Marine Medicinal Glycomics

Vitor Hugo Pomin (Editor)
Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Series: Biotechnology in Agriculture, Industry and Medicine, Biochemistry Research Trends
BISAC: SCI007000

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Glycomics is an international project that analyzes systematically and comparatively the overall and/or specific structural and biological properties of carbohydrates, also known as sugars or glycans, within a repertoire from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even from a certain environment, as found under specific conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest “omics” projects to be launched into biology. This is because carbohydrates were primarily considered a mere class of structural or energetic molecules. Besides that, structural and functional studies in glycomics are more challenging than other projects, and analytical limitations in glycobiology have impaired the progress.

However, with the development of technology, and mostly through recent scientific achievements, innumerous vital biological functions have been uncovered and attributed to the sugars. Moreover, certain glycans may also exhibit effective medicinal properties which have in turn awakened a great interest by pharmaceutical companies. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of function and structure, and they differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This book compiles and illustrates some of these recent achievements concerning the principle examples of marine sugars with medical properties, such as chitin, chitosan, sulfated polysaccharides and glycoconjugates. Their therapeutic actions are very broad since they are comprised of beneficial effects in many systems such as inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis and vascular biology. Additional information about the enzymatic synthesis, chemically modified derivatives, relevance of composing units and other biochemical properties of these marine medicinal glycans are also discussed herein. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical )

Preface

Chapter 1 – Marine Derived Functional Biopolymer Chitosan and its Derivatives for Biomedical Applications
(Shelma R. and Chandra P. Sharma, Division of Biosurface technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India)

Chapter 2 – N-Acetylglucosamine: Medical Importance of Chitin and Chitosan
(Ali Özhan Aytekin, Ahmet Katý and Berna Üstüner, Department of Genetic and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yeditepe University, 26 Aðustos Campus, Kayýþdaðý, Ýstanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 3 – Enzymatic Synthesis of Chitin Oligosaccharides with Longer Chains
(Naoyuki Umemoto, Takayuki Ohnuma and Tamo Fukamizo, Department of Advanced Bioscience, Kinki University, Nakamachi, Nara, Japan)

Chapter 4 – Therapeutic Potential of Fucoidans in Ischemic Diseases
(C. Boisson-Vidal, Sylvia Colliec-Jouault and Anne Marie Fischer, Inserm UMR, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, avenue de l’observatoire Paris, France, and others)
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Chapter 5 – Polysaccharides Obtained from Marine Organisms in Obesity Control
(Rafael Barros Gomes Camara, Ruth Medeiros Oliveira and Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha, Laboratório de Biotecnologia de Polímeros Naturais (BIOPOL), Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal/RN, Brazil)

Chapter 6 – Application of Marine Polysaccharides in Nanotechnology
(Raniere Fagundes Melo-Silveira, Jailma Almeida-Lima, and Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha, Laboratório de Biotecnologia de Polímeros Naturais (BIOPOL), Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal/RN, Brazil)

Chapter 7 – Anticoagulant Properties of Marine Polysaccharides (P. Shobharani, R. Sowmya and N.M. Sachindra, Central Food Technological Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Mysore, India)

Chapter 8 – Structure-Function Relationship of Anticoagulant and Antithrombotic Marine Sulfated Polysaccharides of Well-Defined Chemical Structures
(Vitor H. Pomin, Program of Glycobiology, Institute of Medical Biochemistry, and University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

Chapter 9 – Marine Sulfated Glycans with an Unusual Serpin-Independent Anticoagulant Activity
(Bianca F. Glauser, Paulo A.S. Mourão, and Vitor H. Pomin, Program of Glycobiology, Institute of Medical Biochemistry, University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

Chapter 10 – Biological Activities and Health Benefits of Marine-Derived Glycoconjugates
(Se-Kwon Kim and Sung-Hwan Eom, Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan, Republic of Korea, and others)

Index

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