Knowledge, Technology and Applications of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) in the Food Industry

Qian Lu and Yaqiang He
Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, China

Series: Food Science and Technology
BISAC: TEC012000




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Due to recent studies, quinoa is regarded as a new food resource with great benefits for human beings. Due to its high value in nutrients, this kind of wheat is being exploited in the food industry as a new food resource. However, currently some questions relating to quinoa have been raised: (1) How to scientifically exploit and process quinoa? (2) What are the functional nutrients in quinoa? (3) What are the bottlenecks for quinoa processing? (4) How to eliminate or mitigate the technical bottlenecks for quinoa? Without answering these questions, the academic research and industrial application of quinoa would be negatively impacted.

This book reviews the history and culture associated with quinoa. The cultivation model and growth conditions of quinoa are discussed as well how to direct the technicians on farms to manage the quinoa cultivation. This book uses experimental data to describe how to use quinoa in food production. The strengths of quinoa will be summarized by the comparison between quinoa and other types of wheat. The processing technologies and potential solutions to current technical problems are also emphasized in this book. Both academic research and industrial applications are included in this book. This book could be used by technicians to cultivate quinoa and produce quinoa based food products as well as by the researchers to promote their research on active compounds in quinoa. (Imprint: Nova)



Chapter 1. History and Culture of Quinoa

Chapter 2. Cultivation and Growth of Quinoa

Chapter 3. Exploitation of Nutrients in Quinoa for Food Supplements

Chapter 4. Applications of Quinoa in Steamed Bread

Chapter 5. Applications of Quinoa in Noodles

Chapter 6. Applications of Quinoa in Sweet Dumplings

Chapter 7. Applications of Quinoa in Solid Drink

Chapter 8. Applications of Quinoa in Cake Production

Chapter 9. Current Processing Technologies and Potential Solutions


Chapter 1

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Chapter 4

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Chapter 5

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Chapter 6

Anderson, James W, Pat Baird, Richard H Davis, Stefanie Ferreri, Mary Knudtson, Ashraf Koraym, Valerie Waters, and Christine L Williams. 2009. “Health benefits of dietary fiber.” Nutrition reviews no. 67 (4):188-205.
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Bolade, Mathew Kolawole, and Isaac Adebayo Adeyemi. 2012. “Functionality enhancement of composite cassava flour in the production of maize tuwo (a non-fermented maize-based food dumpling).” Food and Bioprocess Technology no. 5 (4):1340-1348.
Branen, A Larry, P Michael Davidson, Seppo Salminen, and John Thorngate. 2001. Food additives: CRC Press.
Crinnion, Walter J. 2010. “Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer.” Alternative Medicine Review no. 15 (1):4-13.
Epstein, Leonard H, Constance C Gordy, Hollie A Raynor, Marlene Beddome, Colleen K Kilanowski, and Rocco Paluch. 2001. “Increasing fruit and vegetable intake and decreasing fat and sugar intake in families at risk for childhood obesity.” Obesity research no. 9 (3):171-178.
Gao, Xueqin, Wangang Zhang, and Guanghong Zhou. 2014. “Effects of glutinous rice flour on the physiochemical and sensory qualities of ground pork patties.” LWT-Food Science and Technology no. 58 (1):135-141.
Guo, Li, Juanjuan Zhang, Jian Hu, Xueling Li, and Xianfeng Du. 2015. “Susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes.” Carbohydrate polymers no. 128:154-162.
Li, Si Yi, and Ya Ping Yang. 2012. The innovation design of the molding method and machine about non spherical sweet dumpling. Paper read at Applied Mechanics and Materials.
Mi, Jia, Yan Liang, Yanmin Lu, Congping Tan, and Bo Cui. 2014. “Influence of acetylated potato starch on the properties of dumpling wrapper.” Industrial Crops and Products no. 56:113-117.
Monti, Andrea, Nicola Di Virgilio, and Gianpietro Venturi. 2008. “Mineral composition and ash content of six major energy crops.” Biomass and Bioenergy no. 32 (3):216-223.
Nasser, J. 2001. “Taste, food intake and obesity.” Obesity Reviews no. 2 (4):213-218.
Oerke, E-C, H-W Dehne, Fritz Schönbeck, and Adolf Weber. 2012. Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops: Elsevier.
Okahisa, Naoki, Yasuhiro Inatsu, Vijay K Juneja, and Shinichi Kawamoto. 2008. “Evaluation and control of the risk of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria present in Awa-Uirou, a sticky rice cake containing sweet red bean paste.” Foodborne pathogens and disease no. 5 (3):351-359.
Phan-Thien, Nhan, and Mohsen Safari-Ardi. 1998. “Linear viscoelastic properties of flour–water doughs at different water concentrations.” Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics no. 74 (1):137-150.
Russell, Laura B. 2011. The Gluten-free Asian Kitchen: Recipes for Noodles, Dumplings, Sauces, and More: Celestial Arts.
Sacchetti, G, GG Pinnavaia, E Guidolin, and M Dalla Rosa. 2004. “Effects of extrusion temperature and feed composition on the functional, physical and sensory properties of chestnut and rice flour-based snack-like products.” Food Research International no. 37 (5):527-534.
Schmidt, Veronika M, Dirk Louis P Schorkopf, Michael Hrncir, Ronaldo Zucchi, and Friedrich G Barth. 2006. “Collective foraging in a stingless bee: dependence on food profitability and sequence of discovery.” Animal Behaviour no. 72 (6):1309-1317.
Weickert, Martin O, and Andreas FH Pfeiffer. 2008. “Metabolic effects of dietary fiber consumption and prevention of diabetes.” The Journal of nutrition no. 138 (3):439-442.

Chapter 7

Assy, Nimer, Gattas Nasser, Iad Kamayse, William Nseir, Zaza Beniashvili, Agness Djibre, and Maria Grosovski. 2008. “Soft drink consumption linked with fatty liver in the absence of traditional risk factors.” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology no. 22 (10):811-816.
Brennan, Charles, Margaret Brennan, Emma Derbyshire, and Brijesh K Tiwari. 2011. “Effects of extrusion on the polyphenols, vitamins and antioxidant activity of foods.” Trends in Food Science & Technology no. 22 (10):570-575.
Castro, WF, LRB Mariutti, and N Bragagnolo. 2011. “The effects of colorifico on lipid oxidation, colour and vitamin E in raw and grilled chicken patties during frozen storage.” Food chemistry no. 124 (1):126-131.
Das, Kunal, Dipa Ray, NR Bandyopadhyay, Anirudhha Gupta, Suparna Sengupta, Saswata Sahoo, Amar Mohanty, and Manjusri Misra. 2010. “Preparation and characterization of cross-linked starch/poly (vinyl alcohol) green films with low moisture absorption.” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research no. 49 (5):2176-2185.
Grimes, Carley A, Lynn J Riddell, and Caryl A Nowson. 2009. “Consumer knowledge and attitudes to salt intake and labelled salt information.” Appetite no. 53 (2):189-194.

Ha, Eun-Jeong, Natalie Caine-Bish, Christopher Holloman, and Karen Lowry-Gordon. 2009. “Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults.” Nutrition journal no. 8 (1):50.
He, Feng J, Naomi M Marrero, and Graham A MacGregor. 2008. “Salt intake is related to soft drink consumption in children and adolescents.” Hypertension no. 51 (3):629-634.
Holz, Martina, André Förster, Stephan Mauersberger, and Gerold Barth. 2009. “Aconitase overexpression changes the product ratio of citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica.” Applied microbiology and biotechnology no. 81 (6):1087-1096.
Miyazato, Shoko, Chie Nakagawa, Yuka Kishimoto, Hiroyuki Tagami, and Hiroshi Hara. 2010. “Promotive effects of resistant maltodextrin on apparent absorption of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in rats.” European journal of nutrition no. 49 (3):165-171.
Motevali, Ali, Saeid Minaei, and Mohammad Hadi Khoshtagaza. 2011. “Evaluation of energy consumption in different drying methods.” Energy Conversion and Management no. 52 (2):1192-1199.
Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel, and Carmen Cabrera-Vique. 2008. “Selenium in food and the human body: a review.” Science of the total environment no. 400 (1):115-141.
Reutskaja, Elena, Rosemarie Nagel, Colin F Camerer, and Antonio Rangel. 2011. “Search dynamics in consumer choice under time pressure: An eye-tracking study.” The American Economic Review no. 101 (2):900-926.
Sandell, Lisa L, Megan L Lynn, Kimberly E Inman, William McDowell, and Paul A Trainor. 2012. “RDH10 oxidation of Vitamin A is a critical control step in synthesis of retinoic acid during mouse embryogenesis.” PloS one no. 7 (2):e30698.

Santini, Antonello, Rosalia Ferracane, Petra Mikušová, Štefan Eged, Antonia Šrobárová, Giuseppe Meca, Jordi Mañes, and Alberto Ritieni. 2011. “Influence of different coffee drink preparations on ochratoxin A content and evaluation of the antioxidant activity and caffeine variations.” Food Control no. 22 (8):1240-1245.
Soylak, Mustafa, Yunus Emre Unsal, Erkan Yilmaz, and Mustafa Tuzen. 2011. “Determination of rhodamine B in soft drink, waste water and lipstick samples after solid phase extraction.” Food and chemical toxicology no. 49 (8):1796-1799.
Stella, Suzana P, Alessandra C Ferrarezi, Karina O dos Santos, and Magali Monteiro. 2011. “Antioxidant Activity of Commercial Ready‐to‐Drink Orange Juice and Nectar.” Journal of food science no. 76 (3):C392-C397.
Tang, Jason E, Daniel R Moore, Gregory W Kujbida, Mark A Tarnopolsky, and Stuart M Phillips. 2009. “Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men.” Journal of applied physiology no. 107 (3):987-992.
Weinbreck, F, I Bodnár, and ML Marco. 2010. “Can encapsulation lengthen the shelf-life of probiotic bacteria in dry products?” International journal of food microbiology no. 136 (3):364-367.
White, James P, Jacob M Wilson, Krista G Austin, Beau K Greer, Noah St John, and Lynn B Panton. 2008. “Effect of carbohydrate-protein supplement timing on acute exercise-induced muscle damage.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition no. 5 (1):5.
Wu, Di, Yong He, Shuijuan Feng, and Da-Wen Sun. 2008. “Study on infrared spectroscopy technique for fast measurement of protein content in milk powder based on LS-SVM.” Journal of Food Engineering no. 84 (1):124-131.

Chapter 8

Abdulmumeen, Hamid A, Ahmed N Risikat, and Agboola R Sururah. 2012. “Food: Its preservatives, additives and applications.” International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences no. 1 (2012):36-47.
Abidin, ASZ, J Annisa, WK Tan, ARH Rigit, JS Chong, MA Kiprawi, and PR Johnapi. 2014. “Development of a prototype model for fully automated Sarawak layered cake machine.”
Al-Dmoor, Hanee M. 2013. “Cake flour: functionality and quality.” European Scientific Journal, ESJ no. 9 (3).
Albanese, Anthony. 2012. Protein and amino acid nutrition: Elsevier.
Cintra, Dennys E, Eduardo R Ropelle, Juliana C Moraes, Jose R Pauli, Joseane Morari, Claudio T de Souza, Renato Grimaldi, Marcela Stahl, Jose B Carvalheira, and Mario J Saad. 2012. “Unsaturated fatty acids revert diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation in obesity.” PloS one no. 7 (1):e30571.

Di Luccio, Marco, Fernando Capra, Najara P Ribeiro, Gean DLP Vargas, Denise MG Freire, and Débora De Oliveira. 2004. Effect of temperature, moisture, and carbon supplementation on lipase production by solid-state fermentation of soy cake by Penicillium simplicissimum. Paper read at Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held May 4–7, 2003, in Breckenridge, CO.
Galli, Corraldo. 2013. Dietary ω3 and ω6 fatty acids: biological effects and nutritional essentiality. Vol. 171: Springer Science & Business Media.
Guardia, Pablo, Riccardo Di Corato, Lenaic Lartigue, Claire Wilhelm, Ana Espinosa, Mar Garcia-Hernandez, Florence Gazeau, Liberato Manna, and Teresa Pellegrino. 2012. “Water-soluble iron oxide nanocubes with high values of specific absorption rate for cancer cell hyperthermia treatment.” ACS nano no. 6 (4):3080-3091.
Jeong, Sohee, Wie-Soo Kang, and Malshick Shin. 2013. “Improvement of the quality of gluten-free rice pound cake using extruded rice flour.” Food Science and Biotechnology no. 22 (1):173-180.
Kim, Soyoung, and Briana Martinez. 2013. “Fashion consumer groups and online shopping at private sale sites.” International Journal of Consumer Studies no. 37 (4):367-372.
Mani, Nivedita, and Falk Huettig. 2012. “Prediction during language processing is a piece of cake—But only for skilled producers.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance no. 38 (4):843.
Prückler, Michael, Susanne Siebenhandl-Ehn, Silvia Apprich, Stefan Höltinger, Cornelia Haas, Erwin Schmid, and Wolfgang Kneifel. 2014. “Wheat bran-based biorefinery 1: Composition of wheat bran and strategies of functionalization.” LWT-Food Science and Technology no. 56 (2):211-221.

Rodríguez‐García, Julia, Ana Puig, Ana Salvador, and Isabel Hernando. 2012. “Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.” Journal of Food Science no. 77 (2):C189-C197.
Rucker, Derek D, Adam D Galinsky, and David Dubois. 2012. “Power and consumer behavior: How power shapes who and what consumers value.” Journal of Consumer Psychology no. 22 (3):352-368.
Sójka, Michał, Elżbieta Klimczak, Jakub Macierzyński, and Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk. 2013. “Nutrient and polyphenolic composition of industrial strawberry press cake.” European Food Research and Technology no. 237 (6):995-1007.
Santos, OV, NCF Corrêa, RN Carvalho, CEF Costa, LFF França, and SCS Lannes. 2013. “Comparative parameters of the nutritional contribution and functional claims of Brazil nut kernels, oil and defatted cake.” Food research international no. 51 (2):841-847.
Schipilliti, Luisa, Ivana Lidia Bonaccorsi, and Luigi Mondello. 2016. “Characterization of natural vanilla flavour in foodstuff by HS‐SPME and GC‐C‐IRMS.” Flavour and Fragrance Journal.
Sharoba, AM, MA Farrag, and AM Abd El-Salam. 2013. “Utilization of some fruits and vegetables waste as a source of dietary fiber and its effect on the cake making and its quality attributes.” Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies no. 19 (4):429-444.
Suja, KP, A Jayalekshmy, and C Arumughan. 2005. “Antioxidant activity of sesame cake extract.” Food Chemistry no. 91 (2):
Weinberg, Joe, and Ryan Bakker. 2015. “Let them eat cake: food prices, domestic policy and social unrest.” Conflict Management and Peace Science no. 32 (3):309-326.
Wiese, Tiffany D, and Melani W Duffrin. 2003. “Effects of substituting pawpaw fruit puree for fat on the sensory properties of a plain shortened cake.” HortTechnology no. 13 (3):442-444.
Wilderjans, Edith, Annelies Luyts, Kristof Brijs, and Jan A Delcour. 2013. “Ingredient functionality in batter type cake making.” Trends in Food Science & Technology no. 30 (1):6-15.
Zhao, Peitao, Yafei Shen, Shifu Ge, Zhenqian Chen, and Kunio Yoshikawa. 2014. “Clean solid biofuel production from high moisture content waste biomass employing hydrothermal treatment.” Applied Energy no. 131:345-367.

Chapter 9

Abele, Andrea E, and Bogdan Wojciszke. 2007. “Agency and communion from the perspective of self versus others.” Journal of personality and social psychology no. 93 (5):751.
Esposito, Fabrizio, Guido Arlotti, Angela Maria Bonifati, Aurora Napolitano, Davide Vitale, and Vincenzo Fogliano. 2005. “Antioxidant activity and dietary fibre in durum wheat bran by-products.” Food Research International no. 38 (10):1167-1173.
Fortin, David R, and Ruby Roy Dholakia. 2005. “Interactivity and vividness effects on social presence and involvement with a web-based advertisement.” Journal of business research no. 58 (3):387-396.
Jacobsen, S‐E. 2011. “The situation for quinoa and its production in southern Bolivia: from economic success to environmental disaster.” Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science no. 197 (5):390-399.
Jayadas, NH, and K Prabhakaran Nair. 2006. “Coconut oil as base oil for industrial lubricants—evaluation and modification of thermal, oxidative and low temperature properties.” Tribology international no. 39 (9):873-878.
Katsanos, Christos S, Hisamine Kobayashi, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Asle Aarsland, and Robert R Wolfe. 2006. “A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism no. 291 (2):E381-E387.
Koves, Timothy R, John R Ussher, Robert C Noland, Dorothy Slentz, Merrie Mosedale, Olga Ilkayeva, James Bain, Robert Stevens, Jason RB Dyck, and Christopher B Newgard. 2008. “Mitochondrial overload and incomplete fatty acid oxidation contribute to skeletal muscle insulin resistance.” Cell metabolism no. 7 (1):45-56.
Lavie, Carl J, Richard V Milani, Mandeep R Mehra, and Hector O Ventura. 2009. “Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology no. 54 (7):585-594.
Maffei, Helga Verena Leoni, and Andréa Pereira Vicentini. 2011. “Prospective evaluation of dietary treatment in childhood constipation: high dietary fiber and wheat bran intake are associated with constipation amelioration.” Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition no. 52 (1):55-59.
Martínez, EA, E Veas, C Jorquera, R San Martín, and P Jara. 2009. “Re‐Introduction of Quínoa into Arid Chile: Cultivation of Two Lowland Races under Extremely Low Irrigation.” Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science no. 195 (1):1-10.
Martin, Charles E, Chan-Seok Oh, and Yide Jiang. 2007. “Regulation of long chain unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in yeast.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids no. 1771 (3):271-285.
Nascimento, Ana Cláudia, Carla Mota, Inês Coelho, Sandra Gueifão, Mariana Santos, Ana Sofia Matos, Alejandra Gimenez, Manuel Lobo, Norma Samman, and Isabel Castanheira. 2014. “Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.” Food chemistry no. 148:420-426.
Rodriguez, Rocio, Ana Jimenez, Juan Fernández-Bolaños, Rafael Guillén, and Antonia Heredia. 2006. “Dietary fibre from vegetable products as source of functional ingredients.” Trends in Food Science & Technology no. 17 (1):3-15.
Sim, Jeoung-Ha. 2006. “The effects of diet health education program for prehypertension group on the diet habit and blood pressure.” Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion no. 23 (4):1-12.
Slavin, Joanne L. 2005. “Dietary fiber and body weight.” Nutrition no. 21 (3):411-418.
Uttara, Bayani, Ajay V Singh, Paolo Zamboni, and RT Mahajan. 2009. “Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options.” Current neuropharmacology no. 7 (1):65-74.
Valenzuela, Carolina, Lilian Abugoch, and Cristian Tapia. 2013. “Quinoa protein–chitosan–sunflower oil edible film: Mechanical, barrier and structural properties.” LWT-Food Science and Technology no. 50 (2):531-537.
Zhang, Y-H Percival, Michael E Himmel, and Jonathan R Mielenz. 2006. “Outlook for cellulase improvement: screening and selection strategies.” Biotechnology advances no. 24 (5):452-481.
Zhang, Yi, Xiujuan Wang, Li Li, Weiqing Li, Feng Zhang, Tianxin Du, and Xiaogang Chu. 2013. “Simultaneous determination of 23 flavor additives in tobacco products using gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.” Journal of Chromatography A no. 1306:72-79.
Zheng, Xiaozhong, Douglas R Tocher, Cathryn A Dickson, J Gordon Bell, and Alan J Teale. 2005. “Highly unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in vertebrates: new insights with the cloning and characterization of a Δ6 desaturase of Atlantic salmon.” Lipids no. 40 (1):13-24.

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