Liver Failure: Etiologies, Neurological Complications and Emerging Therapies

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Carmen Peralta, PhD (Editor)
Experimental Liver Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Roselló, Barcelona, Spain

Luis Fontana, PhD (Editor)
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Jose Mataix, Biomedical Research Center, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

Series: Hepatology Research and Clinical Developments
BISAC: MED114000

The recently published article “The Burden of Liver Disease in Europe: A Review of Available Epidemiological Data” provides a few figures on the enormous problem that liver disease poses for Europeans. Liver disease is estimated to cause 170,000 deaths annually in Europe, 47,000 of which are attributed to liver cancer; 0.5%-0.7% of the European population is affected by chronic hepatitis B; and prevalence rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the last decade in the European population ranged from 0.13 to 3.26%. These HCV-infected populations will develop complications in the years to come. It is of great concern that about 90% of people in Europe infected by viral hepatitis are unaware of their status. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) must also be added to the picture. NAFLD is becoming a major concern with the increasing incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in Europe. The burden of liver disease is not less pessimistic in North America, Asia and the rest of the world.

The neurological complications associated with liver failure are an unsolved problem in clinical practice. Little is known about the mechanisms that underlay their development. This book assembles an internationally recognized array of contributors that address the most important issues associated with this pathology.

The book comprises fourteen chapters divided into two sections. The first section is devoted to the complications of liver failure and orthotopic liver transplantation. The second section focuses on the most recent and emerging therapies for liver disease and its complications: the new pharmacological arsenal for hepatitis B and C, cell-free and bioartificial liver support systems, hepatocyte and stem cell therapy, and novel approaches to prevent parenteral nutrition-associated liver failure in children among them. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical )

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Table of Contents

Preface pp. i-x

First Section pp. 1-2

Chapter 1. Hepatic Failure as an Early Complication Following Orthotopic Liver Transplantation
(Linda E. Muñoz, Paula Cordero, Idalia A. Cura, Guillermo Delgado, Homero Zapata, Edelmiro Pérez, Homero Nañez and Miguel M. Escobedo, Autonomous University of Nuevo León (UANL), Monterrey, Mexico)pp. 3-14

Chapter 2. Neurological Complications in Liver Transplantation
(Mónica B. Jiménez-Castro, Maria Elias-Miró and Carmen Peralta, Institut d´Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain)pp. 15-44

Chapter 3. Hepatic Encephalopathy, Cerebral Blood Flow and the Changes in Oxidative Metabolism
(Peter Nissen Bjerring and Fin Stolze Larsen, Department of Hepatology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark)pp. 45-58

Chapter 4. New Insight into the Molecular Roles in the Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy
(Mingli Liu and Shanchun Guo, Microbiology, Biochemistry and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA)pp. 59-72

Chapter 5. Disordered Central Neural Regulation of the Cardiovascular System in Liver Failure
(Hongqun Liu, Lamees Almutlaq and Samuel S. Lee, University of Calgary, Liver Unit, Calgary, Canada)pp. 73-88

Chapter 6. Hepatic Microcirculation in Chronic Liver Disease
(Giusi Marrone and Jordi Gracia-Sancho, Barcelona Hepatic Hemodynamic Laboratory, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación en Red en Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Barcelona, Spain)pp. 89-106

Chapter 7. Astrocytes and Endothelial Cells Behavior Found in Brain Hippocampus in Prehepatic Portal Hypertensive Rats
(A. Lemberg, M.A. Fernández, V. Turco, J.M. Cárcamo, M.P. Torres, P.F. Galassi Gerez and E. Filinger, Physiopathology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires, Argentina and others)pp. 107-118

Second Section pp. 119-120

Chapter 8. Direct Antiviral Agents for Chronic Viral Hepatitis Treatment
(N. Chueca, M. Álvarez, V. Guillot, A. Peña and F. García, Microbiology Service. Hospital Universitario San Cecilio, Granada, Spain)pp. 121-138

Chapter 9. Emergent Therapies in Acute Liver Failure
(Sheila Cristina L. Sanches, Leandra Náira Z. Ramalho and Fernando S. Ramalho, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil)pp. 139-158

Chapter 10. Overview of Artificial Liver Support Systems in the World and New Promising Methods
(Kazuaki Inoue and Makoto Yoshiba, Department of Gastroenterology, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Yokohama, Japan, and others)pp. 159-176

Chapter 11. Cell Therapy in Human Liver-Based Diseases
(Julio Plaza-Diaz, Sergio Muñoz-Quezada and Luis Fontana, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Spain, and others)pp. 177-196

Chapter 12. Emerging Therapies for Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Failure in Children: A Focus on Preventative Strategies
(Adam W. Bartlett and Chee Yee Ooi, Department of Gastroenterology, Sydney Children’s Hospital Randwick, New South Wales, Australia, and others)pp. 197-218

Chapter 13. The Endocannabinoid System in Hepatic Encephalopathy: Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Potential
(Ramon Bartolí, Gemma Ódena and Ramon Planas, Centro de Investigacion Biomedical en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas, CIBERehd, Barcelona, España, and others)pp. 219-234

Chapter 14. The Role of MicroRNA in Liver Failure and Hepatic Carcinogenesis
(Georgios Tsoulfas and Polyxeni Agorastou, University of Thessaloniki, Greece)pp. 235-250

Index pp. 251-253

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