Leukemia. Radiation. Chornobyl (Oncohematological Consequences of the Chornobyl Catastrophe)

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Daniil Gluzman, Michael Zavelevych, Alex Philchenkov, Stella Koval, Leo Guslitser
Department of Oncohematology, R. E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, the NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Series: Nuclear Materials and Disaster Research
BISAC: SCI026000

The Chernobyl disaster of 1986 is among the largest technogenic catastrophes in the history of humankind. The vast territories of Ukraine, Republic of Belarus, Russian Federation as well as bordering European states have been exposed to the contamination by the long-lived radionuclides released from the destroyed nuclear power station. The medical consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe are being studied for more than three decades. In fact, the increased risk of certain forms of leukemia is among the major stochastic effects of radiation exposure. Nevertheless, the final unambiguous conclusions as to the role of low-dose radiation exposure in the induction of leukemia are still pending.
The book presents the results of studies on the diagnosis of various forms of hematological malignancies in Ukrainian patients provided for more than thirty years in the Oncohematology Department of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Among the groups of leukemia patients were the Chernobyl clean-up workers as well as the patients from Ukrainian population (adults and children) inhabiting the territories with different levels of radionuclide contamination. For the first time, some trends in the patterns of hematological malignancies in several sample groups under study have been identified throughout the post-Chernobyl period. The putative association between the low dose radiation exposure and the increasing risk of acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic lymphocytic leukemia has been discussed based on the findings of the authors of the book as well as the data of the available literature.

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Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Leukemia in A-Bomb Survivors

Chapter 2. Leukemia Related to Nuclear Weapon Tests and Radiation Accidents

Chapter 3. Biomarkers of Radiation-Associated Leukemogenesis

Chapter 4. Ionizing Radiation and Myelodysplastic Syndromes

Chapter 5. Ionizing Radiation and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Chapter 6. Leukemia in Chornobyl Clean-up Workers

Chapter 7. Epidemiological Studies of Hematological Malignancies in Adult Population of Ukraine, Republic of Belarus and Russian Federation after Chornobyl Accident

Chapter 8. Epidemiological Studies of Hematological Malignancies in Childhood Population of Ukraine, Republic of Belarus and Russian Federation after Chornobyl Accident

Chapter 9. Diagnostic Studies of Leukemia and Malignant Neoplasms in Children of Ukraine

Chapter 10. Patterns of Hematological Malignancies in Patients from Regions of Ukraine with Different Levels of Contamination by Radionuclides Diagnosed in Ukrainian Reference Laboratory

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Reviews

“This work carried out by Professor Daniil F. Gluzman and his colleagues from the R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology of Kyiy, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on the consequences of the Chornobyl disaster in 1986 on the incidence of hematologic malignancies in the most affected regions in Ukraine should be praised. A difficult endeavor given the scarcity of local registries for different diseases. The authors for the first time report a trend towards an increase in some forms of leukemia, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and, possibly, also of myelodysplastic syndromes following the Chornobyl tragedy. While the data on AML were expected, the evidence of an increase in CLL cases is probably a surprise and the effect of long-lived radionuclide contamination on chronic B-cell malignancies deserves further investigation. The book contains also a detailed description on the available literature data. From the survivors of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, to nuclear weapon tests and radiation accidents, and their possible association with malignant diseases. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to biomarkers of radiation-associated leukemogenesis. In essence a comprehensive book on the potential consequences of nuclear leaks that ties together literature data, biomarkers and the first evidence of the consequences of the Chornobyl explosion on the occurrence of hematologic malignancies. A book that in my opinion should be made broadly available to the medical community, but also to the general public. Global awareness and information have become a crucial part of our existence and wellbeing today and more so tomorrow.” -Robin Foà, Professor of Hematology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy

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