Kainic Acid: Neurotoxic Properties, Biological Sources and Clinical Applications

Elisabeth Leone (Editor)

Series: Biochemistry Research Trends
BISAC: MED056000



Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick


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Kainic acid is a naturally occurring amino acid that is isolated from red algae and is known to cause amnesic shellfish poisoning via the activation of AMPA and kainate receptors in the hippocampus. Kainic acid is an analogue of glutamate and can modulate the transmission of glutamate. It’s neurotoxic potency has been shown to be 30 fold that of glutamate. Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter that exerts its postsynaptic effects through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors.

Of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs), kainic acid has a high affinity for 5 subtypes (KA1 and KA2, GluR5, GluR6, GluR7). Kainate receptors play a significant role in the physiological functioning and activity of numerous systems in the brain. This book discusses the neurotoxic properties of kainic acid, as well as the biological sources and clinical applications. (Imprint: Nova)


Chapter 1 - Neurovascular Pathways to Neurodegeneration Induced by Kainic Acid (pp. 1-28)
Sumit Sarkar, James Raymick, Dushyant Mann, John F. Bowyer, Larry C. Schmued and Srinivasulu Chigurupati (Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research/FDA, Jefferson, AR, USA, and others)

Chapter 2 - Expression of GluR6, A Kainate Receptor, in Human Lymphocytes (pp. 29-38)
Elena Marusich, Ph.D., Jean-Pierre Louboutin, M.D., Ph.D. and David S. Strayer, M.D., Ph.D. (Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA)

Chapter 3 - Progress in the Synthesis of (-)-α-Kainic Acid (pp. 39-46)
Nandeo Choony, Lisa James and Courtney Rabun (Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of South Carolina Aiken, Aiken, SC, USA)

Chapter 4 - Molecular Pharmacology of Environmental Neurotoxins (pp. 47-94)
Sushil Sharma (Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire (Anguilla Sub-Campus), The Netherlands)

Chapter 5 - The Effect of Kainic Acid on the Rat Brain: Histological, Electron-Microscopical and Two-Photon Microscopical Study (pp. 95-138)
Mzia G. Zhvania, Tamar G. Lordkipanidze, Maia Kiladze, Nadezhda J. Japaridze, Nato Kotaria and Tamar Z. Bikashvili (Institute of Chemical Biology, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia, and others)

Chapter 6 - Exposure to Kainic Acid Leads to the Development of Seizures and Memory Deficits in Rats (pp. 139-160)
Musa V. Mabandla and Lihle Qulu (School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durbin, South Africa)


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