mastitis.

The major contagious pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma spp. and Corynebacterium bovis. The environmental mastitis can be induced by those pathogens residing in the environment such as E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. On the basis of symptoms, mastitis can be classified into either clinical or sub-clinical. Clinical mastitis is characterized by sudden onset, alterations of milk composition and appearance, decreased milk production, and the presence of the cardinal signs of inflammation in the udder. In contrast, in sub-clinical mastitis, no cardinal signs are detected although the milk production is decreased and the somatic cell count is increased.

The diagnosis of sub-clinical mastitis is a real challenge in the dairy industry. The book contains a total of 7 chapters including a research chapter (chapter 6) for control of mastitis, a global problem with public health menace. Persons associated with antimicrobial stewardship and drug control policies may go through chapters 5 and 7 for getting some suggestions and clarifications for their consideration. The use of propolis for mastitis control is an innuendo for the reduction of antimicrobial misuse. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in pathogens isolated from ewes and goats with mastitis has been recorded. This approach is in line with the antimicrobial stewardship, with the aim of limiting the selection for antimicrobial resistant strains. Propolis ethanol extracts showed a good bactericidal activity against mastitis pathogens as well as the capacity to inhibit biofilm formation and to disrupt established biofilm. These results strongly suggest that propolis may be part of a mastitis control strategy.

The present book is a comprehensive attempt to cover the relevant topics of bovine mastitis such as physiology of milk secreation with associated biomarkers, immune responses of udder, updated etiology, current trends in conventional treatment and management, prospect of herbal preparations and propolis as supportive treatment options. The book will cater the need of the veterinary/dairy science/one health students, professionals, researchers and moreover, the progressive farmers who wish to understand the basics of the menace.
Any suggestions from any corner for the improvement of the book will be gladly acknowledged.
(Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Basic Understandings of Mastitis
(Jeevan Ranjan Dash, PhD, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Odisha, India, and others)

Chapter 2. Physiology of Milk Secretion and Its Alteration during Mastitis with Related Biomarkers
(Pradip Kumar Das, PhD, and Joydip Mukherjee, PhD, Department of Veterinary Physiology, West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, and others

Chapter 3. Immune Responses of Mammary Gland
(Joydip Mukherjee, PhD, and Pradip Kumar Das, PhD, Department of Veterinary Physiology, West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, and others)

Chapter 4. Bovine Mastitis: Etiology & Epidemiology, Current Trends and Future Perspectives in Monitoring, Detection, and Treatments
(Somayeh Sharifi and Abbas Pakdel, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran)

Chapter 5. The Commonly Used Drugs for Conventional Therapy of Mastitis
(Tapas Kumar Sar, PhD, and Rinku Buragohain, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Science, Kolkata, West Bengal, India)

Chapter 6. The Use of Propolis for Mastitis Control
(Marta Laranjo, PhD, Nara Andrade, TâniaM. S. Silva, PhD, and Maria Cristina Queiroga, DVM, PhD, Instituto de Ciências, Agrárias e Ambientais, Mediterrânicas and Instituto de Investigação e Formação, Avançada, Universidade de Évora, Évora, Portugal, and others)

Chapter 7. Supportive Herbal Preparations with Antimicrobial Drugs for Treatment of Mastitis
(Tapas Kumar Sar, PhD, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal, India)

About the Editor and Authors



Veterinarians, Biomedical students, Researchers, Scientists, Skilled farmers, Policy makers.

Keywords: antimicrobial drugs, biomarkers, herbal preparations, immune responses, mastitis therapy, mastitis etiology, milk synthesis, pathogenicity, pharmacokinetics, propolis

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