Mastering Science with Metacognitive and Self-Regulatory Strategies: A Teacher-Researcher Dialogue of Practical Applications for Adolescent Students

Suzanne E. Hiller, Ph.D.
George Mason University, VA, USA

Series: Education in a Competitive and Globalizing World
BISAC: EDU029030

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In pedagogical fields, there has been increased attention in helping students flourish in science-related occupations. This book centers on metacognitive and self-regulatory practices as predictors of academic achievement. The purpose of Mastering Science with Metacognitive and Self-Regulatory Strategies: A Teacher-Researcher Dialogue of Practical Applications for Adolescents is to provide information on both theoretical and practical understandings of the connection between metacognition, self-regulation, and academic performance.

Self-regulation centers on an individual’s behavior to accomplish a specific task through planning, monitoring, and self-reflecting in academic tasks. Based on social cognitive theory, there are three main aspects of self-regulation: a) the triadic social cognitive model, b) the multilevel training model, and c) the cyclical self-regulatory feedback loop model. In addition, metacognitive awareness is essential in these processes with the end goal of heightening academic performance.

This book outlines how to integrate metacognitive and self-regulatory strategies within a scientific context. In particular, the work emphasizes transitioning students from novice skill levels to more advanced cognitive development through metacognitive and self-regulatory practices. In addition, relevant context specific strategies and examples are described to promote high levels of science performance in both formal and informal learning contexts, including citizen science activities. Practical examples appear throughout the work in conjunction with theoretical explanations including guidelines related to lesson plan designs, scaffolding, and math integration. Furthermore, these strategies are extended in discussions of advancing at-risk students and promoting STEM career motivation.

The overarching aim of Mastering Science with Metacognitive and Self-Regulatory Strategies: A Teacher-Researcher Dialogue of Practical Applications for Adolescents is to highlight the interdependence between motivation, self-regulation, and achievement within a scientific context from a teacher-researcher perspective. This work may be of interest to researchers and college students interested in metacognitive and self-regulatory functions, as well as administrators, practitioners, and parents focused on encouraging student science achievement, and ultimately, STEM career motivation.

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction to Self-Regulation, Metacognition and Science Achievement

Chapter 2. Preparing for Success: The Forethought Phase

Chapter 3. Metacognitive Monitoring and the Performance Phase

Chapter 4. Self-Reflection and the Autonomous Learner

Chapter 5. Lesson Design: A Constructivist Approach

Chapter 6. Metacognitive and Self-Regulatory Strategies for At-Risk Students

Chapter 7. STEM Career Motivation

Chapter 8. Guideposts in Adolescent Science Achievement

Index

Chapter 1:
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00461520.2013.794676.
[21] Zepeda, Cristina, D., J. Elizabeth Richey, Paul Ronevich, and Timothy J. Nokes-Malach. 2015. “Direct Instruction of Metacognition Benefits Adolescent Science Learning, Transfer, and Motivation: An In Vivo Study.” Journal of Educational Psychology 107(4): 954-970. doi: 10.1037/edu0000022.
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[27] Schunk, Dale H. 2001. “Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Regulated Learning.” In Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theoretical Perspectives, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 129-151. New York: Routledge.
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[39] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1997. “Developmental Phases in Self-regulation: Shifting from Process to Outcome Goals.” Journal of Educational Psychology89(1): 29–36. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.89.1.29.
[40] DiBenedetto, Maria K., and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2013. “Construct and Predictive Validity of Microanalytic Measures of Students’ Self-Regulation of Science Learning.” Learning and Individual Differences 26: 30–41. doi: 10.1016/j.
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[41] Veenman, Marcel V.J. 2011. “Learning to Self-Monitor and Self-Regulate.” In Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction: Educationanl Psychology Handbook Series, edited by Richard E, Mayer and Patricia A. Alexander, 197-218. New York: Routledge.
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[57] Lee, Cristina S., Kathryn N. Hayes, Jeffery Seitz, Rachel DiStefano, and
Dawn O’ Connor. 2016. “Understanding Motivational Structures that
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09500693.2015.1136452.
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Chapter 2:
[1] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2000. “Attaining Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective.” Handbook of Self-regulation, edited by Monique Boekaerts, Monique, Paul R. Pintrich, and Moshe Zeidner, 13-39. New York: Academic Press.
[2] Bandura, Albert 2005. “Adolescent Development from an Agent Perspective.” Self-efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents, edited by Frank Pajares and Tim Urdan, 2-43. Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.
[3] Kitsantas, Anastasia, Barry J. Zimmerman, and Timothy J. Cleary. 2000. “The Role of Observation and Emulation in the Development of Athletic Self-Regulation.” Journal of Educational Psychology 92(4): 811-817. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.
92.4.811.
[4] Kitsantas, Anastasia, and Nada Dabbagh. 2010. Learning to Learn with Integrative Learning Technologies. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
[5] Zepeda, Cristina, D., J. Elizabeth Richey, Paul Ronevich, and Timothy J. Nokes-Malach. 2015. “Direct Instruction of Metacognition Benefits Adolescent Science Learning, Transfer, and Motivation: An In Vivo Study.” Journal of Educational Psychology 107(4): 954-970. doi: 10.1037/edu0000022.
[6] Britner, Shari, L., and Frank Pajares. 2006. “Sources of Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Middle School Students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 43(5): 485-499. doi: 10.1002/tea.20131.
[7] Hiller, Suzanne, E., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2014. “The Effect of a Horseshoe Crab Citizen Science Program on Student Science Performance and STEM Career Motivation.” School Science and Mathematics Journal 114(6): 302-311. doi: 10.1111/ssm.12081.
[8] Elliott, Andrew J. 2008. “Approach and Avoidance Motivation.” In
Handbook of Approach and Avoidance Motivation, edited by Andrew J. Elliott, 3-16. New York: Psychology Press.
[9] Cleary, Timothy J., and Andju S. Labuhn. 2013. “Cyclical Self-Regulation Interventions in Science-Based Contexts.” In Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman, edited by Héfer Bembenutty, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 89-124. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
[10] Paris, Scott, G., James P. Byrnes, and Alison Paris. 2001. “Constructing Theories, Identities, and Actions of Self-Regulated Learners.” In Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theoretical Perspectives, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 253-287. New York: Routledge.
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[12] Zimmerman, Barry J. (2013). “From Cognitive Modeling to Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Career Path.” Educational Psychology 48(3): 135-147. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2013.794676.
[13] Schunk, Dale H., and Ellen L. Usher. 2013. “Barry J. Zimmerman’s Theory of Self-Regulated Learning.” In Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman, edited by Héfer Bembenutty, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 1-28. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
[14] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1997. “Developmental Phases in Self-regulation: Shifting from Process to Outcome Goals.” Journal of Educational Psychology89(1): 29–36. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.89.1.29.
[15] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1999. “Acquiring Writing Revision Skill. Shifting from Process to Outcome Self-Regulatory Skills.” Journal of Educational Psychology 91(2): 241-250. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.91.2.241.
[16] Hiller, Suzanne E., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2015. “Fostering Student Metacognition and Motivation in STEM through Citizen Science Programs.” In Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends, edited by Alejandro Peña-Ayala, 193-221. Cham: Springer.
[17] Veenman, Marcel V.J. 2011. “Learning to Self-Monitor and Self-Regulate.” In Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction: Educationanl Psychology Handbook Series, edited by Richard E, Mayer and Patricia A. Alexander, 197-218. New York: Routledge.
[18] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning.” Journal of Educational Psychology 81(3): 329-339. doi: 10.1037/0022—0663.81.3.329.
[19] Bandura, Albert. 1997. The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman and Company.
[20] Lee, Cristina S., Kathryn N. Hayes, Jeffery Seitz, Rachel DiStefano, and Dawn O’Connor. 2016. “Understanding Motivational Structures that Differentially Predict Engagement and Achievement in Middle School Science. International Journal of Science Education 38(2): 192-215. doi: 10.1080/09500693.2015.1136452.
[21] Bol, Linda, Douglas J. Hacker, Camilla C. Walck, and John A. Nunnery. 2012. “The Effects of Individual or Group Guidelines on the Calibration Accuracy and Achievement of High School Biology Students.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 37: 280-287. doi: /10.1016/j.cedpsych.2012.02.004.
[22] Lofgran, Brandi B., Leigh K. Smith, and Erin F. Whiting. 2015. “Science Self-Efficacy and School Transitions: Elementary School to 7Middle School, Middle School to High School.” The School Science and Mathematics 115(7): 366-376. doi: 10.1111/ssm.12139.
[23] DiBenedetto, Maria K., and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2013. “Construct and Predictive Validity of Microanalytic Measures of Students’ Self-regulation of Science Learning.” Learning and Individual Differences 26: 30–41. doi: 10.1016/
j.lindif.2013.04.004.
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[25] Peña-Calvo, José-Vicente, Mercedes

Inda-Caro, Carmen Rodríguez-Menéndez, and Carmen-María Fernández-García. 2016. “Perceived Supports and Barriers for Career Development for Second-Year STEM Students.” Journal of Engineering Education 105(2): 341-365. doi: 10.1002/jee.20115.
[26] Navarro, Rachel, L., Lisa Y. Flores, and Roger L. Worthington. 2007. “Mexican American Middle School Students’ Goal Intentions in Mathematics and Science: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 54(3): 320-335. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.54.3.320.
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[42] Bybee, Rodger W. 2014. “The BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Personal Reflections and Contemporary Implications.” Science and Children 51(8): 10-13. doi: 10.2505/
4/sc14_051_08_10.
[43] Flores, Alfinio. 1995. “Connections in Proportional Reasoning: Levers, Arithmetic Means, Mixtures, Batting Averages.” School Science and Mathematics, 95(8): 423-430. doi: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.1995.tb10196.x.

Chapter 3:
[1] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2005. “The Hidden Dimension of Personal Competence: Self-Regulated Learning and Practice.” In Handbook of Competence and Motivation, edited by Andrew J. Elliott and Carol S. Dweck, 509-526. New York: The Guilford Press.
[2] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2000. “Attaining Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective.” Handbook of Self-regulation, edited by Monique Boekaerts, Monique, Paul R. Pintrich, and Moshe Zeidner, 13-39. New York: Academic Press.
[3] Veenman, Marcel V. J. 2013. “Training Metacognitive Skills in Students with Availability and Production Deficiencies.” In Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman, edited by Héfer Bembenutty, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 299-317. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
[4] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2013. “From Cognitive Modeling to Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Career Path.” Educational Psychology 48(3): 135-147. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2013.794676.
[5] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2009. “Goal Setting: A Key Proactive Source of Academic Self-regulation. In Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory Research and Applications, edited by Dale H. Schunk and Barry J. Zimmerman, 267-295. New York: Routledge.
[6] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning.” Journal of Educational Psychology 81(3): 329-339. doi: 10.1037/
0022—0663.81.3.329.
[7] DiBenedetto, Maria K., and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2013. “Construct and Predictive Validity of Microanalytic Measures of Students' Self-regulation of Science Learning.” Learning and Individual Differences 26: 30–41. doi: 10.1016/
j.lindif.2013.04.004.
[8] Bol, Linda, Douglas J. Hacker, Camilla C. Walck, and John A. Nunnery. 2012. “The Effects of Individual or Group Guidelines on the Calibration Accuracy and Achievement of High School Biology Students.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 37: 280-287. doi: /10.1016/j.cedpsych.2012.02.004.
[9] Bandura, Albert. 1997. The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman and Company.
[10] Harris, Karen R.1990. “Developing Self-Regulated Learners: The Role of Private Speech and Self-Instruction.” Educational Psychologist 25(1): 35-49. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep2501_4.
[11] Ericsson, K. Anders, and Paul Ward. 2007. “Capturing the Naturally Occurring Superior Performance of Experts in the Laboratory: Toward a Science of Expert and Exceptional Performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science 16(6), 346-350 (2007), doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00533.x.
[12] Slimani, Maamer, Karim Chamari, Driss Boudhiba, and Foued Che´our. 2016. “Mediator and Moderator Variables of Imagery Use-Motor Learning and Sport Performance Relationships: A Narrative Review.” Sports Science Health 12: 1-9. doi:1007/s11332-016-0265-1.
[13] Hidi, Suzanne, and K. Ann Renninger. 2006. “The Four-Phase Model of Interest Development.” Educational Psychologist 41(2): 111-127. doi: 10.1207/
s15326985ep4102_4.
[14] Kitsantas, Anastasia, and Nada Dabbagh. 2010. Learning to Learn with Integrative Learning Technologies. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
[15] Labuhn, Andju Sara, Barry J. Zimmerman, and Marcus Haselhorn. 2010. “Enhancing Students’ Self-regulation and Mathematics Performance: The Influence of Feedback and Self-Evaluative Standards.” Metacognition Learning 5: 173-194. doi: 10.1007/s11409-010-9056-2.
[16] deBruin, Anique B. H., and Tamara van Gog. 2012. “Improving
Self-Monitoring and Self-Regulation: from Cognitive Psychology
to the Classroom.” Learning Instruction 22(4):245-252. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.
2012.01.003.
[17] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1999. “Acquiring Writing Revision Skill. Shifting from Process to Outcome Self-Regulatory Skills.” Journal of Educational Psychology 91(2): 241-250. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.91.2.241.
[18] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1997. “Developmental Phases in Self-regulation: Shifting from Process to Outcome Goals.” Journal of Educational Psychology 89(1): 29–36. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.89.1.29.
[19] Schraw, Gregory, and Antonio P. Guttierrez. 2015. “Metacognitive Strategy Instruction that Highlights the Role of Monitoring and Control Processes.” In Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends, edited by Alejandro Peña-Ayala, 3-38. Cham: Springer.
[20] Veenman, Marcel V.J. 2011. “Learning to Self-monitor and Self-regulate.” In Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction: Educationanl Psychology Handbook Series, edited by Richard E, Mayer and Patricia A. Alexander, 197-218. New York: Routledge.
[21] Duckworth, Angela L., Rachel E. White, Alyssa J. Matteucci, Annie Shearer, and James J. Gross. 2016. “A Stitch in Time: Strategic Self-Control in High School and College Students.” Journal of Educational Psychology 108(3): 329-341. doi: 10.1037/edu0000062.
[22] Tang, Kai-Yu, Chia-Yu Wang, Hsin-Yi Chang, Sufen Chen, Hao-Chang Lo, and Chin-Chung Tsai. 2016. “The Intellectual Structure of Metacognitive Scaffolding in Science Education: A Co-citation Network Analysis.” International Journal of Science Education 14: 249-262. doi: 10.1007/s10763-015-9696-4.
[23] Hogan, Michael J., Christopher P. Dwyer, Owen M. Harney, Chris Noone, and Ronan J. Conway. 2015. “Metacognitive Skill Development and Applied Science Systems: A Framework of Metacognitive Skills, Self-Regulatory Functions and Real-World Applications.” In Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends, edited by Alejandro Peña-Ayala, 75-106. Cham: Springer.
[24] Tuysuzoglu, Binbasaran B., and Jeffrey A. Greene. 2015.“An Investigation of the Role of Contingent Metacognitive Behavior in Self-Regulated Learning.” Metacognition Learning 10: 77-98. doi: 10.1007/s11409-014-9126-y.
[25] Winne, Philip H., and Allyson F. Hadwin. 2008. “The Weave of Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning.” In Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory, Research, and Applications, edited by Dale H. Schunk and Barry J. Zimmerman, 297-314. Mahwah: Erlbaum.
[26] Vygotsky, Lev S. 1976. Mind in Society, 56-57. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
[27] Gredler, Margaret E. 2001. “Hiding in Plain Sight: The Stages of Mastery/Self-Regulation in Vygotsky’s Cultural-Historical Theory.” Educational Psychologist 44(1): 1-19. doi: 10.1080/ 00461520802616259.
[28] McCaslin, Mary, and Daniel T. Hickey. 2001. “Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: A Vygotskian View.” In Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk. New York: Routledge.
[29] Wigfield, Allen, Laurel W. Hoa, and Susan L. Klauda. 2009. “The Role of Achievement Values in the Regulation of Achievement Behaviors. InMotivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory, Research, and Applications, edited by Dale H. Schunk and Barry J. Zimmerman, 169-195. Mahwah: Erlbaum.
[30] Lederman, Norman G. 2007. “Nature of Science: Past, Present, and Future.” In Handbook of Research on Science Education, edited by Sandra K. Abell, and Norman G. Lederman, 831-879. London: Erlbaurm Associates.
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[32] Kitsantas, Anastasia, Robert A. Reiser, and Jessica Doster. 2004. “Developing Self-Regulated Learners: Goal Setting, Self-Evaluation, Organization Signals During Acquisition of Procedural Knowledge.” Journal of Experiential Education 72(40): 269-287. doi: 10.3200/jexe.72.4.269-287.
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Chapter 4:
[1] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2000. “Attaining Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective.” Handbook of Self-regulation, edited by Monique Boekaerts, Monique, Paul R. Pintrich, and Moshe Zeidner, 13-39. New York: Academic Press.
[2] Kitsantas, Anastasia, and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2006. “Enhancing Self-Regulation of Practice: The Influence of Graphing and Self-Evaluative Standards.” Metacognition Learning 1: 201-212. doi: 10.1007/s11409-006-9000-7.
[3] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1999. “Acquiring Writing Revision Skill. Shifting from Process to Outcome Self-Regulatory Skills.” Journal of Educational Psychology 91(2): 241-250. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.91.2.241.
[4] DiBenedetto, Maria K., and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2013. “Construct and Predictive Validity of Microanalytic Measures of Students' Self-regulation of Science Learning.” Learning and Individual Differences 26: 30–41. doi: 10.1016/j.
lindif.2013.04.004.
[5] Cleary, Timothy J., and Andju Sara Labuhn. 2013. “Application of Cyclical Self-Regulation Interventions in Science-based Contexts.” In Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman, edited by Héfer Bembenutty, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 89-124. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
[6] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2013. “From Cognitive Modeling to Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Career Path.” Educational Psychology 48(3): 135-147. doi: 10.1080/
00461520.2013.794676.
[7] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning.” Journal of Educational Psychology 81(3): 329-339. doi: 10.1037/0022—0663.81.3.329.
[8] Schunk, Dale H., and Frank Pajares. 2005. “Competence Perceptions and Academic Functioning.” In Handbook of Competence and Motivation, edited by Andrew J. Elliott, and Carol S. Dweck, 85-104. New York: The Guilford Press.
[9] Cleary, Timothy J., Peter Platten, and Amy Nelson. 2008. “Effectiveness of the Self-Regulation Empowerment Program with Urban High School Students.” Journal of Advanced Academics 20(1): 70-107. doi: 10.1002/pits.10177.
[10] Labuhn, Andju Sara, Barry J. Zimmerman, and Marcus Haselhorn. 2010. “Enhancing Students’ Self-regulation and Mathematics Performance: The Influence of Feedback and Self-Evaluative Standards.” Metacognition Learning 5: 173-194. doi: 10.1007/s11409-010-9056-2.
[11] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2009. “Goal Setting: A Key Proactive Source of Academic Self-regulation. In Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory Research and Applications, edited by Dale H. Schunk and Barry J. Zimmerman, 267-295. New York: Routledge.
[12] Swinton, Akilah D., Beth Kurtz-Costes, Stephanie J. Rowley, and Ndidi Okeke-Adeyanju. 2011. A Longitudinal Examination of African American Adolescents’ Attributions about Achievement Outcomes.” Child Development 82(5): 1486-1500. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01623.x.
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[14] Bol, Linda, Douglas J. Hacker, Camilla C. Walck, and John A. Nunnery. 2012. “The Effects of Individual or Group Guidelines on the Calibration Accuracy and Achievement of High School Biology Students.” Contemporary Educational Psychology 37: 280-287. doi: /10.1016/j.cedpsych.2012.02.004.
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[18] Bandura, Albert 2005. “Adolescent development from an agent perspective.” Self-efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents, edited by Frank Pajares and Tim Urdan, 2-43. Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.
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Chapter 5:
[1] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “Models of Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement.” In Self-Regulation: Theory, Research, and Applications, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 13-39: Orlando: Academic Press.
[2] Lee, Cristina S., Kathryn N. Hayes, Jeffery Seitz, Rachel DiStefano, and Dawn O’Connor. 2016. “Understanding Motivational Structures that Differentially Predict Engagement and Achievement in Middle School Science. International Journal of Science Education 38(2): 192-215. doi: 10.1080/09500693.2015.
1136452.
[3] Kitsantas, Anastasia, Amy L. Baylor, and Haihong Hu. 2001. “The Constructivist Planning Self-Reflective Tool: Facilitating a Constructivist Instructional Planning Approach.” Educational Technology41(6): 39-43.
[4] Brainerd, C. J. 2003. “Jean Piaget, Learning, Research, and American Education.” In Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman, and Dale H. Schunk, 251-287. New York: Routledge.
[5] Snowman, Jack, and Rick McCown. 2013. Ed Psych. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
[6] Powell, Katherine C., and Cody J. Kalina. 2009. “Cognitive and Social Constructivism: Developing Tools for an Effective Classroom.” Education 130(2): 241-250.
[7] Loyens, Sofie M. M., Remy M. Rikers, and Henk G. Schmidt. 2008. “Relationship between Students’ Conceptions of Constructivist Learning and Their Regulation and Processing Strategies.” Instructional Science 36: 445-462. doi: 10.1007/
s11251-008-9065-6.
[8] Paris, Scott G., and Julianne C. Turner. 1994. “Situated Motivation.” In Student Motivation, Cognition, and Learning: Essays in Honor of Wilbert J. McKeachie, edited by Paul R. Pintrich, Donald R. Brown, and Claire Ellen Weinstein, 213-237. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[9] Bybee, Rodger W., Nancy M. Landes, Judith Opert Sandler, Karen Worth, Carolee Matsumoto, June Foster, Candace L. Julyan, Janice Mokros, William C. Kyle, Jr. and Michael Kane. 1988 “The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS).” Science and Children 25(8): 35-39.
[10] Baviskar, Sandhya N., Todd R. Hartle, and Tiffany Whitney. 2009. “Essentail Criteria to Characterize Constructivist Teaching: Derived from a Review of the Literature and Applied to Five Constructivist Teaching Method Articles. International Journal of Science Education, 31(4): 541-550.doi: 10.1080/
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[14] Kingir, Sevgi, Yasemin Tas, Gulsum Gok, and Semra Sungur Vural. 2013. “Relationships Among Constructivist Learning, Environment Perceptions, Motivational Beliefs, Self-regulation, and Science Achievement.” Research in Science and Technological Education 31(3): 205-226. doi: 10.1080/02635143.
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[15] Gredler, Margaret E. 2009. “Hiding in Plain Sight: The Stages of Mastery/
Self-Regulation in Vygotsky’s Cultural-Historical Theory.” Educational Psychologist 44(1): 1-19. doi: 10.1080/ 00461520802616259.
[16] McCaslin, Mary, and David T. Hickey, D. T. 2001. “Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: A Vygotskian View.” In Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theoretical Perspectives, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale J. Schunk, 227-252. New York: Routledge.
[17] Fox, Emily, and Michelle Riconscente. 2008. “Metacognition and Self-Regulation in James, Piaget, and Vygotsky.” Educational Psychology Review 20: 373-389. doi: 10.1007/s10648-008-9079-2.
[18] Vygotsky, Lev S. 1978. Mind in Society, edited by Michael Cole, Vera
John-Steiner, Sylvia Scribneer, and Ellen Souberman. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[19] Schraw, Gregory, and Antonio P. Guttierrez. 2015.“Metacognitive Strategy Instruction that Highlights the Role of Monitoring and Control Processes.” In Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends, edited by Alejandro Peña-Ayala, 3-38. Cham: Springer.
[20] Hidi, Suzanne, &K. Ann Renninger. 2006. “The Four-Phase Model of
Interest Development.” Educational Psychologist 41(2):111-127. doi: 10.1207/
s15326985ep4102_4.
[21] Tudge, Jonathan, and Scrimsher, Sheryl. 2003. “Lev S. Vygotsky on Education: A Cultural-Historical, Interpersonal, and Individual Approach to Development.” In Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 207-228. New York: Routledge.
[22] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1997. “Developmental Phases in Self-regulation: Shifting from Process to Outcome Goals.” Journal of Educational Psychology 89(1): 29–36. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.89.1.29.
[23] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1999. “Acquiring Writing Revision Skill. Shifting from Process to Outcome Self-Regulatory Skills.” Journal of Educational Psychology 91(2): 241-250.doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.91.2.241.
[24] van Geert, Paul. 2000. “The Dynamics of General Developmental Mechanisms: From Piaget and Vygotsky to Dynamic Systems Models.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 9(2): 64-68. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00062.
[25] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2013. “From Cognitive Modeling to Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Career Path.” Educational Psychology 48(3): 135-147. doi: 10.
1080/00461520.2013.794676.
[26] McLeod, Saul (2009). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Modified 2015. Accessed December 10, 2016. http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html.
[27] Harris, Karen R. 1990. “Developing Self-Regulated learners: The Role of Private Speech and Self-Instruction.” Educational Psychologist 25(1): 35-49. doi:10.1207/
s15326985ep2501_4.
[28] Piaget, Jean, and Bärel Inhelder. 2000. The Psychology of the Child. New York: Basic Books.
[29] Bybee, Rodger W. 2014. “The BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Personal Reflections and Contemporary Implications.” Science and Children, 51(8): 10-13. doi: 10.2505/4/sc14_051_08_10.
[30] Bybee, Rodger W., and Robert B. Sund. 1990. Piaget for Educators. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.
[31] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Dale H. Schunk. 2003. “Albert Bandura: The Scholar and His Contributions to Educational Psychology.”In Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 431-457. New York: Routledge.
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[34] Bandura, Albert. 1997.The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman and Company.
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[36] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2013. “From Cognitive Modeling to Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Career Path.” Educational Psychology 48(3): 135-147. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2013.794676.
[37] Kitsantas, Anastasia, and Bary J. Zimmerman. 2006. “Enhancing Self-Regulation of Practice: The Influence of Graphing and Self-Evaluative Standards.” Metacognition Learning 1: 201-212. doi: 10.1007/s11409-006-9000-7.
[38] Baylor, Amy L., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2005. “A Comparative Analysis and Validation of Instructivist and Constructivist Self-Reflective Tools (IPSRT and CPSRT) for Novice Instructional Planners.” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education 13(3): 433-457.
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Bybee, Rodger W, and Pamela Van Scotter. 2007. “Reinventing the Science Curriculum.” Educational Leadership 64(4): 43-47.
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Chapter 6:
[1] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning.” Journal of Educational Psychology 81(3): 329-339. doi: 10.1037/0022—0663.81.3.329.
[2] McKee, M. Todd, and Paul Caldarella. 2016. “Middle School Predictors of High School Performance: A Case Study of Dropout Risk Indicators.” Education136(4): 515-529.
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[73] Karahan, Engin, Sedef Canbazoglu Bilici, and Aycin Unal. 2015. “Integration of Media Design Processes in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education.” Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 60: 221-240. doi: 10.14689/ejer.2015.60.15.
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Chapter 8:
[1] Shapiro, Jordan. 2016. “How to Train 68.8 Million Teachers. Because That’s How Many the World Needs.” Forbes. Accessed December 11. http://www.
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[2] Yu, Angela Yan, Stella Wen Tian, Douglas Vogel, and Ron Chi-Wai Kwok.
2010. “Can Learning be Virtually Boosted? An Investigation of Online Social Networking Impacts.” Computers and Education 55: 1494-1503. doi: 10.1016/j.
compedu.2010.06.015.
[3] Becker, Ryan, and Penny Bishop. 2016. “Think Bigger About Science: Using Twitter for Learning in the Middle Grades.” Middle School Journal 47(3): 4-16. doi: 10.1080/00940771.2016.1135097.
[4] Cho, Kwangsu, and Moon-Heum Cho. 2013. “Training of Self-Regulated Learning Skills on a Social Network System.” Social Psychological Education 16: 617-634. doi:10.1007/s11218-013-9229-3.
[5] Kitsantas, Anastasia, and Nada Dabbagh. 2010. Learning to Learn with Integrative Learning Technologies. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
[6] Zooinverse. 2017. Accessed February 2. https://www.zooniverse.org/projects?
status=live.
[7] Dawson, Gowan, Chris Lintott, and Sally Shuttleworth. 2015. “Constructing Scientific Communities: Citizen Science in the Nineteenth and Twenty-
First Centuries.” Journal of Victorian Culture 20(2): 246-254. doi: 10.1080/
13555502.2015.1022053.
[8] Bybee, Rodger W. 2014. “The BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Personal Reflections and Contemporary Implications.” Science and Children, 51(8): 10-13. doi: 10.2505/4/sc14_051_08_10.
[9] Campbell, Todd, Stephen B. Witzig, David J. Welty, and Margaret M. French. 2014. “STEM Education in the Science Classroom: A Critical Examination of Mathematics Manifest in Science Teaching and Learning.” In Exemplary STEM Programs: Designs for Success, edited by Robert E. Yager and Herbert Brunkhorst, 233-249. Arlington: National Science Teachers Association Press.
[10] Bleicher, Robert E. 2006. “Nurturing Confidence in Preservice Elementary Science Teachers.” Journal of Science Teacher Education 17: 165–187. doi: 10.1007/
s10972-006-9016-5.
[11] Ladson-Billings, Gloria. 2016. “And Then There is This Thing Called the Curriculum: Organization, Imagination, and Mind.” Educational Researcher, 45(2): 100-104. doi: 10.3102/0013189X16639042.
[12] Shanahan, Marie-Claire, Lydia E. Carol-Ann Burke, and Krista Francis. 2016. “Using a Boundary Object Perspective to Reconsider the Meaning of STEM in a Canadian Context.” Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education 16(2): 129-139. doi: 10.1080/14926156.2016.1166296.

"This is a must read book for any teacher interested in fostering student self-regulation in science education classrooms. Grounded in empirical research, the author provides guidance for teachers on how to create learning environments that support and promote student self-regulatory functioning. Practical step-by-step lesson plans and related instructional artifacts are thoroughly described and ready for use by novices and veteran teachers alike. An amazing book that will both guide and transform teaching in science education contexts. " - Anastasia Kitsantas, Ph. D., Professor of Educational Psychology in the College of Education and Human Development, USA

This book would be relevant to college instructors who teach undergraduate and graduate level educational psychology courses as well as instructors working with science preservice teachers. In addition, this work would assist researchers interested in the interaction of metacognition, self-regulation, and science achievement.
Within formal and informal learning contexts, stakeholders interested in advancing the science potential of students such as educators, administrators, and parents would find this work applicable. Overall, individuals who would be interested in this work would be focused on improved adolescent science achievement by connecting theory with authentic applications, particularly in terms of developing metacognitive skills within a self-regulatory cyclical feedback loop model.
As a practical tool, this work is useful for classroom practitioners, administrators, and parents as there are explicit instructional artifacts and lesson design descriptions on how to infuse metacognitive and self-regulatory features. For university instructors, this work may serve as a course text used for discussion.

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