Mastering Science with Metacognitive and Self-Regulatory Strategies: A Teacher-Researcher Dialogue of Practical Applications for Adolescent Students

$161.00$275.00

Suzanne E. Hiller, Ph.D.
George Mason University, VA, USA

Series: Education in a Competitive and Globalizing World
BISAC: EDU029030

In pedagogical fields, there has been increased attention in helping students flourish in science-related occupations. This book centers on metacognitive and self-regulatory practices as predictors of academic achievement. The purpose of Mastering Science with Metacognitive and Self-Regulatory Strategies: A Teacher-Researcher Dialogue of Practical Applications for Adolescents is to provide information on both theoretical and practical understandings of the connection between metacognition, self-regulation, and academic performance.

Self-regulation centers on an individual’s behavior to accomplish a specific task through planning, monitoring, and self-reflecting in academic tasks. Based on social cognitive theory, there are three main aspects of self-regulation: a) the triadic social cognitive model, b) the multilevel training model, and c) the cyclical self-regulatory feedback loop model. In addition, metacognitive awareness is essential in these processes with the end goal of heightening academic performance.

This book outlines how to integrate metacognitive and self-regulatory strategies within a scientific context. In particular, the work emphasizes transitioning students from novice skill levels to more advanced cognitive development through metacognitive and self-regulatory practices. In addition, relevant context specific strategies and examples are described to promote high levels of science performance in both formal and informal learning contexts, including citizen science activities. Practical examples appear throughout the work in conjunction with theoretical explanations including guidelines related to lesson plan designs, scaffolding, and math integration. Furthermore, these strategies are extended in discussions of advancing at-risk students and promoting STEM career motivation.

The overarching aim of Mastering Science with Metacognitive and Self-Regulatory Strategies: A Teacher-Researcher Dialogue of Practical Applications for Adolescents is to highlight the interdependence between motivation, self-regulation, and achievement within a scientific context from a teacher-researcher perspective. This work may be of interest to researchers and college students interested in metacognitive and self-regulatory functions, as well as administrators, practitioners, and parents focused on encouraging student science achievement, and ultimately, STEM career motivation.

Clear

Details

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction to Self-Regulation, Metacognition and Science Achievement

Chapter 2. Preparing for Success: The Forethought Phase

Chapter 3. Metacognitive Monitoring and the Performance Phase

Chapter 4. Self-Reflection and the Autonomous Learner

Chapter 5. Lesson Design: A Constructivist Approach

Chapter 6. Metacognitive and Self-Regulatory Strategies for At-Risk Students

Chapter 7. STEM Career Motivation

Chapter 8. Guideposts in Adolescent Science Achievement

Index


References

Chapter 1: [1] Occupational Outlook Handbook: Bureau of Labor and Statistics. 2015. Accessed March 30. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/home.htm.  [2] Shavelson, Richard J. Robert L. Linn, Eva L. Baker, Helen F. Ladd, Linda Darling-Hammond, Lorrie A. Shepard, Paul E. Barton, Edward Haertel, Diane Ravitch, and Richard Rothstein 2010. “Problems with the Use of Student Test Scores to Evaluate Teachers.” Economic Policy Institute (Briefing Paper #278). Washington, D. C. http://www.epi.org/publication/bp278/  [3] Bandura, Albert 2005. “Adolescent Development from an Agent Perspective.”  Self-efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents , edited by Frank Pajares and Tim Urdan, 2-43. Greenwich: Information Age Publishing. [4] Patrick, Lyn, Ester Care, and Mary Ainley. 2011. “The Relationship between Vocational Interests, Self-efficacy, and Achievement in the Prediction of Educational Pathways.”  Journal of Career Assessment 19(1): 61-74. doi: 10.1177/1069072710382615. [5] Rogers, Mary E., and Peter A. Creed. 2011. “A Longitudinal Examination of Adolescent Career Planning and Exploration Using a Social Cognitive Career Theory Framework.” Journal of Adolescence  34: 163-172. doi: 10.1016/ j.adolescence.2009.12.010. [6] Science and Engineering Indicators. National Science Board (Report No. 2016-1). 2016. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. [7] Pisa 2012 results: Organisation for Economic Cooperation. 2016. Accessed January 28. www.oecd.org/pisa/findings/pisa-2012-results.htm.<br>[8] Peña-Calvo, José-Vicente, Mercedes Inda-Caro, Carmen Rodríguez-Menéndez, and Carmen-María Fernández-García. 2016. “Perceived Supports and Barriers for Career Development for Second-Year STEM Students.”  Journal of Engineering Education  105(2): 341-365. doi: 10.1002/jee.20115.<br>[9] National Science Teachers Association. 2016. “International Science Education  and the National Science Teachers Association.” Accessed October 1. http://www. nsta.org/about/positions/international.aspx [10] Britner, Shari, L., and Frank Pajares. 2006. “Sources of Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Middle School Students  Journal of Research in Science Teaching  43(5): 485-499. doi: 10.1002/tea.20131.<br>[11] Hiller, Suzanne, E., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2014. “The Effect of a Horseshoe Crab Citizen Science Program on Student Science Performance and STEM Career Motivation.”  School Science and Mathematics Journal  114(6): 302-311. doi: 10.<br>1111/ssm.12081. [12] Tang, Kai-Yu, Chia-Yu Wang, Hsin-Yi Chang, Sufen Chen, Hao-Chang Lo, and Chin-Chung Tsai. 2016. “The Intellectual Structure of Metacognitive Scaffolding in Science Education: A Co-citation Network Analysis.”  International Journal of Science Education</i></b></u> 14: 249-262. doi: 10.1007/s10763-015-9696-4.<br>[13] Navarro, Rachel, L., Lisa Y. Flores, and Roger L. Worthington. 2007. “Mexican American Middle School Students’ Goal Intentions in Mathematics and Science: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 54(3): 320-335. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.54.3.320.<br>[14] Velayutham, Sunitadevi, and Jill M. Aldridge. 2013. “Influence of Psychosocial Classroom Environment on Students’ Motivation and Self-regulation in Science Learning: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.” Research in Science Education  43: 507-527. doi: 10.1007/s11165-011-9273-y. [15] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2001. “Theories of Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: An Overview and Analysis. In  Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theoretical Perspectives , edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 1-37. New York: Routledge. <br>[16] Labuhn, Andju Sara, Barry J. Zimmerman, and Marcus Haselhorn. 2010. “Enhancing Students’ Self-regulation and Mathematics Performance: The Influence of Feedback and Self-Evaluative Standards.” </i></b></u><i>Metacognition Learning</i></b></u> 5: 173-194. doi: 10.1007/ s11409-010-9056-2.<br>[17] Quinn, Frances, and Terry Lyons. 2011. “High School Students’ Perceptions of School Science and Science Careers: A Critical Look at a Critical Issue.” </i></b></u><i>Science Education International</i></b></u> 22(4): 225-238.<br></i></b></u><u>[18] Sperling, Rayne A., Aaron S. Richmond, Crystal M. Ramsay, and Michael Klapp. 2012. “The Measurement and Predictive Ability of Metacognition in Middle School Learners.” </i></b></u><i>The Journal of Educational Research</i></b></u> 105: 1–7. doi: 10.1080/ 00220671.2010.514690.<br>[19] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2000. “Attaining Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective.” Handbook of Self-regulation, edited by </i></b></u><i>Monique Boekaerts, Monique, Paul R. Pintrich, and Moshe Zeidner, 13-39. </i></b></u>New York: Academic Press.<br>[20] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2013. “From Cognitive Modeling to Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Career Path.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 48(3): 135-147. doi: 10.1080/<br>00461520.2013.794676.<br>[21] Zepeda, Cristina, D., J. Elizabeth Richey, Paul Ronevich, and Timothy J. Nokes-Malach. 2015. “Direct Instruction of Metacognition Benefits Adolescent Science Learning, Transfer, and Motivation: An In Vivo Study.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology 107</i></b></u>(4): 954-970. doi: 10.1037/edu0000022.<br>[22] Veenman, Marcel J. 2013. “Training Metacognitive Skills in Students with Availability and Production Deficiencies.” In </i></b></u><i>Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman</i></b></u>, edited by Héfer Bembenutty, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 299-317. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.<br>[23] Steinberg, Laurence. 2015. </i></b></u><i>Age of Opportunity: Lessons from the New Science of Adolescence</i></b></u>. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.<br>[24] Shim, Sungok S., and Holmes W. Finch. 2014. “Academic and Social Achievement Goals and Early Adolescents’ Adjustment: A Latent Class Approach.” </i></b></u><i>Learning and Individual Differences</i></b></u> 30: 98-105. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2013.10.015.<br>[25] Lofgran, Brandi B., Leigh K. Smith, and Erin F. Whiting. 2015. “Science Self-Efficacy and School Transitions: Elementary School to Middle School, Middle School to High School.” </i></b></u><i>The School Science and Mathematics</i></b></u> 115(7): 366-376. doi: 10.1111/ssm.12139.<br>[26] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 81(3): 329-339. doi: 10.1037/0022—0663.81.3.329.<br>[27] Schunk, Dale H. 2001. “Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Regulated Learning.” In </i></b></u><i>Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theoretical Perspectives</i></b></u>, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 129-151. New York: Routledge.<br>[28] Newman, Richard S. 2008. “Adaptive and Nonadaptive Help Seeking with Peer Harassment: An Integrative Perspective of Coping and Self-regulation.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychologist</i></b></u>: 1-5. doi: 10.1080/ 00461520701756206.<br>[29] Schunk, Dale H., and Frank Pajares. 2005. “Competence Perceptions and Academic Functioning.” In </i></b></u><i>Handbook of Competence and Motivation</i></b></u>, edited by Andrew J. Elliott and Carol S. Dweck, 85-104. New York: Guilford Press. <br>[30] Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne, and Kathryn L. Mills. 2014. “Is Adolescence a Sensitive Period for Sociocultural Processing?” </i></b></u><i>Annual Review of Psychology</i></b></u> 65: 187-207.doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115202.<br>[31] Bílek, Martin. 2016. “Question for Science Education: Virtual or Real?” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Baltic Science Education</i></b></u> 15(2): 136-139.<br>[32] Cleary, Timothy J., and Peggy P. Chen. 2009. “Self-Regulation, Motivation, and Math Achievement in Middle School: Variations Across Grade Level and Math Context.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of School Psycholo</i></b></u>gy 47: 291-314. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2009.<br>04.002.<br>[33] Gao, Zan, James C. Hannon, and Xiangren Yi. 2007. “Examining the Role of Self-efficacy and Three Types of Outcome Expectations in Weight Training.” </i></b></u><i>Perceptual and Motor Skills</i></b></u> 105: 707-713. doi: 10.2466/pms.105.7.707-713.<br>[34] Goudas, Marios, Athanasios Kolovelonis, and Irina Dermitzaki. 2013. “Implementation of Self-Regulation Interventions in Physical Education and Sports Contexts.” In</i></b></u><i> Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman</i></b></u>, edited by Héfer Bembenutty, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 383-415. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.<br>[35] Kitsantas, Anastasia, Barry J. Zimmerman, and Timothy J. Cleary. 2000. “The Role of Observation and Emulation in the Development of Athletic Self-regulation.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology </i></b></u>92(4): 811-817. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.<br>92.4.811.<br>[36] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2005. “The Hidden Dimension of Personal Competence: Self-Regulated Learning and Practice.” In Handbook of Competence and Motivation, edited by Andrew J. Elliott and Carol S. Dweck, 509-526. New York: The Guilford Press.<br>[37] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Ted L. Rosenthal. 1974. “Observational Learning of Rule Governed Behavior by Children.” </i></b></u><i>Psychological Bulletin</i></b></u> 81: 29-42. doi: 10.1037/<br>h0035553.<br>[38] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1999. “Acquiring Writing Revision Skill. Shifting from Process to Outcome Self-Regulatory Skills.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 91(2): 241-250. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.91.2.241.<br>[39] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1997. “Developmental Phases in Self-regulation: Shifting from Process to Outcome Goals.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u>89(1): 29–36. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.89.1.29.<br>[40] DiBenedetto, Maria K., and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2013. “Construct and Predictive Validity of Microanalytic Measures of Students’ Self-Regulation of Science Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Learning and Individual Differences</i></b></u> 26: 30–41. doi: 10.1016/j.<br>lindif.2013.04.004.<br>[41] Veenman, Marcel V.J. 2011. “Learning to Self-Monitor and Self-Regulate.” In </i></b></u><i>Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction: Educationanl Psychology Handbook Series</i></b></u>, edited by Richard E, Mayer and Patricia A. Alexander, 197-218. New York: Routledge. <br>[42] Hiller, Suzanne E., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2015. “Fostering Student Metacognition and Motivation in STEM through Citizen Science Programs.” In </i></b></u><i>Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends</i></b></u>, edited by Alejandro Peña-Ayala, 193-221. Cham: Springer.<br>[43] Kitsantas, Anastasia, Sam Steen, and Faye Huie. 2009. “The Role of Self-Regulated Strategies and Goal Orientation in Predicting Achievement in Elementary School Children.” </i></b></u><i>International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education</i></b></u> 2(1): 65-81. <br>[44] Cleary, Timothy J., and Andju Sara Labuhn. 2013. “Application of Cyclical Self-Regulation Interventions in Science-Based Contexts.” In</i></b></u><i> Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman</i></b></u>, edited by Héfer Bembenutty, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 89-124. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.<br>[45] Cartwright, Nancy. 1989. </i></b></u><i>Nature’s Capacities and Their Measurements</i></b></u>. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 12-38. <br>[46] Eberbach, Catherine, and Kevin Crowley. 2009. “From Everyday to Scientific Observation: How Children Learn to Observe the Biologist’s World.” </i></b></u><i>Review of Educational Research</i></b></u> 79(1): 39-68. doi: 10.3102/0034654308325899.<br>[47] Schraw, Gregory, and Antonio P. Guttierrez. 2015. “Metacognitive Strategy Instruction that Highlights the Role of Monitoring and Control Processes.” In </i></b></u><i>Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends</i></b></u>, edited by Alejandro Peña-Ayala, 3-38. Cham: Springer.<br>[48] Bandura, Albert. 1997. </i></b></u><i>The Exercise of Control</i></b></u>. New York: Freeman and Company.<br>[49] Flavell, John H. 1979. “Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A New Area of Cognitive-Development Inquiry.” </i></b></u><i>American Psychologist</i></b></u> 34(10): 906-911. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906.<br>[50] Cleary, Timothy J., and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2004. “Self-Regulation Empowerment Program: A School-Based Program to Enhance Self-regulated and Self-Motivated Cycles of Student Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Psychology in the Schools </i></b></u>41(5): 537-550. doi: 10.1002/pits.10177. <br>[51] Cleary, Timothy J., Peter Platten, and Amy Nelson. 2008. “Effectiveness of the Self-Regulation Empowerment Program with Urban High School Students.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Advanced Academics</i></b></u> 20(1): 70-107. doi: 10.1002/pits.10177.<br>[52] Kitsantas, Anastasia, and Nada Dabbagh. 2010. </i></b></u><i>Learning to Learn with Integrative Learning Technologies.</i></b></u> Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc., <br>[53] Corsi, Gianluca. 2012. “Effects of Labs on At-risk Students in a High School Environmental Science Program.” </i></b></u><i>The Texas Science Teacher</i></b></u> 41(1): 42-52. <br>[54] Chen, Sufen, Chih-Chi Huang, and Te-Lien Chou. 2016. “The Effect of Metacognitive Scaffolding on Low Achievers’ Laboratory Learning.” </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education</i></b></u> 14: 281-296. doi: 10.1007/s10763-015-9691-9.<br>[55] Tudge, Jonathan, and Sheryl Scrimsher. 2003. “Lev S. Vygotsky on Education: A Cultural-Historical, Interpersonal, and Individual Approach to Development.” In </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions</i></b></u>, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 207-228. New York: Routledge.<br>[56] Hidi, Suzanne, and K. Ann Renninger. 2006. “The Four-Phase Model of <br>Interest Development.”</i></b></u><i> Educational Psychologist</i></b></u> 41(2): 111-127. doi: 10.1207/<br>s15326985ep4102_4.<br>[57] Lee, Cristina S., Kathryn N. Hayes, Jeffery Seitz, Rachel DiStefano, and <br>Dawn O’ Connor. 2016. “Understanding Motivational Structures that <br>Differentially Predict Engagement and Achievement in Middle School Science</i></b></u><i>.</i></b></u>”</i></b></u><i> International</i></b></u> </i></b></u><i>Journal of Science Education</i></b></u> 38(2): 192-215. doi: 10.1080/<br>09500693.2015.1136452.<br>[58] Houseal, Ana K., Fouad Abd-El-Khalick, and Lizanne Destefano. 2014. “Impact of a Student–Teacher–Scientist Partnership on Students’ and Teachers’ Content Knowledge, Attitudes Toward Science, and Pedagogical Practices.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Research in Science Teaching</i></b></u> 51(1): 84-115. doi: 10.1002/tea.21126.<br>[59] Peters, Erin, and Anastasia Kitsantas, A. 2010. “The Effect of Nature of Science Metacognitive Prompts on Science Students’ Content and Nature of Science Knowledge, Metacognition, and Self-Regulatory Efficacy.” </i></b></u><i>School Science and Mathematics</i></b></u> 110(8): 382-396. doi: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.2010.00050.x.<br>[60] Dinsmore, Daniel L., Patricia A. Alexander, and Sandra M. Loughlin. 2008. “Focusing the Conceptual Lens on Metacognition, Self-regulation, and Self-regulated learning.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology Review</i></b></u> 20: 391-401. doi: 10.1007/s10648-008-9083-6.<br>[61] Bol, Linda, Douglas J. Hacker, Camilla C. Walck, and John A. Nunnery. 2012. “The Effects of Individual or Group Guidelines on the Calibration Accuracy and Achievement of High School Biology Students.” </i></b></u><i>Contemporary Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 37: 280-287. doi: /10.1016/j.cedpsych.2012.02.004.<br>[62] Haidar, Abdullateef H., and Ali K. Al Naqabi. 2008. “Emiratii High School Students’ Understandings of Stoichiometry and the Influence of Metacognition on Their Understanding.” </i></b></u><i>Research in Science and Technological Education </i></b></u>26(2): 215-237. doi: 10.1080/ 02635140802037393.<br>[63] Standards of Learning Documents for Science: Virginia Department of Education. 2017. Accessed March 10. http://doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/<br>science/index.shtmlVdoe.<br>[64] Snowman, Jack, and Rick McCown. 2013. </i></b></u><i>Ed Psych</i></b></u>. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.<br>[65] Armstrong, Patricia. 2017. </i></b></u><i>Bloom’s Taxonomy</i></b></u>. Center for Teaching, Vanderbilt University. Accessed January 28. https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/<br>blooms-taxonomy/.<br><br>Chapter 2:<br>[1] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2000. “Attaining Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective.” Handbook of Self-regulation, edited by </i></b></u><i>Monique Boekaerts, Monique, Paul R. Pintrich, and Moshe Zeidner, 13-39. </i></b></u>New York: Academic Press.<br>[2] Bandura, Albert 2005. “Adolescent Development from an Agent Perspective.” </i></b></u><i>Self-efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents</i></b></u>, edited by Frank Pajares and Tim Urdan, 2-43. Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.<br>[3] Kitsantas, Anastasia, Barry J. Zimmerman, and Timothy J. Cleary. 2000. “The Role of Observation and Emulation in the Development of Athletic Self-Regulation.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 92(4): 811-817. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.<br>92.4.811.<br>[4] Kitsantas, Anastasia, and Nada Dabbagh. 2010. </i></b></u><i>Learning to Learn with Integrative Learning Technologies.</i></b></u> Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc. <br>[5] Zepeda, Cristina, D., J. Elizabeth Richey, Paul Ronevich, and Timothy J. Nokes-Malach. 2015. “Direct Instruction of Metacognition Benefits Adolescent Science Learning, Transfer, and Motivation: An In Vivo Study.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology 107</i></b></u>(4): 954-970. doi: 10.1037/edu0000022.<br>[6] Britner, Shari, L., and Frank Pajares. 2006. “Sources of Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Middle School Students</i></b></u><i>.</i></b></u>”</i></b></u><i> Journal</i></b></u> of </i></b></u><i>Research in Science Teaching</i></b></u> 43(5): 485-499. doi: 10.1002/tea.20131.<br>[7] Hiller, Suzanne, E., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2014. “The Effect of a Horseshoe Crab Citizen Science Program on Student Science Performance and STEM Career Motivation.” </i></b></u><i>School Science and Mathematics Journal</i></b></u> 114(6): 302-311. doi: </i></b></u><u>10.1111/ssm.12081.<br>[8] Elliott, Andrew J. 2008. “Approach and Avoidance Motivation.” In </i></b></u><span style=”font-style:italic;text-decoration:underline ;” >Handbook of Approach and Avoidance Motivation</i></b></u><u>, edited by Andrew J. Elliott,</i></b></u> 3-16. New York: Psychology Press.<br>[9] Cleary, Timothy J., and Andju S. Labuhn. 2013. “Cyclical Self-Regulation Interventions in Science-Based Contexts.” In</i></b></u><i> Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman</i></b></u>, edited by Héfer Bembenutty, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 89-124. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.<br>[10] Paris, Scott, G., James P. Byrnes, and Alison Paris. 2001. “Constructing Theories, Identities, and Actions of Self-Regulated Learners.” </i></b></u><i>In Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theoretical Perspectives</i></b></u>, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 253-287. New York: Routledge.<br></i></b></u><u>[11] Kitsantas, Anastasia, Nada Dabbagh, Suzanne E. Hiller, and Brian Mandell. 2015. “Learning Technologies as Supportive Contexts for Promoting Student Self-Regulated Learning</i></b></u><span style=”font-style:italic;text-decoration:underline ;” >.</i></b></u>”</i></b></u><span style=”font-style:italic;text-decoration:underline ;” > In Self-Regulated Learning Interventions with At-risk youth: Enhancing Adaptability, Performance, and Well Being</i></b></u><u>, edited by Timothy J. Cleary, 277-290.Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.<br></i></b></u>[12] Zimmerman, Barry J. (2013). “From Cognitive Modeling to Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Career Path.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology </i></b></u>48(3): 135-147. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2013.794676.<br>[13] Schunk, Dale H., and Ellen L. Usher. 2013. “Barry J. Zimmerman’s Theory of Self-Regulated Learning.” In </i></b></u><i>Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman</i></b></u>, edited by Héfer Bembenutty, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 1-28. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.<br>[14] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1997. “Developmental Phases in Self-regulation: Shifting from Process to Outcome Goals.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u>89(1): 29–36. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.89.1.29.<br>[15] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1999. “Acquiring Writing Revision Skill. Shifting from Process to Outcome Self-Regulatory Skills.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 91(2): 241-250. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.91.2.241.<br>[16] Hiller, Suzanne E., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2015. “Fostering Student Metacognition and Motivation in STEM through Citizen Science Programs.” In </i></b></u><i>Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends</i></b></u>, edited by Alejandro Peña-Ayala, 193-221. Cham: Springer.<br>[17] Veenman, Marcel V.J. 2011. “Learning to Self-Monitor and Self-Regulate.” In </i></b></u><i>Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction: Educationanl Psychology Handbook Series</i></b></u>, edited by Richard E, Mayer and Patricia A. Alexander, 197-218. New York: Routledge. <br>[18] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 81(3): 329-339. doi: 10.1037/0022—0663.81.3.329.<br>[19] Bandura, Albert. 1997. </i></b></u><i>The Exercise of Control</i></b></u>. New York: Freeman and Company.<br>[20] Lee, Cristina S., Kathryn N. Hayes, Jeffery Seitz, Rachel DiStefano, and Dawn O’Connor. 2016. “Understanding Motivational Structures that Differentially Predict Engagement and </i></b></u><i>Achievement in Middle School Science.</i></b></u>”</i></b></u><i> International</i></b></u> Journal of Science Education 38(2): 192-215. doi: 10.1080/09500693.2015.1136452.<br>[21] Bol, Linda, Douglas J. Hacker, Camilla C. Walck, and John A. Nunnery. 2012. “The Effects of Individual or Group Guidelines on the Calibration Accuracy and Achievement of High School Biology Students.” </i></b></u><i>Contemporary Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 37: 280-287. doi: /10.1016/j.cedpsych.2012.02.004.<br>[22] Lofgran, Brandi B., Leigh K. Smith, and Erin F. Whiting. 2015. “Science Self-Efficacy and School Transitions: Elementary School to 7Middle School, Middle School to High School.” </i></b></u><i>The School Science and Mathematics</i></b></u> 115(7): 366-376. doi: 10.1111/ssm.12139.<br>[23] DiBenedetto, Maria K., and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2013. “Construct and Predictive Validity of Microanalytic Measures of Students’ Self-regulation of Science Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Learning and Individual Differences</i></b></u> 26: 30–41. doi: 10.1016/<br>j.lindif.2013.04.004.<br>[24] Rice, Lindsay, Joan M. Barth, Rosanna E. Guadagno, Gabrielle P. A. Smith, and Debra M. McCallum. 2013. “The Role of Social Support in Students’ Perceived Abilities and Attitudes Toward Math and Science.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Youth Adolescence</i></b></u> 42:1028–1040. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9801-8.<br>[25] Peña-Calvo, José-Vicente, Mercedes </i></b></u><p><b>Inda-Caro</i></b></u>, Carmen Rodríguez-Menéndez, and Carmen-María Fernández-García. 2016. “Perceived Supports and Barriers for Career Development for Second-Year STEM Students.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Engineering Education </i></b></u>105(2): 341-365. doi: 10.1002/jee.20115.<br>[26] Navarro, Rachel, L., Lisa Y. Flores, and Roger L. Worthington. 2007. “Mexican American Middle School Students’ Goal Intentions in Mathematics and Science: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Counseling Psychology</i></b></u> 54(3): 320-335. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.54.3.320.<br>[27] Ainley, Mary, and John Ainley. 2006. “Student Engagement with Science in Early Adolescence: The Contribution of Enjoyment to Students’ Continuing Interest in Learning About Science.” </i></b></u><i>Contemporary Educational Psycholog</i></b></u>y 36: 4-12. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.08.001.<br></i></b></u><u>[28] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2009. “Goal Setting: A Key Proactive Source of Academic Self-regulation.” In </i></b></u><span style=”font-style:italic;text-decoration:underline ;” >Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory Research and Applications</i></b></u><u>, edited by Dale H. Schunk and Barry J. Zimmerman, 267-295. New York: Routledge.<br>[29] H</i></b></u>idi, Suzanne, and Mary Ainley. 2009. “Interest and Self-regulation: Relationships Between Two Variables That Influence Learning.” In </i></b></u><i>Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning</i></b></u>, edited by Dale H. Schunk and Barry J. Zimmerman, 77-109. New York: Routledge. <br>[30] Ericsson, K. Anders, and Paul Ward. 2007. “Capturing the Naturally Occurring Superior Performance of Experts in the Laboratory: Toward a Science of Expert and Exceptional Performance.” </i></b></u><i>Current Directions in Psychological Science </i></b></u>16(6), 346-350 (2007), doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00533.x.<br>[31] Hidi, Suzanne, and K. Ann Renninger. 2006. “The Four-Phase Model of <br>Interest Development.”</i></b></u><i> Educational Psychologist</i></b></u> 41(2): 111-127. doi: 10.1207/<br>s15326985ep4102_4.<br>[32] K</i></b></u><u>ingir, Sevgi, Yasemin Tas, Gulsum Gok, and Semra Sungur Vural. 2013. “Relationships Among Constructivist Learning, Environment Perceptions, Motivational Beliefs, Self-regulation, and Science Achievement.” </i></b></u><span style=”font-style:italic;text-decoration:underline ;” >Research in Science and Technological Education</i></b></u><u> 31(3): 205-226. doi: 10.1080/02635143.<br>2013.825594.<br></i></b></u>[33] Zimmerman, Barry J., Albert Bandura, and Manuel Martinez-Pons. 1992. “Self-motivation for Academic Attainment: The Role of Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Personal Goal Setting.” </i></b></u><i>American Educational Research Journal</i></b></u> 29(3): 663-676. doi: 10.2307/1163261.<br>[34] Nauta, Margaret M., Jeffrey H. Kahn, James W. Angell, and Ericka A. Cantarelli. 2002. “Identifying the Antecedent in the Relation between Career Interests and Self-efficacy: Is it One, the Other, or Both?” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Counseling Psychology</i></b></u> 49(3): 290-301. doi: 10.1037//0022-1067.49.3.290.<br>[35] Sutton, Stephanie. 2009. “Increasing Science Literacy among English Language Learners through Plant Phenological Monitoring: A Citizen Science Program at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.” MA diss., Prescott College. ProQuest. (UMI Number 1473523).<br>[36] Schunk, Dale H., and Frank Pajares. 2005. “Competence Perceptions and Academic Functioning.” In </i></b></u><i>Handbook of Competence and Motivation</i></b></u>, edited by Andrew J. Elliott and Carol S. Dweck, 85-104: New York: Guilford Press. <br>[37] Byars-Winston, Angela, Yannine Estrada, Christina Howard, Dalelia Davis, and Juan Zalapa. 2010. “Influence of Social Cognitive and Ethnic Variables on Academic Goals of Underrepresented Students in Science and Engineering: A Multiple-Group Analysis.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Counseling Psychology</i></b></u> 57(2): 205-218. doi: 10.1037/a0018608.<br>[38] Lent, Robert W., Antonio M. Lopez Jr., Frederick G. Lopez, and Hung-Bin Sheu. 2008. “Social Cognitive Career Theory and the Prediction of Interests and Choice Goals in the Computing Disciplines.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Vocational Behavior</i></b></u> 73: 52-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2008.01.002.<br>[39] Sheu, Hung-Bin, Robert W. Lent, Steven D. Brown, Matthew J. Miller, Kelly D. Hennessy, and Ryan D. Duffy. 2010. “Testing the Choice Model of Social Cognitive Career Theory Across Holland Themes: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Vocational Behavi</i></b></u>or 76: 252-264. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2009.10.015. <br>[40] Fouad, Nadya A., Philip L. Smith, and Kathryn E. Zao. 2002. “Across Academic Domains: Extensions of the Social-Cognitive Career Model.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Counseling Psychology</i></b></u> 2: 164-171. doi: 10.1037//0022-0167.49.2.164. <br>[41] Sperling, Rayne A., Bruce C. Howard, Richard Staley, and Nelson DuBois. 2004. “Metacognition and Self-Regulation Constructs.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Research and Evaluation </i></b></u>10(2): 117-139. doi: 10.1076/edre.10.2.117.27905.<br>[42] Bybee, Rodger W. 2014. “The BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Personal Reflections and Contemporary Implications.” </i></b></u><i>Science and Children</i></b></u> 51(8): 10-13. doi: 10.2505/<br>4/sc14_051_08_10.<br>[43] Flores, Alfinio. 1995. “Connections in Proportional Reasoning: Levers, Arithmetic Means, Mixtures, Batting Averages.” </i></b></u><i>School Science and Mathematics, </i></b></u>95(8): 423-430. doi: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.1995.tb10196.x.<br><br>Chapter 3:<br>[1] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2005. “The Hidden Dimension of Personal Competence: Self-Regulated Learning and Practice.” In Handbook of Competence and Motivation, edited by Andrew J. Elliott and Carol S. Dweck, 509-526. New York: The Guilford Press.<br>[2] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2000. “Attaining Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective.” Handbook of Self-regulation, edited by </i></b></u><i>Monique Boekaerts, Monique, Paul R. Pintrich, and Moshe Zeidner, 13-39. </i></b></u>New York: Academic Press.<br>[3] Veenman, Marcel V. J. 2013. “Training Metacognitive Skills in Students with Availability and Production Deficiencies.” In </i></b></u><i>Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman</i></b></u>, edited by </i></b></u><u>Héfer Bembenutty</i></b></u>, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 299-317. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.<br>[4] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2013. “From Cognitive Modeling to Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Career Path.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 48(3): 135-147. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2013.794676.<br></i></b></u><u>[5] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2009. “Goal Setting: A Key Proactive Source of Academic Self-regulation. In </i></b></u><span style=”font-style:italic;text-decoration:underline ;” >Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory Research and Applications</i></b></u><u>, edited by Dale H. Schunk and Barry J. Zimmerman, 267-295. New York: Routledge.<br></i></b></u>[6] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 81(3): 329-339. doi: 10.1037/<br>0022—0663.81.3.329.<br>[7] DiBenedetto, Maria K., and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2013. “Construct and Predictive Validity of Microanalytic Measures of Students’ Self-regulation of Science Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Learning and Individual Differences</i></b></u> 26: 30–41. doi: 10.1016/<br>j.lindif.2013.04.004.<br>[8] Bol, Linda, Douglas J. Hacker, Camilla C. Walck, and John A. Nunnery. 2012. “The Effects of Individual or Group Guidelines on the Calibration Accuracy and Achievement of High School Biology Students.” </i></b></u><i>Contemporary Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 37: 280-287. doi: /10.1016/j.cedpsych.2012.02.004.<br>[9] Bandura, Albert. 1997. </i></b></u><i>The Exercise of Control</i></b></u>. New York: Freeman and Company.<br>[10] Harris, Karen R.1990. “Developing Self-Regulated Learners: The Role of Private Speech and Self-Instruction.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychologist</i></b></u> 25(1): 35-49. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep2501_4.<br>[11] Ericsson, K. Anders, and Paul Ward. 2007. “Capturing the Naturally Occurring Superior Performance of Experts in the Laboratory: Toward a Science of Expert and Exceptional Performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science 16(6), 346-350 (2007), doi: </i></b></u><u>10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00533.x.</i></b></u><br>[12] Slimani, Maamer, Karim Chamari, Driss Boudhiba, and Foued Che´our. 2016. “Mediator and Moderator Variables of Imagery Use-Motor Learning and Sport Performance Relationships: A Narrative Review.” </i></b></u><i>Sports Science Health</i></b></u> 12: 1-9. doi:1007/s11332-016-0265-1.<br>[13] Hidi, Suzanne, and K. Ann Renninger. 2006. “The Four-Phase Model of Interest Development.”</i></b></u><i> Educational Psychologist</i></b></u> 41(2): 111-127. doi: 10.1207/<br>s15326985ep4102_4.<br>[14] Kitsantas, Anastasia, and Nada Dabbagh. 2010. </i></b></u><i>Learning to Learn with Integrative Learning Technologies.</i></b></u> Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc. <br>[15] Labuhn, Andju Sara, Barry J. Zimmerman, and Marcus Haselhorn. 2010. “Enhancing Students’ Self-regulation and Mathematics Performance: The Influence of Feedback and Self-Evaluative Standards.” </i></b></u><i>Metacognition Learning</i></b></u> 5: 173-194. doi: 10.1007/s11409-010-9056-2.<br>[16] deBruin, Anique B. H., and Tamara van Gog. 2012. “Improving <br>Self-Monitoring and Self-Regulation: from Cognitive Psychology <br>to the Classroom.” </i></b></u><i>Learning Instruction </i></b></u>22(4):245-252. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.<br>2012.01.003.<br>[17] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1999. “Acquiring Writing Revision Skill. Shifting from Process to Outcome Self-Regulatory Skills.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 91(2): 241-250. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.91.2.241.<br>[18] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1997. “Developmental Phases in Self-regulation: Shifting from Process to Outcome Goals.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology </i></b></u>89(1): 29–36. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.89.1.29.<br>[19] Schraw, Gregory, and Antonio P. Guttierrez. 2015. “Metacognitive Strategy Instruction that Highlights the Role of Monitoring and Control Processes.” In </i></b></u><i>Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends</i></b></u>, edited by Alejandro Peña-Ayala, 3-38. Cham: Springer.<br>[20] Veenman, Marcel V.J. 2011. “Learning to Self-monitor and Self-regulate.” In </i></b></u><i>Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction: Educationanl Psychology Handbook Series</i></b></u>, edited by Richard E, Mayer and Patricia A. Alexander, 197-218. New York: Routledge. <br>[21] Duckworth, Angela L., Rachel E. White, Alyssa J. Matteucci, Annie Shearer, and James J. Gross. 2016. “A Stitch in Time: Strategic Self-Control in High School and College Students.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 108(3): 329-341. doi: 10.1037/edu0000062.<br>[22] Tang, Kai-Yu, Chia-Yu Wang, Hsin-Yi Chang, Sufen Chen, Hao-Chang Lo, and Chin-Chung Tsai. 2016. “The Intellectual Structure of Metacognitive Scaffolding in Science Education: A Co-citation Network Analysis.” </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Science Education</i></b></u> 14: 249-262. doi: 10.1007/s10763-015-9696-4.<br>[23] Hogan, Michael J., Christopher P. Dwyer, Owen M. Harney, Chris Noone, and Ronan J. Conway. 2015. “Metacognitive Skill Development and Applied Science Systems: A Framework of Metacognitive Skills, Self-Regulatory Functions and Real-World Applications.” In </i></b></u><i>Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends</i></b></u>, edited by Alejandro Peña-Ayala, 75-106. Cham: Springer.<br>[24] Tuysuzoglu, Binbasaran B., and Jeffrey A. Greene. 2015.“An Investigation of the Role of Contingent Metacognitive Behavior in Self-Regulated Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Metacognition Learning</i></b></u> 10: 77-98. doi: 10.1007/s11409-014-9126-y.<br>[25] Winne, Philip H., and Allyson F. Hadwin. 2008. “The Weave of Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning.” In </i></b></u><i>Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory, Research, and Applications</i></b></u>, edited by Dale H. Schunk and Barry J. Zimmerman, 297-314. Mahwah: Erlbaum. <br>[26] Vygotsky, Lev S. 1976. </i></b></u><i>Mind in Society</i></b></u>, 56-57. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.<br>[27] Gredler, Margaret E. 2001. “Hiding in Plain Sight: The Stages of Mastery/Self-Regulation in Vygotsky’s Cultural-Historical Theory.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychologist</i></b></u> 44(1): 1-19. doi: 10.1080/ 00461520802616259.<br>[28] McCaslin, Mary, and Daniel T. Hickey. 2001. “Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: A Vygotskian View.” In </i></b></u><i>Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement</i></b></u>, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk. New York: Routledge. <br>[29] Wigfield, Allen, Laurel W. Hoa, and Susan L. Klauda. 2009. “The Role of Achievement Values in the Regulation of Achievement Behaviors. In</i></b></u><i>Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory, Research, and Applications</i></b></u>, edited by Dale H. Schunk and Barry J. Zimmerman, 169-195. Mahwah: Erlbaum.<br>[30] Lederman, Norman G. 2007. “Nature of Science: Past, Present, and Future.” In </i></b></u><i>Handbook of Research on Science Education</i></b></u>, edited by Sandra K. Abell, and Norman G. Lederman, 831-879. London: Erlbaurm Associates. <br>[31] Peters, Erin E., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2010. “The Effect of Nature of Science Metacognitive Prompts on Science Students’ Content and Nature of Science Knowledge, Metacognition, and Self-Regulatory Efficacy.” </i></b></u><i>School Science and Mathematics</i></b></u> 110(8): 382-396. doi: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.2010.00050.<br> [32] Kitsantas, Anastasia, Robert A. Reiser, and Jessica Doster. 2004. “Developing Self-Regulated Learners: Goal Setting, Self-Evaluation, Organization Signals During Acquisition of Procedural Knowledge.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Experiential Education</i></b></u> 72(40): 269-287. doi: 10.3200/jexe.72.4.269-287.<br>[33] Gage, Barbara A., and Scott Sinex. 1994. “Astronomy and Geology of the Earth’s Moon: Background and Investigation.” Presentation at Prince George’s Community College, Maryland. <br>[34] Snowman, Jack, and Rick McCown. 2013. </i></b></u><i>Ed Psych</i></b></u>. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.<br>[35] McLeod, Saul. 2015. “Jean Piaget.” </i></b></u><i>Simply Psychology</i></b></u>. http://www.<br>simplypsychology.org/piaget.html.<br>[36] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2001. “Theories of Self-Regulated Learning and Academic achievement: An Overview and Analysis. In </i></b></u><i>Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theoretical Perspectives</i></b></u>, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 1-37. New York: Routledge. <br><br>Chapter 4:<br>[1] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2000. “Attaining Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective.” Handbook of Self-regulation, edited by </i></b></u><i>Monique Boekaerts, Monique, Paul R. Pintrich, and Moshe Zeidner, 13-39. </i></b></u>New York: Academic Press.<br>[2] Kitsantas, Anastasia, and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2006. “Enhancing Self-Regulation of Practice: The Influence of Graphing and Self-Evaluative Standards.” </i></b></u><i>Metacognition Learning</i></b></u> 1: 201-212. doi: 10.1007/s11409-006-9000-7.<br>[3] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1999. “Acquiring Writing Revision Skill. Shifting from Process to Outcome Self-Regulatory Skills.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 91(2): 241-250. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.91.2.241.<br>[4] DiBenedetto, Maria K., and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2013. “Construct and Predictive Validity of Microanalytic Measures of Students’ Self-regulation of Science Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Learning and Individual Differences</i></b></u> 26: 30–41. doi: 10.1016/j.<br>lindif.2013.04.004.<br>[5] Cleary, Timothy J., and Andju Sara Labuhn. 2013. “Application of Cyclical Self-Regulation Interventions in Science-based Contexts.” In</i></b></u><i> Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman</i></b></u>, edited by </i></b></u><u>Héfer Bembenutty</i></b></u>, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 89-124. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.<br>[6] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2013. “From Cognitive Modeling to Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Career Path.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 48(3): 135-147. doi: 10.1080/<br>00461520.2013.794676.<br>[7] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 81(3): 329-339. doi: 10.1037/0022—0663.81.3.329.<br>[8] Schunk, Dale H., and Frank Pajares. 2005. “Competence Perceptions and Academic Functioning.” In </i></b></u><i>Handbook of Competence and Motivation</i></b></u>, edited by Andrew J. Elliott, and Carol S. Dweck, 85-104. New York: The Guilford Press.<br>[9] Cleary, Timothy J., Peter Platten, and Amy Nelson. 2008. “Effectiveness of the Self-Regulation Empowerment Program with Urban High School Students.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Advanced Academics</i></b></u> 20(1): 70-107. doi: </i></b></u><u>10.1002/pits.10177.</i></b></u><br>[10] Labuhn, Andju Sara, Barry J. Zimmerman, and Marcus Haselhorn. 2010. “Enhancing Students’ Self-regulation and Mathematics Performance: The Influence of Feedback and Self-Evaluative Standards.” </i></b></u><i>Metacognition Learning</i></b></u> 5: 173-194. doi: 10.1007/s11409-010-9056-2.<br></i></b></u><u>[11] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2009. “Goal Setting: A Key Proactive Source of Academic Self-regulation. In </i></b></u><span style=”font-style:italic;text-decoration:underline ;” >Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory Research and Applications</i></b></u><u>, edited by Dale H. Schunk and Barry J. Zimmerman, 267-295. New York: Routledge.<br></i></b></u>[12] Swinton, Akilah D., Beth Kurtz-Costes, Stephanie J. Rowley, and Ndidi Okeke-Adeyanju. 2011. </i></b></u><u>“</i></b></u>A Longitudinal Examination of African American Adolescents’ Attributions about Achievement Outcomes.” </i></b></u><i>Child Development</i></b></u> 82(5): 1486-1500. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01623.x.<br>[13] Cleary, Timothy J., and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2004. “Self-regulation Empowerment Program: A School-based Program to Enhance Self-regulated and Self-motivated Cycles of Student Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Psychology in the Schools </i></b></u>41(5): 537-550. doi: 10.1002/pits.10177. <br>[14] Bol, Linda, Douglas J. Hacker, Camilla C. Walck, and John A. Nunnery. 2012. “The Effects of Individual or Group Guidelines on the Calibration Accuracy and Achievement of High School Biology Students.” </i></b></u><i>Contemporary Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 37: 280-287. doi: /10.1016/j.cedpsych.2012.02.004.<br>[15] Carver, Charles S., Yael E. Avivi, and Jean-Philippe Laurenceau. 2008. “Approach, Avoidance, and Emotional Experiences.” In</i></b></u><i>Handbook of Approach and Avoidance Motivation</i></b></u>, edited by Andrew J. Elliot, 385-397. New York: Psychology Press.<br>[16] Areepattamannil, Shaljan. 2011. “First-and Second-Generation Immigrant Adolescents’ Multidimensional Mathematics and Science Self-Concepts and Their Achievement in Mathematics and Science.” </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education</i></b></u> 10: 695-716. doi:</i></b></u><u>10.1007/s10763-011-9319-7</i></b></u>.<br>[17] Tuysuzoglu, Binbasaran B., and Jeffrey A. Greene, J. A.2015. “An Investigation of the Role of Contingent Metacognitive Behavior in Self-Regulated Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Metacognition Learning</i></b></u> 10: 77-98. doi: 10.1007/s11409-014-9126-y.<br>[18] Bandura, Albert 2005. “Adolescent development from an agent perspective.” </i></b></u><i>Self-efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents</i></b></u>, edited by Frank Pajares and Tim Urdan, 2-43. Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.<br>[19] Schraw, Gregory. 1998. “Promoting General Cognitive Awareness.” Instructional Science, 26: 113-125. doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-2243-8_1.<br>[20] Eberbach, Catherine, and Kevin Crowley. 2009. “From Everyday to Scientific Observation: How Children Learn to Observe the Biologist’s World.” </i></b></u><i>Review of Educational Research</i></b></u> 79(1): 39-68. doi: 10.3102/0034654308325899.<br>[21] Hiller, Suzanne E., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2015. “Fostering Student Metacognition and Motivation in STEM through Citizen Science Programs.” In </i></b></u><i>Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends</i></b></u>, edited by Alejandro Peña-Ayala, 193-221. Cham: Springer.<br>[22] “Cornell Note Taking System.” 2016. Cornell University. http://lsc.cornell.edu/<br>study-skills/cornell-note-taking-system/<br><br>Chapter 5:<br>[1] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “Models of Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement.” In </i></b></u><i>Self-Regulation: Theory, Research, and Applications</i></b></u>, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 13-39: Orlando: Academic Press. <br>[2] Lee, Cristina S., Kathryn N. Hayes, Jeffery Seitz, Rachel DiStefano, and Dawn O’Connor. 2016. “Understanding Motivational Structures that Differentially Predict Engagement and </i></b></u><i>Achievement in Middle School Science.</i></b></u>”</i></b></u><i> International</i></b></u> Journal of Science Education 38(2): 192-215. doi: 10.1080/09500693.2015.<br>1136452.<br>[3] Kitsantas, Anastasia, Amy L. Baylor, and Haihong Hu. 2001. “The Constructivist Planning Self-Reflective Tool: Facilitating a Constructivist Instructional Planning Approach.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Technology</i></b></u>41(6): 39-43.<br>[4] Brainerd, C. J. 2003. “Jean Piaget, Learning, Research, and American Education.” In </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions</i></b></u>, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman, and Dale H. Schunk, 251-287. New York: Routledge.<br>[5] Snowman, Jack, and Rick McCown. 2013. </i></b></u><i>Ed Psych</i></b></u>. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.<br>[6] Powell, Katherine C., and Cody J. Kalina. 2009. “Cognitive and Social Constructivism: Developing Tools for an Effective Classroom.” </i></b></u><i>Education</i></b></u> 130(2): 241-250.<br>[7] Loyens, Sofie M. M., Remy M. Rikers, and Henk G. Schmidt. 2008. “Relationship between Students’ Conceptions of Constructivist Learning and Their Regulation and Processing Strategies.” </i></b></u><i>Instructional Science </i></b></u>36: 445-462. doi: 10.1007/<br>s11251-008-9065-6.<br>[8] Paris, Scott G., and Julianne C. Turner. 1994. “Situated Motivation.” In </i></b></u><i>Student Motivation, Cognition, and Learning: Essays in Honor of Wilbert J. McKeachie</i></b></u>, edited by Paul R. Pintrich, Donald R. Brown, and Claire Ellen Weinstein, 213-237. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.<br>[9] Bybee, Rodger W., Nancy M. Landes, Judith Opert Sandler, Karen Worth, Carolee Matsumoto, June Foster, Candace L. Julyan, Janice Mokros, William C. Kyle, Jr. and Michael Kane. 1988 “The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS).” </i></b></u><i>Science and Children </i></b></u>25(8): 35-39.<br>[10] Baviskar, Sandhya N., Todd R. Hartle, and Tiffany Whitney. 2009. “Essentail Criteria to Characterize Constructivist Teaching: Derived from a Review of the Literature and Applied to Five Constructivist Teaching Method Articles</i></b></u><i>.</i></b></u>”</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Science Education, </i></b></u>31(4): 541-550.doi: 10.1080/<br>09500690701731121.<br>[11] Boddy, Naomi, Kevin Watson, and Peter Aubusson. 2003. “A Trial of the Five Es: A Referent Model for Constructivist Teaching and Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Research in Science Education</i></b></u>, 33: 27-42. doi: 10.1023/a:1023606425452.<br>[12] Deng, Feng, Wenli Chen, Ching Sing Chai, and Yangyi Qian. 2011. “Constructivist-Oriented Data-Logging Activities in Chinese Chemistry Classroom: Enhancing Students’ Conceptual Understanding and Their Metacognition.” </i></b></u><i>The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher </i></b></u>20(2): 207-221.<br>[13] Corsi, Gianluca. 2012. “Effects of Labs on At-risk Students in a High School Environmental Science Program.” </i></b></u><i>The Texas Science Teacher</i></b></u> 41(1): 42-52.<br>[14] K</i></b></u><u>ingir, Sevgi, Yasemin Tas, Gulsum Gok, and Semra Sungur Vural. 2013. “Relationships Among Constructivist Learning, Environment Perceptions, Motivational Beliefs, Self-regulation, and Science Achievement.” </i></b></u><span style=”font-style:italic;text-decoration:underline ;” >Research in Science and Technological Education</i></b></u><u> 31(3): 205-226. doi: 10.1080/02635143.<br>2013.825594.<br></i></b></u>[15] Gredler, Margaret E. 2009. “Hiding in Plain Sight: The Stages of Mastery/<br>Self-Regulation in Vygotsky’s Cultural-Historical Theory.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychologist</i></b></u> 44(1): 1-19. doi: 10.1080/ 00461520802616259.<br>[16] McCaslin, Mary, and David T. Hickey, D. T. 2001. “Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: A Vygotskian View.” In </i></b></u><i>Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theoretical Perspectives</i></b></u>, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale J. Schunk, 227-252. New York: Routledge.<br>[17] Fox, Emily, and Michelle Riconscente. 2008. “Metacognition and Self-Regulation in James, Piaget, and Vygotsky.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology Review </i></b></u>20: 373-389. doi: 10.1007/s10648-008-9079-2.<br></i></b></u><u>[18] Vygotsky, Lev S. 1978. </i></b></u><span style=”font-style:italic;text-decoration:underline ;” >Mind in Society</i></b></u><u>, edited by Michael Cole, Vera <br>John-Steiner, Sylvia Scribneer, and Ellen Souberman. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.</i></b></u><br>[19] Schraw, Gregory, and Antonio P. Guttierrez. 2015.“Metacognitive Strategy Instruction that Highlights the Role of Monitoring and Control Processes.” In </i></b></u><i>Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends</i></b></u>, edited by Alejandro Peña-Ayala, 3-38. Cham: Springer.<br>[20] Hidi, Suzanne, &K. Ann Renninger. 2006. “The Four-Phase Model of <br>Interest Development.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychologist </i></b></u>41(2):111-127. doi: 10.1207/<br>s15326985ep4102_4.<br>[21] Tudge, Jonathan, and Scrimsher, Sheryl. 2003. “Lev S. Vygotsky on Education: A Cultural-Historical, Interpersonal, and Individual Approach to Development.” In </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions</i></b></u>, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 207-228. New York: Routledge.<br>[22] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1997. “Developmental Phases in Self-regulation: Shifting from Process to Outcome Goals.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology </i></b></u>89(1): 29–36. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.89.1.29.<br>[23] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1999. “Acquiring Writing Revision Skill. Shifting from Process to Outcome Self-Regulatory Skills.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology </i></b></u>91(2): 241-250.doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.91.2.241.<br>[24] van Geert, Paul. 2000. “The Dynamics of General Developmental Mechanisms: From Piaget and Vygotsky to Dynamic Systems Models.” </i></b></u><i>Current Directions in Psychological Science </i></b></u>9(2): 64-68. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00062.<br>[25] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2013. “From Cognitive Modeling to Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Career Path.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 48(3): 135-147. doi: 10.<br>1080/00461520.2013.794676.<br>[26] McLeod, Saul (2009). </i></b></u><i>Jean Piaget</i></b></u>. Simply Psychology. Modified 2015. Accessed December 10, 2016. http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html.<br>[27] Harris, Karen R. 1990. “Developing Self-Regulated learners: The Role of Private Speech and Self-Instruction.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychologist</i></b></u> 25(1): 35-49. doi:10.1207/<br>s15326985ep2501_4.<br>[28] Piaget, Jean, and Bärel Inhelder. 2000. </i></b></u><i>The Psychology of the Child</i></b></u>. New York: Basic Books.<br>[29] Bybee, Rodger W. 2014. “The BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Personal Reflections and Contemporary Implications.” </i></b></u><i>Science and Children</i></b></u>, 51(8): 10-13. doi: 10.2505/4/sc14_051_08_10.<br>[30] Bybee, Rodger W., and Robert B. Sund. 1990. </i></b></u><i>Piaget for Educators</i></b></u>. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.<br>[31] </i></b></u><u>Zimmerman, Barry J., and Dale H. Schunk. 2003. “Albert Bandura: The Scholar and His Contributions to Educational Psychology.”</i></b></u>In </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions</i></b></u>, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 431-457. New York: Routledge. <br>[32] Pass, Susan. 2007. “When Constructivists Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky <br>were Pedagogical Collaborators; A Viewpoint from a Study of Their Communication.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Constructivist Psychology</i></b></u> 20: 277-282. doi: 10.1080/<br>10720530701347944.<br>[33] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Ted L. Rosenthal. 1974. “Observational Learning of Rule Governed Behavior by Children.” </i></b></u><i>Psychological Bulletin</i></b></u>81: 29-42. doi:10.<br>1037/h0035553.<br>[34] Bandura, Albert. 1997.</i></b></u><i>The Exercise of Control</i></b></u>. New York: Freeman and Company.<br>[35] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2000. “Attaining Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective.” Handbook of Self-regulation, edited by</i></b></u><i>Monique Boekaerts, Monique, Paul R. Pintrich, and Moshe Zeidner, 13-39. </i></b></u>New York: Academic Press.<br>[36] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2013. “From Cognitive Modeling to Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Career Path.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology </i></b></u>48(3): 135-147. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2013.794676.<br>[37] Kitsantas, Anastasia, and Bary J. Zimmerman. 2006. “Enhancing Self-Regulation of Practice: The Influence of Graphing and Self-Evaluative Standards.” </i></b></u><i>Metacognition Learning</i></b></u> 1: 201-212. doi: 10.1007/s11409-006-9000-7.<br>[38] Baylor, Amy L., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2005. “A Comparative Analysis and Validation of Instructivist and Constructivist Self-Reflective Tools (IPSRT and CPSRT) for Novice Instructional Planners.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Technology and Teacher Education</i></b></u> 13(3): 433-457.<br>[39] </i></b></u><p><b>Bybee</i></b></u>, Rodger W, and Pamela Van Scotter. 2007. “Reinventing the Science Curriculum.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Leadership</i></b></u> 64(4): 43-47.<br>[40] Hon, Siew. 2013. “DLN 5E Teaching Model.” NASA. Modified September 13, 2013. Accessed December 10, 2016. http://www.nasa.gov/offices/education/<br>programs/national/dln/home/5e_model.html#.V9Xo0JgrKhc.<br>[41] Bybee, R. W., Joseph A. Taylor, April Gardner, Pamela Van Scotter, <br>Janet Carlson Powell, Anne Westbrook, and Nancy Landes. 2006. “The <br>BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Origins, Effectiveness, and Applications. Executive Summary.” http://www.bscs.org/sites/default/files/_legacy/BSCS_5E_Instructional<br>_Model-Executive_Summary_0.pdf.<br>[42] Madden, Thomas F. 2012. </i></b></u><i>Venice: A New History</i></b></u>. New York: Hudson.<br>[43] Ainley, Mary, Suzanne Hidi, and Dagmar Berndorff. 2002. “Interest, Learning, and the Psychological Processes that Mediate their Relationship.” </i></b></u><i>Jounal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 94(3): 545-561. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.94.3.545.<br>[44] Fuson, Karen C. 2009. “Avoiding Misinterpretations of Piaget and Vygotsky: Mathematical Teaching without Learning, Learning without Teaching, or Helpful Learning-Path Teaching.” </i></b></u><i>Cognitive Development</i></b></u> 24: 343-361. doi:10.1016/<br>j.cogev.2009.09.009.<br>[45] Gustin, William C., and Luciano Corazza. 1994. “Mathematical and Verbal Reasoning as Predictors of Science Achievement.” </i></b></u><i>Roeper Review: A Journal on Gifted Education</i></b></u>16: 160-162. doi: 10.1080/02783199409553564.<br>[46] Maerten-Rivera, Jaime, Nicholas Myers, Okhee Lee, and Randall Penfield. 2010. “Student and School Predictors of High-Stakes Assessment in Science.” </i></b></u><i>Science Education</i></b></u>94: 937-962. doi: 10.1002/sce.20408.<br>[47] Slykhuis, David, and John Park. 2006. “Correlates of Achievement with Online and Classroom-Based MBL Physics Activities.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching </i></b></u>25: 147-163. <br>[48] Morgan, Paul L., George Farkas, Marianne M. Hillemeier, and Steve Maczuga. 2016. “Science Achievement Gaps Gegin Very Early, Persist, and are Largely Explained by Modifiable Factors.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Researcher </i></b></u>45(1): 18-35. doi: 10.3102/0013189×16633182.<br>[49] Nugent, Gwen, Bradley Barker, Greg Welch, Neal Grandgenett, ChaoRongWu, and Carl Nelson. 2015. “A Model of Contributing STEM Learning and Career Orientation.” </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Science Education </i></b></u>37(7): 1067-1088. doi: 10.1080/ 09500693.2015.1017863.<br>[50] Huang, Jingzi, Bruce Normandia, and Sandra Greer. 2005. “Communicating Mathematically: Comparison of Knowledge Structures in Teacher and Student Discourse from a Secondary Math Classroom.” </i></b></u><i>Communication Education </i></b></u>54(1): 34-51.doi: 0.1080/14613190500077002.<br>[51] Sinex, Scott.1991. Class lecture. Loyola University. Prince George’s County, Maryland.<br>[52] Flores, Alfinio. 1995. “Connections in Proportional Reasoning: Levers, Arithmetic Means, Mixtures, Batting Averages.” </i></b></u><i>School Science and Mathematics, </i></b></u>95(8): 423-430. doi: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.1995.tb10196.x.<br>[53] Lee, Mimi Meyoung, Jennifer B. Chauvot, Julie Vowell, Shea Mosley Culpepper, and Brian J. Plankis. 2013. “Stepping-into iSMART: Understanding Science-Mathematics Integration for Middle School Science and Mathematics Teachers.” </i></b></u><i>School Science and Mathematics</i></b></u> 113(4): 159-169. doi: 0.1111/ssm.12015.<br><br>Chapter 6:<br>[1] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 81(3): 329-339. doi: 10.1037/0022—0663.81.3.329.<br>[2] McKee, M. Todd, and Paul Caldarella. 2016. “Middle School Predictors of High School Performance: A Case Study of Dropout Risk Indicators.” </i></b></u><i>Education</i></b></u>136(4): 515-529.<br>[3] Victoria State Government. 2017. “Identifying Students at Risk.” Last modified January 11. http://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/principals/participation/Pages/<br>disengagedrisk.aspx<br>[4] Great Schools Partnership.2014. “At-risk.” Last modified August 29, 2013. http://edglossary.org/at-risk/<br>[5] Labuhn, Andju Sara, Barry J. Zimmerman, and Marcus Haselhorn. 2010. “Enhancing Students’ Self-regulation and Mathematics Performance: The Influence of Feedback and Self-Evaluative Standards.” </i></b></u><i>Metacognition Learning</i></b></u> 5: 173-194. doi: 10.1007/ s11409-010-9056-2.<br>[6] Seki, Judith M., and Ramakrishnan Menon. 2007. “Incorporating Mathematics into the Science Program of Students Labeled At-Risk.” </i></b></u><i>School Science and Mathematics</i></b></u> 107(2): 61-69. doi: </i></b></u><u>1111/j.1949-8594.2007.tb17769.x.</i></b></u><br>[7] Embleton, Lonnie, Hana Lee, Jayleen Gunn, David Ayuku, and Paula Braitstein. 2016. </i></b></u><i>JAMA Pediatrics </i></b></u>170(5):435-444. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0156.<br>[8] National Center for Homeless Education. 2016. “Federal Data Summary School Years 2012-13 to 2014-15: Education for Homeless Children and Youth.” https://nche.ed.gov/downloads/data-comp-1213-1415.pdf.<br>[9] Murphy, Joseph. 2011. “Homeless Children and Youth at Risk: The Educational Impact of Displacement.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk</i></b></u> 16: 38–55. doi: 10.1080/10824669. 2011.554143.<br>[10] Burke, April M., Trish Morita-Mullaney, and Malkeet Singh. 2016. <br>“Indiana Emergent Bilingual Student Time to Reclassification: A Survival Analysis.” </i></b></u><i>American Educational Research Journal</i></b></u> 53(5): 1310-1342. doi:10.3102/<br>0002831216667481.<br>[11] Afitska, Oksana. 2016. “Scaffolding Learning: Devleoping Materials to Support the Learning of Science and Language by Non-Native English Speaking Students.” </i></b></u><i>Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching </i></b></u>10(2): 75-89. doi:10.1080/<br>17501229.2015.1090993.<br>[12] Umansky, Ilana M. 2016. “Leveled and Exclusionary Tracking: English Learners’ Access to Academic Content in Middle School.” </i></b></u><i>American Educational Research Journal</i></b></u> 53(6): 1792-1833. doi: 10.3102/0002831216675404.<br>[13] Uretsky, Mathew C., and Susan Stone. 2016. “Factors Associated with High School Exit Exam Outcomes Among Homeless High School Students.” </i></b></u><i>Children and Schools</i></b></u> 38(2): 91-98. doi: 10.1093/cs/cdw007.<br>[14] </i></b></u><u>Q</i></b></u>uinn, Frances, and Terry Lyons. 2011. “High School Students’ Perceptions of School Science and Science Careers: A Critical Look at a Critical Issue.” </i></b></u><i>Science Education International</i></b></u> 22(4): 225-238.<br>[15] Mejia, Joel Alejandro, Dustin Drake, and Amy Wilson-Lopez. 2015. “Changes in Latino/a Adolescents’ Engineering Self-Efficacy and Perceptions of Engineering After Addressing Authentic Engineering Design Challenges.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Engineering Education. Seattle, Washington, June 14-17.<br>[16] Kitsantas, Anastasia, Nada Dabbagh, Suzanne E. Hiller, and Brian Mandell. 2015. “Learning Technologies as Supportive Contexts for Promoting College Student Self-Regulated Learning.” In </i></b></u><i>Self-Regulated Learing Interventions with At-Risk Youth</i></b></u>, edited by Timothy Cleary, 277-294. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.<br>[17] Bandura, Albert 2005. “Adolescent Development from an Agent Perspective.” </i></b></u><i>Self-efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents</i></b></u>, edited by Frank Pajares and Tim Urdan, 2-43. Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.<br>[18] Peters, S. Colby, and Michael E. Woolley. 2015. “Testing a Model of Environmental Risk and Protective Factors to Predict Middle and High School Students’ Academic Success. </i></b></u><i>Children and Schools</i></b></u> 37(1): 135-143. doi:10.1093/<br>cs/cdv014.<br>[19] Organisation for Economic Cooperation. 2016. “Pisa 2012 Results.” Accessed November 30. www.oecd.org/pisa/findings/pisa-2012-results.htm.<br>[20] Grolnick, Wendy S., and Jacqueline N. Raftery-Helmer. 2015. “Contexts Supporting Self-Regulated Learning at School Transitions.” In </i></b></u><i>Self-Regulated Learing Interventions with At-Risk Youth</i></b></u>, edited by Timothy Cleary, 251-275. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.<br>[21] Chen, Jason A., and Ellen L. Usher. 2013. “Profiles of the Sources of Science Self-Efficacy.” Learning and Individual Differences 24: 11-21. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.<br>2012.11.002.<br>[22] Hiller, Suzanne, E., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2014. “The Effect of a Horseshoe Crab Citizen Science Program on Student Science Performance and STEM Career Motivation.” </i></b></u><i>School Science and Mathematics Journal</i></b></u> 114(6): 302-311. doi:</i></b></u><u>10.<br>1111/ssm.12081.</i></b></u><br>[23] K</i></b></u><u>ingir, Sevgi, YaseminTas, Gulsum Gok, and Semra Sungur Vural. <br>2013. “Relationships Among Constructivist Learning, Environment <br>Perceptions, Motivational Beliefs, Self-regulation, and Science Achievement.” </i></b></u><span style=”font-style:italic;text-decoration:underline ;” >Research in Science and Technological Education</i></b></u><u> 31(3): 205-226. doi: 10.1080/<br>02635143.2013.825594.</i></b></u><br>[24] Navarro, Rachel, L., Lisa Y. Flores, and Roger L. Worthington. 2007. “Mexican American Middle School Students’ Goal Intentions in Mathematics and Science: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Counseling Psychology</i></b></u> 54(3): 320-335. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.54.3.320.<br>[25] Lofgran, Brandi B., Leigh K. Smith, and Erin F. Whiting. 2015. “Science Self-efficacy and School Transitions: Elementary School to Middle School, Middle School to High School.” </i></b></u><i>The School Science and Mathematics</i></b></u> 115(7): 366-376. doi: 10.1111/ssm.12139.<br>[26] Morgan, Paul L., George Farkas, Marianne M. Hillemeier, and Steve Maczuga. 2016. “Science Achievement Gaps Begin Very Early, Persist, and are Largely Explained by Modifiable Factors.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Researcher, </i></b></u>45(1), 18-35. doi: 10.3102/0013189×16633182.<br>[27] Bol, Linda, Douglas J. Hacker, Camilla C. Walck, and John A. Nunnery. 2012. “The Effects of Individual or Group Guidelines on the Calibration Accuracy and Achievement of High School Biology Students.” </i></b></u><i>Contemporary Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 37: 280-287. doi: /10.1016/j.cedpsych.2012.02.004.<br>[28] Sheldrake, Richard. 2016. “Students’ Intentions Towards Studying Science at Upper-Secondary School: The Differential Effects of Under-Confidence and Over-Confidence.” </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Science Education</i></b></u>, 38(8): 1256-1277. doi: 10.1080/09500693. 2016.1186854.<br>[29] Chen, Peggy P., and Paul D. Rossi, 2013. “Utilizing Calibration Accuracy Information with Adolescents to Improve Academic Learning and Performance.” In </i></b></u><i>Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman</i></b></u>, edited by HéferBembenutty, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 263-297. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.<br>[30] Chen, Sufen, Chih-Chi Huang, and Te-Lien Chou. 2016. “The Effect of Metacognitive Scaffolding on Low Achievers’ Laboratory Learning.” </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education</i></b></u> 14: 281-296. doi: 10.1007/s10763-015-9691-9.<br>[31] Wandersee, James H. 1987. “Drawing Concept Circles: A New Way to <br>Teach and Test Students.” Science Activities 24: 9-24. doi: 0.1080/<br>00368121.1987.9958073.<br>[32] Ward, Robin E., and James H. Wandersee, J. H. 2002. “Struggling to Understand Abstract Science Topics: A Roundhouse Diagram-Based Study.” </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Science Education,</i></b></u> 24(6), 575-591. doi: 10.1080/09500690110074017.<br>[33] Zheng, Binbin, Mark Warschauer, JinKyoung Hwang, and Penelope Collins. 2014. “Laptop Use, Interactive Science Software, and Science Learning Among At-Risk Students.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Science Education Technology</i></b></u> 23: 591-603. doi: 10.1007/s10956-014-9489-5.<br>[34] Bembenutty, Héfer. 2013. “The Triumph of Homework Completion Through a Learning Academy of Self-Regulation.” In </i></b></u><i>Applications of Self-Regulated Learning across Diverse Disciplines. A Tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman</i></b></u>, edited by Héfer Bembenutty, Timothy J. Cleary, and Anastasia Kitsantas, 153-196. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.<br>[35] Xu, Jianzhoung. 2009. “School Location, Student Achievement, and Homework Management Reported by Middle School Students.” </i></b></u><i>The School Community Journal</i></b></u> 19(2): 27-43. <br>[36] Fernández-Alonso, Rubén, Javier Suárez-Álvarez, and José Muñiz. 2015. “Adolescents’ Homework Performance in Mathematics and Science: Personal Factors and Teaching Practices.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 107(4): 1075-1085. doi:10.1037/ edu0000032.<br>[37] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2005. “The Hidden Dimension of Personal Competence: Self-Regulated Learning and Practice.” In Handbook of Competence and Motivation, edited by Andrew J. Elliott and Carol S. Dweck, 509-526. New York: The Guilford Press.<br>[38] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Ted L. Rosenthal. 1974. “Observational Learning of Rule Governed Behavior by Children.” </i></b></u><i>Psychological Bulletin</i></b></u> 81: 29-42. doi: 10.1037/h0035553.<br>[39] Britner, Shari, L., and Frank Pajares. 2006. “Sources of Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs </i></b></u><i>of Middle School Students.</i></b></u>”</i></b></u><i> Journalof Research in Science Teaching</i></b></u> 43(5): 485-499. doi: 10.1002/tea.20131.<br>[40] Velayutham, Sunitadevi, and Jill M. Aldridge. 2013. “Influence of Psychosocial Classroom Environment on Students’ Motivation and Self-regulation in Science Learning: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.” </i></b></u><i>Research in Science Education</i></b></u> 43: 507-527. doi: 10.1007/s11165-011-9273-y.<br>[41] Barber, Ana Taboada, and Melissa A. Gallagher, 2015. “Supporting Self-Regulated Reading for English Language Learners in Middle Schools.” In </i></b></u><i>Self-Regulated Learing Interventions with At-Risk Youth</i></b></u>, edited by Timothy Cleary, 113-133. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.<br>[42] Walker, Tim. 2014. “The Testing Obsession and the Disappearing Curriculum.” <br>The NEA Today. Accessed January 30, 2017. http://neatoday.org/2014/09/02/<br>the-testing-obsession-and-the-disappearing-curriculum-2/<br><br>Chapter 7:<br>[1] Hiller, Suzanne, E., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2014. “The Effect of a Horseshoe Crab Citizen Science Program on Student Science Performance and STEM Career Motivation.” </i></b></u><i>School Science and Mathematics Journal</i></b></u> 114(6): 302-311. doi: </i></b></u><u>10.1111/ssm.12081.<br></i></b></u>[2] Inda, Mercedes, Carmen Rodriguez, and José Vicent Peña. 2013. “Gender Differences in Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory in Engineering Students.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Vocational Behavior</i></b></u> 83: 346-355. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2013.06.010.<br>[3] Rogers, Mary E., and Peter A. Creed. 2011. “A Longitudinal Examination <br>of Adolescent Career Planning and Exploration Using a Social Cognitive <br>Career Theory Framework.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Adolescence</i></b></u> 34: 163-172. doi: 10.1016/<br>j.adolescence.2009.12.010.</i></b></u><u><br></i></b></u>[4] Bandura, Albert 2005. “Adolescent development from an agent perspective.” </i></b></u><i>Self-efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents</i></b></u>, edited by Frank Pajares and Tim Urdan, 2-43. Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.<br>[5] Dabney, Katherine, Robert Tai, John Almarode, Jaimie Miller-Friedman, Gerhard Sonnert, Philip Sadler, and Zahra Hazari. 2011. “Out-of-School Time Science Activities and Their Association with Career Interest in STEM.” </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Science Education </i></b></u>2(1): 63-79. doi: 10.1080/21548455.2011.629455.<br>[6] Dika, Sandra L., Jaquelina Alvarez, Jeannette Santos, and Oscar Marcelo Suárez. 2016. “A Social Cognitive Approach to Understanding Engineering Career Interest and Expectations among Underrepresented Students in School-Based Clubs.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of STEM Education </i></b></u>17(1): 31-36. <br>[7] Flores, Lisa Y., Chris Robitsschek, Elif Celebi, Christie Anderson, and Ugen Hoang. 2010. “Social Cognitive Influences on Mexican Americans’ Career Choices across Holland’s Themes.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Vocational Behavior</i></b></u> 76: 198-210. doi:10.1016/<br>j.jvb.2009.11.002.<br>[8] Holland, John L. 1997. </i></b></u><i>Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments</i></b></u>. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.<br>[9] Fouad, Nancy A., Philip L. Smith, and Kathryn E. Zao. 2002. “Across Academic Domains: Extensions of the Social-Cognitive Career Model.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Counseling Psychology </i></b></u>2: 164-171. doi: 10.1037//0022-0167.49.2.164. <br>[10] Patrick, Lyn, Ester Care, and Mary Ainley. 2011. “The Relationship between Vocational Interests, Self-efficacy, and Achievement in the Prediction of Educational Pathways.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Career Assessment </i></b></u>19(1): 61-74. doi: 10.1177/1069072710382615.<br>[11] Lent, Robert W., Steven D. Brown, and Gail Hackett.1994. “Toward a Unifying Social Cognitive Theory of Career and Academic Interest, Choice, and Performance.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Vocational Behavior</i></b></u> 45: 79-122. doi:</i></b></u><u>10.1006/jvbe.<br>1994.1027.<br></i></b></u>[12] Lent, Robert W., Maria Paula Paixão, José da Tomás Silva and Lígia Mexia Leitão. 2010. “Predicting Occupational Interests and Choice Aspirations in Portuguese High School Students: A test of Social Cognitive Career Theory.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Vocational Behavior </i></b></u>76: 244-251. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2009.10.001.<br>[13] Peña-Calvo, José-Vicente, Mercedes </i></b></u><p><b>Inda-Caro</i></b></u>, Carmen Rodríguez-Menéndez, and Carmen-María Fernández-García. 2016. “Perceived Supports and Barriers for Career Development for Second-Year STEM Students.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Engineering Education </i></b></u>105(2): 341-365. doi: 10.1002/jee.20115.<br>[14] Rice, Lindsay, Joan M. Barth, Rosanna E. Guadagno, Gabrielle P. A. Smith, and Debra M. McCallum. 2013. “The Role of Social Support in Students’ Perceived Abilities and Attitudes Toward Math and Science.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Youth Adolescence</i></b></u> 42: 1028-1040. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9801-8.<br>[15] Nugent, Gwen, Bradley Barker, Greg Welch, Neal Grandgenett, ChaoRong Wu, and Carl Nelson. 2014. “A Model of Contributing STEM Learning and Career Orientation.” </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Science Education </i></b></u>37(7): 1067-1088. doi: 10.1080/09500693. 2015.1017863.<br>[16] Bandura, Albert. 1997. </i></b></u><i>The Exercise of Control</i></b></u>. New York: Freeman and Company.<br>[17] Fouad, Nancy A., Gail Hackett, Philip L. Smith, Neeta Kantamneni, Mary Fitzpatrick, Susan Haag, and Dee Spencer. 2010. “Barriers and Supports for Continuing in Mathematics and Science: Gender and Educational Level Differences.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Vocational Behavior</i></b></u> 77: 361-373. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.<br>2010.06.004.<br></i></b></u><u>[18] </i></b></u>Kitsantas, Anastasia, Barry J. Zimmerman, and Timothy J. Cleary. 2000. “The Role of Observation and Emulation in the Development of Athletic Self-regulation.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology </i></b></u>92(4): 811-817. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.92.<br>4.811.<br>[19] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 81(3): 329-339. doi: 10.1037/0022—0663.81.3.329.<br>[20] Britner, Shari, L., and Frank Pajares. 2006. “Sources of Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs </i></b></u><i>of Middle School Students.” Journal</i></b></u> of Research in Science Teaching 43(5): 485-499. doi: 10.1002/tea.20131.<br>[21] Zimmerman, Barry J. 2013. “From Cognitive Modeling to Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Career Path.” </i></b></u><i>Educational Psychology</i></b></u> 48(3): 135-147. doi: 10.1080/<br>00461520.2013.794676.<br>[22] Restubog, Simon Lloyd, Afryll R. Florentino, Patrick Raymund, and James M. Garcia. 2010. “The Mediating Role of Career Self-Efficacy and Career Decidedness in Relationship between Contextual Support and Persistence.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Vocational Behavior</i></b></u> 77: 186-195. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2010.06.005. <br>[23] Bonitz, Verena S., Lisa M. Larson, and Patrick Ian Armstrong. 2010. “Interests, Self-Efficacy, and Choice Goals: An Experimental Manipulation.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Vocational Behavior</i></b></u> 76:223-233. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2009.09.003.<br>[24] Patrick, Lyn, Ester Care, and Mary Ainley. 2011. “The Relationship between Vocational Interests, Self-efficacy, and Achievement in the Prediction of Educational Pathways.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Career Assessment </i></b></u>19(1): 61-74. doi: 10.1177/<br>1069072710382615. <br>[25] Nauta, Margaret M., Jeffrey H. Kahn, James W. Angell, and Erika A. Cantarelli. 2002. “Identifying the Antecedent in the Relation between Career Interests and Self-Efficacy: Is It One, the Other, or Both?” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Counseling Psychology</i></b></u>, 49(3): 290-301. doi: 10.1037//0022-1067.49.3.290. <br>[26] Lee, Cristina S., Kathryn N. Hayes, Jeffery Seitz, Rachel DiStefano, R., and Dawn O’Connor. 2016. “Understanding Motivational Structures that Differentially Predict Engagement and </i></b></u><i>Achievement in Middle School Science.</i></b></u>”</i></b></u><i> International</i></b></u> Journal of Science Education 38(2): 192-215. doi: 10.1080/09500693. 2015.1136452.<br>[27] Sheu, Hung-Bin, Robert W. Lent, Steven D. Brown, Matthew J. Miller, Kelly D. Hennessy, and Ryan D. Duffy. 2010. “Testing the Choice Model of Social Cognitive Career Theory across Holland Themes: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis. “</i></b></u><i>Journal of Vocational Behavior </i></b></u>76: 252-264. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2009.10.015. <br>[28] Lent, Robert W., Antonio M. Lopez Jr., Frederick G. Lopez, and Hung-Bin Sheu. 2008. “Social Cognitive Career Theory and the Prediction of Interests and Choice Goals in the Computing Disciplines.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Vocational Behavior</i></b></u>, 73: 52-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2008.01.002.<br>[29] Navarro, Rachel, L., Lisa Y. Flores, and Roger L. Worthington. 2007. “Mexican American Middle School Students’ Goal Intentions in Mathematics and Science: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Counseling Psychology</i></b></u> 54(3): 320-335. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.54.3.320.<br>[30] Wild, Andrew. 2015. “Relationships between High School Chemistry Students’ Perceptions of a Constructivist Learning Environment and STEM Career Expectations.” </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Science Education</i></b></u> 37(14): 2284-2305. doi: 10.1080/09500693.2015.1076951.<br>[31] Lent, Robert W., Frederick G. Lopez, and Kathleen J. Bieschke. 1991. “Mathematics Self-Efficacy: Sources and Relation to Science-Based Career Choices. Journal of Counseling Psychology 38(4): 424-430. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.38.4.424.<br>[32] Byars-Winston, Angela, Yannine Estrada, Christina Howard, Dalelia Davis, D., and Juan Zalapa. 2010. “Influence of Social Cognitive and Ethnic Variables on Academic Goals of Underrepresented Students in Science and Engineering: A Multiple-Group Analysis.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Counseling Psychology</i></b></u> 57(2): 205-218. doi: 10.1037/a0018608.<br>[33] AfterSchool Alliance. 2016. “The Impact of After School STEM: Examples <br>from the Field.” Accessed January15,2017.http://afterschoolalliance.org/documents/<br>AfterschoolSTEMImpacts2016.pdf.<br>[34] Mejia, Joel Alejandro, Dustin Drake, and Amy Wilson-Lopez. 2015. “Changes in Latino/a Adolescents’ Engineering Self-Efficacy and Perceptions of Engineering After Addressing Authentic Engineering Design Challenges.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Engineering Education. Seattle, Washington, June 14-17.<br>[35] Constan, Zachary, and Justina Judy Spider. 2015. “Maximizing Future Potential in Physics and STEM: Evaluating a Summer Program through a Partnership Between Science Outreach and Education Research.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement</i></b></u> 19(2): 117-135. <br>[36] Paige, Kathy, David Lloyd, Yvonne Zeegers, Philip Roetman, Chris Daniels, Brad Hoekman, Lisa Linnell, Ann-Louise George, and David Szilassy. 2012. “Connecting Teachers and Students to the Natural World through Operation Spider: An Aspirations Citizen Science Project.” </i></b></u><i>Teaching Science</i></b></u> 58(1): 13-20.<br>[37] Pocock, Michael J. O, and Darren M. Evans. 2014. “The Success of the Horse-Chestnut Leaf-Miner, </i></b></u><i>Cameraria ohridella</i></b></u>, in the UK Revealed with Hypothesis-Led Citizen” PLos ONE 9(1): 1-9.<br>[38] Zooinverse. 2017. Accessed February 2. https://www.zooniverse.org/projects?<br>status=live.<br>[39] Hiller, Suzanne E., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2015. “Fostering Student Metacognition and Motivation in STEM through Citizen Science Programs.” In </i></b></u><i>Metacognition: Fundaments, Applications, and Trends</i></b></u>, edited by Alejandro Peña-Ayala, 193-221. Cham: Springer.<br>[40] Zimmerman, Barry J., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 1997. “Developmental Phases in Self-regulation: Shifting from Process to Outcome Goals.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Educational Psychology</i></b></u>89(1): 29–36. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.89.1.29.<br>[41] Jeanpierre, Bobby, Karen Oberhauser, and Carol Freeman. 2005. “Characteristics of Professional Development that Effect Change in Secondary Science Teachers’ Classroom Practices.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Research in Science Teaching</i></b></u>42(6): 668-690. doi: 10.1002/tea.20069.<br>[42] Trumbull, Deborah J., Rick Bonney, and Nancy Grudens-Schuck. 2005. “Developing Materials to Promote Inquiry: Lessons Learned.” </i></b></u><i>Science Education 89</i></b></u>: 879-900. doi: </i></b></u><u>10.1002/sce.20081.<br></i></b></u>[43] Hiller, Suzanne E., and Anastasia Kitsantas. 2016. “The Validation of the Citizen Science Self-Efficacy Scale (CSSES).” </i></b></u><i>Internation Journal of Environmental and Science Education</i></b></u> 11(5): 543-558. doi: 10.12973/ijese.2016.405a.<br>[44] Mu, X. 1998. “High School Experience and Career Maturity in Young Adulthood.” Paper presented at the 24th International Congress of Applied Psychology. San Francisco, California, August 9-14.<br>[45] Crall, Alycia W., Gregory J. Newman, Thomas J. Stohlgren, Kristin A. Holfelder, Jim Graham, and Donald M. Waller. 2011. “Assessing Citizen Science Data Quality: An Invasive Species Case Study.” </i></b></u><i>Conservation Letters</i></b></u> 4: 433-442. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00196.<br>[46] Kosmola, Margaret, Andrea Wiggins, Alexandra Swanson, and Brooke Simmons. 2016. “Assessing Data Quality in Citizen Science.” </i></b></u><i>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment</i></b></u> 14(10): 551-560. doi: 10.1002/fee.1436.<br>[47] Hiller, Suzanne E., and Earle L. Reybold. 2011. “Field Expert’s Perceptions of Scientific Observations in the Natural World.” Paper presented at the annual research symposium of the North American Association for Environmental Education, Raleigh, North Caroling. October 12-16.<br>[48] Houseal, Ana K., Fouad Abd-El-Khalick, and Lizanne Destefano. 2014. “Impact of a Student–Teacher–Scientist Partnership on Students’ and Teachers’ Content Knowledge, Attitudes Toward Science, and Pedagogical Practices.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Research in Science Teaching</i></b></u> 51(1): 84-115. doi: 10.1002/tea.21126.<br>[49] Cleary, Timothy J., and Barry J. Zimmerman. 2004. “Self-regulation Empowerment Program: A School-based Program to Enhance Self-regulated and Self-motivated Cycles of Student Learning.” </i></b></u><i>Psychology in the Schools </i></b></u>41(5): 537-550. doi: 10.1002/pits.10177.<br>[50] Hiller, Suzanne E. 2012. “The Impact of a Citizen Science Program on Student Achievement and Motivation: A Social Cognitive Career Perspective.” PhD diss., George Mason University. ProQuest (UMI Number 3547088).<br>[51] Gerlach, Jonathan. 2012. “STEM: Defying a Simple Definition.” </i></b></u><i>National Science Teachers Association</i></b></u>, April 11. Accessed January 12, 2017. http://www.nsta.org/<br>publications/news/story.aspx?id=59305.<br>[52] Shanahan, Marie-Claire, Lydia E. Carol-Ann Burke, and Krista Francis. 2016. “Using a Boundary Object Perspective to Reconsider the Meaning of STEM in a Canadian Context.” </i></b></u><i>Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education</i></b></u> 16(2): 129-139. doi: 10.1080/14926156.2016.1166296.<br>[53] Campbell, Todd, Stephen B. Witzig, David J. Welty, and Margaret M. French. 2014. “STEM Education in the Science Classroom: A Critical Examination of Mathematics Manifest in Science Teaching and Learning.” In </i></b></u><i>Exemplary STEM Programs: Designs for Success</i></b></u>, edited by Robert E. Yager and Herbert Brunkhorst, 233-249. Arlington: National Science Teachers Association Press.<br>[54] </i></b></u><u>Jolly, Anne. 2014. “Six Characteristics of a Great STEM Lesson.” </i></b></u><span style=”font-style:italic;text-decoration:underline ;” >Education <br>Week Teacher</i></b></u><u>, June 17. Accessed January 12, 2017. </i></b></u>http://www.edweek.org/tm/<br>articles/2014/06/17/ctq_jolly_stem.html</i></b></u><u>.<br></i></b></u>[55] Bybee, Rodger W., Nancy M. Landes, Judith Opert Sandler, Karen Worth, Carolee Matsumoto, June Foster, Candace L. Julyan, Janice Mokros, William C. Kyle Jr., and Michael Kane. 1988. “The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS).” </i></b></u><i>Science and Children 25</i></b></u>(8): 35-39.<br>[56] Zimmerman, Barry J. 1989. “Models of Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement.” </i></b></u><i>Self-Regulation: Theory, Research, and Applications</i></b></u>, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, 13-39. Orlando: Academic Press. <br>[57] National Science Foundation. 2013. “Cubelets: Small Robots Teach Big Science Lessons.” Accessed February 3, 2017. https://www.nsf.gov/news/special_<br>reports/science_nation/modularrobots.jsp.<br>[58] Kaplon, Megan. 2015. “The Cost of Conservation and Restoration.” </i></b></u><i>Art Business News</i></b></u>. December 7. Accessed January 10, 2017. http://artbusinessnews.com/2015/<br>12/the-cost-of-conservation-and-restoration/.<br>[59] Brown, Angelette M., Gillian H. Roehrig, and Tamara J. Moore.2014. “Middle School Engineering Education.” </i></b></u><i>Exemplary STEM Programs: Designs for Success</i></b></u>, edited by Robert E. Yager and Herbert Brunkhorst, 125-142. Arlington: National Science Teachers Association Press.<br>[60] van der Wal, Ren</i></b></u><p><b>é</i></b></u>, Helen Anderson, Annie Robinson, Nirwan Sharma, Chris Mellish, Stuart Roberts, Ben Darvill, and Advaith Siddharthan. 2016. “Mapping Species Distributions: A Comparison of Skilled Naturalist and Lay Citizen Science Recording.” </i></b></u><i>Ambio</i></b></u> 44(Suppl. 4): S584–S600. doi: 10.1007/s13280-015-0709-x.<br>[61] Laughlin, Stewart, Evan L. MacLean, David Ivy, Vanessa Woods, Eliot Cohen, Kerri Rodriguez, Matthew McIntryre, Sayan Mukherjee, Josep Call, Juliane Kaminski, J. Ádám Milósi, Richard W. Wrangham, and Brian Hare. 2015. “Citizen Science as a New Tool in Dog Cognition Research.”</i></b></u><i>PLoS ONE</i></b></u> 10(9): 1-16. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135176.<br>[62] Black, Jeffrey M., Erin Wampole, and Jeanne E. Mayer, J. E. 2016. “Fifteen Years of River Otter Monitoring by Citizen Science Volunteers in Northern California: Litter size.” </i></b></u><i>Northwestern Naturalist</i></b></u> 97: 226-236. <br>[63] Le Féon, Violette, Mickaël Henry, Laurent Guilbaud, Clémentine Coiffait-Gombault, Eric Dufrêne, Emilie Kolodziejczyk, Michael Kuhlmann, Fabrice Requier, and Bernard E. Vaissière. 2016. “An Expert-Assisted Citizen Science Program Involving Agricultural High Schools Provides National Patterns on Bee Species Assemblages.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Insect Conservation</i></b></u> 20: 905–918. doi: 10.1007/<br>s10841-016-9927-1.<br>[64] Meyer, Nathan J., Siri Scott, Andrea Lorek Strauss, Pamela L. Nippolt, Karen S. Oberhauser, and Robert B. Blair. 2014. “Citizen Science as a REAL Environment for Authentic Scientific inquiry. </i></b></u><i>Journal of Extension</i></b></u> 52(4): 1-7. Accessed February 3, 2017. https.//www.joe.org/joe/2014august/iw3.php.<br>[65] Eberbach, Catherine, and Kevin Crowley. 2009. “From Everyday to Scientific Observation: How Children Learn to Observe the Biologist’s World.” </i></b></u><i>Review of Educational Research</i></b></u> 79(1): 39-68. doi: 10.3102/0034654308325899.<br>[66] Bombaugh, Ruth. 2000. “From Citizen Scientist to Engineers.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice </i></b></u>126(2): 64-68. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1052-3928(2000)126:2(64).<br>[67] Dohrenwend, Peter. 2012. “Citizen Science: International Pellet Watch.” </i></b></u><i>Science Scope</i></b></u>: 51-53. <br>[68] Freitag, Amy, and Max J. Pfeffer. 2013. “Process, Not Product: Investigating Recommendations for Improving Citizen Science ‘Success’”. </i></b></u><i>PLos ONE</i></b></u> 8(5): 1-4. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064079.<br>[69] Delaney, David G., Corinne D. Sperling, Christiaan S. Adams, and Brian Leung. 2008. “Marine Invasive Species: Validation of Citizen Science and Implications for National Monitoring Networks.” </i></b></u><i>Biological Invasions</i></b></u> 10: 117–128.<br>[70] Malykhina, Elena. 2013. “8 Apps that Turn Citizens into Scientists. </i></b></u><i>Scientific American</i></b></u> 1: 1-19. Accessed January 28, 2017. https://www.scientificamerican.<br>com/article/8-apps-that-turn-citizens-into-scientists/.<br>[71] Berk, Louis J., Sharon L. Muret-Wagstaff, Riya Goyal, Julie A. Joyal, James A. Gordon, Russell Faux, and Nancy E. Oriol. 2014. “Inspiring Careers in STEM and Healthcare Fields Through Medical Simulation Embedded in High School Science Education. Advances in Physiology Education 38: 210-215. doi: 10.1152/<br>advan.00143.2013.<br>[72] Cira, Nate J., Alice M. Chung, Aleksandra K. Denisin, Stefano Rensi, Gabriel N. Sanchez, Stephen R. Quake, and Ingmar Riedel-Kruse. 2015. “A Biotic Game Design Project for Integrated Life Science and Engineering Education.” </i></b></u><i>PLoS Biology</i></b></u> 13(3): 1-8, doi: 10.1371/ journal.pbio.1002110.<br>[73] Karahan, Engin, Sedef Canbazoglu Bilici, and Aycin Unal. 2015. “Integration of Media Design Processes in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education.” </i></b></u><i>Eurasian Journal of Educational Research</i></b></u> 60: 221-240. doi: 10.14689/ejer.2015.60.15.<br>[74] Weigund, Michael. 2014. “The Digital Woodlouse-Scaffolding in Science-Related Scratch Projects.” </i></b></u><i>Informatics in Education</i></b></u> 13(2): 293-305. doi: 10.15388/<br>infedu.2014.09.<br>[75] Xie, Yichun, and Allison Hoff, A. 2015. “Geographical Information Science and Technology Based STEM Education in e-Learning. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the European Conference on e-Learning, Hatfield, United Kingdom, October 29-30.<br><br>Chapter 8:<br> [1] Shapiro, Jordan. 2016. “How to Train 68.8 Million Teachers. Because That’s How Many the World Needs.” Forbes. Accessed December 11. http://www.<br>forbes.com/sites/jordanshapiro/2016/10/09/how-to-train-68-8-million-teachers-because-thats-how-many-the-world-needs/#31f995a66da7.<br>[2] Yu, Angela Yan, Stella Wen Tian, Douglas Vogel, and Ron Chi-Wai Kwok. <br>2010. “Can Learning be Virtually Boosted? An Investigation of Online Social Networking Impacts.” </i></b></u><i>Computers and Education</i></b></u> 55: 1494-1503. doi: 10.1016/j.<br>compedu.2010.06.015.<br>[3] Becker, Ryan, and Penny Bishop. 2016. “Think Bigger About Science: Using Twitter for Learning in the Middle Grades.” </i></b></u><i>Middle School Journal</i></b></u> 47(3): 4-16. doi: 10.1080/00940771.2016.1135097.</i></b></u><br></i></b></u>[4] Cho, Kwangsu, and Moon-Heum Cho. 2013. “Training of Self-Regulated Learning Skills on a Social Network System.” </i></b></u><i>Social Psychological Education</i></b></u> 16: 617-634. doi:10.1007/s11218-013-9229-3.<br></i></b></u><u>[5] </i></b></u>Kitsantas, Anastasia, and Nada Dabbagh. 2010. </i></b></u><i>Learning to Learn with Integrative Learning Technologies.</i></b></u> Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.</i></b></u><u><br></i></b></u>[6] Zooinverse. 2017. Accessed February 2. https://www.zooniverse.org/projects?<br>status=live.<br>[7] Dawson, Gowan, Chris Lintott, and Sally Shuttleworth. 2015. “Constructing Scientific Communities: Citizen Science in the Nineteenth and Twenty-<br>First Centuries.” </i></b></u><i>Journal of Victorian Culture</i></b></u> 20(2): 246-254. doi: 10.1080/<br>13555502.2015.1022053.<br>[8] Bybee, Rodger W. 2014. “The BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Personal Reflections and Contemporary Implications.” </i></b></u><i>Science and Children</i></b></u>, 51(8): 10-13. doi: 10.2505/4/sc14_051_08_10.<br>[9] Campbell, Todd, Stephen B. Witzig, David J. Welty, and Margaret M. French. 2014. “STEM Education in the Science Classroom: A Critical Examination of Mathematics Manifest in Science Teaching and Learning.” In </i></b></u><i>Exemplary STEM Programs: Designs for Success , edited by Robert E. Yager and Herbert Brunkhorst, 233-249. Arlington: National Science Teachers Association Press.<br>[10] Bleicher, Robert E. 2006. “Nurturing Confidence in Preservice Elementary Science Teachers.”  Journal of Science Teacher Education  17: 165–187. doi: 10.1007/<br>s10972-006-9016-5.<br>[11] Ladson-Billings, Gloria. 2016. “And Then There is This Thing Called the Curriculum: Organization, Imagination, and Mind.” Educational Researcher,  45(2): 100-104. doi: 10.3102/0013189X16639042.<br>[12] Shanahan, Marie-Claire, Lydia E. Carol-Ann Burke, and Krista Francis. 2016. “Using a Boundary Object Perspective to Reconsider the Meaning of STEM in a Canadian Context.” Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education  16(2): 129-139. doi: 10.1080/14926156.2016.1166296


Reviews

“This is a must read book for any teacher interested in fostering student self-regulation in science education classrooms. Grounded in empirical research, the author provides guidance for teachers on how to create learning environments that support and promote student self-regulatory functioning. Practical step-by-step lesson plans and related instructional artifacts are thoroughly described and ready for use by novices and veteran teachers alike. An amazing book that will both guide and transform teaching in science education contexts. ”  – Anastasia Kitsantas, Ph. D., Professor of Educational Psychology in the College of Education and Human Development, USA


This book would be relevant to college instructors who teach undergraduate and graduate level educational psychology courses as well as instructors working with science preservice teachers. In addition, this work would assist researchers interested in the interaction of metacognition, self-regulation, and science achievement.
Within formal and informal learning contexts, stakeholders interested in advancing the science potential of students such as educators, administrators, and parents would find this work applicable. Overall, individuals who would be interested in this work would be focused on improved adolescent science achievement by connecting theory with authentic applications, particularly in terms of developing metacognitive skills within a self-regulatory cyclical feedback loop model.
As a practical tool, this work is useful for classroom practitioners, administrators, and parents as there are explicit instructional artifacts and lesson design descriptions on how to infuse metacognitive and self-regulatory features. For university instructors, this work may serve as a course text used for discussion.

Additional information

Binding

, ,