Journal of Stem Cells

Journal of Stem Cells publishes papers on all aspects of stem cell research, including, but not limited to, the following topics.

Reproduction of stem cells: Self-renewal (role of transcription factors), multilineage differentiation, signaling pathways in differentiation, totipotency and pluripotency

Embryonic stem cells: Organ generation (Organogenesis), sites of proliferation and differentiation, trans-dermal differentiation, and organ specific trans-localization and development

Hematopoietic stem cells: Early (primitive) and late progenitors, differentiation (role of c-Mpl, thrombopoietin, homeobox, cytokines, growth factors, inhibitors)

Neural stem cells: Sites of generation and localization

Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Cardiovascular stem cells: Cardiomyocytes, Endothelial cells

Stem cells in disease:
Stem cells in congenital cytopenias
Stem cells in infection (HIV, hepatitis, other)
Stem cells in cancer and leukemia (abnormal proliferation)
Stem cells in autoimmune diseases including Multiple Sclerosis and Diabetes
Stem cells in Parkinson’s
Stem cells in retina and glaucoma (optic-nerve cell degeneration)
Stem cells in aging including Alzheimer’s
Stem cells in regeneration and degeneration

Chimeric animal models for human stem cells: Stem cell transplantation and reconstitution in vivo

Autologous stem cell transplantation and reconstitution: Different species and including primates and humans for studies on development, localization, and therapeutic strategies

Gene delivery through stem cells: Vectors, lineage specificity of endogenous and exogenous stem cell gene expression

Stem cells in therapy: Therapeutic regeneration of molecularly engineered and transplanted autologous stem cells in neurological and cardiovascular diseases due to inability of self-regeneration / repair of endogenous stem cells at sites of inflammation or disease

Regenerative Medicine

Translational Research

Current and New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research

Stem Cells and Complementary and Alternative Medicines

(Please follow this link and be taken directly to a featured open access article from the Journal of Stem Cells, issue 9#3.

“Biomarker Discovery and Biotherapeutics Applications of Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting and Bioluminescence Light-Emitting Chromophore-Protein Complexes in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine”

Journal of Stem Cells is abstracted in indexes owned by Elsevier (Scopus), ProQuest, EBSCO, and Chemical Abstracts Society (CAS).

Journal Editor: Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Prasad S. Koka (
ISSN: 1556-8539
Frequency: Quarterly



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Issue 1

Maxillary Canine Internal Root Resorption Concomitant to Orthodontic Retraction; Cone Beam Evaluation Hussam M. Abdel-Kader and Ahmed S. M. Ammar

TMD-Related Headache and Facial Pain: A Review Ibrahim Mortada, Rola Mortada, Mohamad Al Bazzal, Angelo Leone, and Abdo Jurjus

Effect of Chemical and Thermal Factors on Ni-Ti Endodontic Instruments: A Review Zahed Mohammadi and Sousan Shalavi

Co-Relation of the Disease Severity between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Chronic Periodontitis in South Indian Population T. Sivasankari, T. Ramakrishnan, B. Aruna, Kamal Kanathasan, Uma Sudhakar, Shankar Ram, Danny Mathew, and S. Parthiban

Prevalence of Maxillofacial Fractures Reported at Sandeman Provincial Hospital, Quetta, Pakistan Ambreen Mengal, Mirza Khan Tareen, and Jahangir Hamad

Resolution of Buccal Dehiscence Defect after Endodontic Treatment: A Case Report Jefferson J. C. Marion, Maíra Prado, Nicole A. Tomiazzi, Cleverson O. Silva, Emmanuel José Silva, and Thais M. Duque

Prevalence of ROM Levels (in GCF / Saliva, Plasma) in Smokers and Non-Smokers with Chronic Periodontitis Uma Sudhakar, T. Ramakrishnan, Vikram Buddhanesan, Himanshu Shekhar, Dr. Parthiban, and Dr. Karthikaivelan

Structuring, Logistics and Legal Aspects of Human Teeth Bank on the Northern Brazil Natácya Menezes de Souza Lopes, Glenda Araújo Pinheiro, Camila Sagica dos Anjos, Bárbara da Silva Neves, Arielle Monteiro Cristo, Silvio Augusto Fernandes de Menezes, Patricia de Almeida Rodrigues Silva e Souza, Ricardo Roberto de Souza Fonseca

Cavity Disinfectants in Restorative Dentistry- Journey til Date Karuna Yarmunja Mahabala, Arathi Rao, and P Anupama Nayak

Issue 2

Introduction: Dental pulp when exposed to iritants will endanger its life. The iatrogenic injury that happened during cavity preparation is the common cause of the pulp irritation. The response of the pulp to irritation is inflammation and, if left untreated, this will eventually progress to pulp necrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of mangosteen rind extract in rabbit teeth with reversible pulpitis. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 9 rabbits. 4 central incisors were used from each rabbit,. The teeth were perforated using small bur until bleeding, then after cleansing, materials will be applied. The materials used were the mangosteen rind of concentration 5% and 10%, and biodentine. All the teeth prepared and materials were applied to the 3 central incisors with one tooth left as control. The rabbits randomly assigned into 3 groups: Group 1: 3 rabbits decapitated 1 day post-injury, Group 2:

This research work is carried out to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of an anti-plaque agent, Hybnex® against the leading periodontal pathogens which are known to cause periodontal disease. Complete exclusion of these infective microbes and thereby impeding disease progression is the prime focus of periodontal therapy, which is virtually achieved by scaling and root planing. However, for maintenance of such perceptible conditions are carried out by the adjunctive use of antimicrobial agents. A total of fifteen intact human single rooted teeth were inoculated with periodontal pathogens to form a biofilm. The biofilm formed was confirmed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The specimens were then divided into 3 groups. Group I: specimens were treated with test agent. Group II: specimens were treated with 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) AND Group III: Specimens were treated with deionized water. The results showed comparable antimicrobial activity between test agent (Hybnex®) and CHX (0.2%) when compared to the deionized water, which was statistically significant (p < 0.001).

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a 37% phosphoric acid solution delivered by conventional irrigation, Endovac®, sonic and ultrasonic activated tips and plastic file on Ca(OH)2 removal using micro-CT. Methods: Fifty mesial roots of mandibular molars were manually instrumented. Ca(OH)2 paste was inserted into the root canal system with a 25 K-file. All teeth were scanned by micro-CT to determine the initial dressing volume. After 7 days, the Ca(OH)2 was removed with a 25 K-file and 10 mL of NaOCl. The specimens were allocated in 5 groups irrigated with phosphoric acid (n = 10): conventional irrigation (CI); Endovac (EV); Sonic irrigation (SI); Passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and Plastic file (PF). The teeth were re-scanned by micro-CT. Results: The percentage volume of Ca(OH)2 removal was calculated. Data was evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests (p < 0.05). PUI removed significantly more Ca(OH)2 than CI, EV and PF.

Purpose: To investigate the pulpal response to EPT before and after pulpotomy procedure. Methods: Sixty teeth (premolar and molar), belonged to patients aged 20-60 years, were included in this survey. Teeth had a history of spontaneous pain and were candidate for root canal treatment. Before anesthesia and emergency pulpotomy treatment, the response to EPT was recorded. Pulpotomy were accomplished and the access cavity were sealed using a temporary restoration 2-5 days after pulpotomy, the responses to EPT were recorded again and the root canal treatment were completed. Statistical analysis was performed with paired t-test. The significance level was set as p < 0.05. Results: According to the results of this study, the mean value of response to EPT was 3.08 ± 0.8 before and 4.5 ± 1.6 after pulpotomy. The pulpal response to EPT before and after pulpotomy had significant difference (p < .001).

Purpose: This study aimed to correlate the two quantitative radiomorphometric indices—MI and PMI—evaluated by panoramic radiographs, to the BMD obtained by bone densitometry in postmenopausal women in the Amazon region and demonstrate the importance of panoramic radiography as a screening tool for patients with low BMD. Methods: The indices measured on panoramic radiographs of 91 postmenopausal women were evaluated and compared with the diagnosis of bone densitometry, using the chi-square and Pearson correlation test for statistical evaluation. Results: Patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia presented lower index values than normal patients. The correlation test showed that patients classified by densitometry as having normal bone density or osteoporosis, are more likely to be classified similarly by PMI. Moreover, cases classified as normal or with osteopenia and osteoporosis by densitometry are more likely to be classified similarly by the MI. The evaluated indices were able to identify women with low bone mass, showing that panoramic radiography can be a useful tool for screening such

Purpose: Revascularization has emerged as a favorable treatment option, in particular for teeth with pulp necrosis in the early stages of root formation. However, internal tooth discoloration has been observed by triple antibiotic paste, as well as by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) used in the revascularization procedure. Case Report: In this report, a case of traumatized immature teeth was treated with pulp revascularization using two intracanal medicaments - triple antibiotic paste and the combination of calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel, and its effect on darkening was discussed. In addition, internal bleaching was proposed to solve the drawback of tooth discoloration after revascularization. Conclusion: At 15 months follow-up, clinical findings showed no tooth discoloration and radiographic examinations showed continuation of root formation and apical closure.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the surface tension of established and potential endodontic irrigants used during endodontic practice. Methods: The substances evaluated were: Distilled water; natrosol; sodium hypochlorite (1%, 2.5%, 5.25%, 6% - solution and gel); chlorhexidine (0.12%, 0.2%, 2% - solution and gel); 17% EDTA solution and gel; 37% phosphoric acid solution; citric acid (1%, 10%, 50% - solution and gel); sodium thiosulfate solution (0.5% and 5%); 10% sodium ascorbate solution; 100% Ethanol; absolute alcohol; and propyleneglycol. The surface tension was measured using the Du Noüy ring method. Ten measurements were taken for each substance (n = 10). Data were statistically analyzed using Anova and Tukey tests. Results: Comparing all substances evaluated, ethanol and absolute alcohol showed the lowest and 1% NaOCl the highest values of surface tension. Regarding the substances used during preparation, CHX showed the lowest surface tension values. Regarding NaOCl, in concentration of 6% this substance showed the lower surface tension. For smear layer removal, 17% EDTA showed the lowest values of surface tension. As final irrigant, ethanol and absolute alcohol showed the lowest values of surface tension followed by 2% CHX solution. Conclusion: It was concluded that the surface tension of the tested substances was varied, having the absolute alcohol the lowest and the 1% NaOCl the highest.

Purpose: The latest epidemiologic orofacial pain survey in Indonesia showed that orofacial pain remains as one of the main dental problems in Indonesia. Therefore, development of an assessment tool that evaluates the effect of orofacial pain on the earlier period of life is considered to be of important. The current study aimed on evaluating the validity as well as reliability of the Children Orofacial Pain Questionnaire (COPQ) that will be used as one of the assessment tools in the intensity, duration, frequency, and impact of orofacial pain on children. Method: One hundred and sixty-five schooled aged children (aged 6-12 years old) participated in the current study. Researcher interviewed all participants based on a questionnaire that evaluates the type of orofacial pain, intensity, duration, frequency, and the impact of orofacial pain on daily activity. Pearson’s correlation was used to test the construct validity of the questionnaire. Results: All questions tested were significantly correlated (p-value < 0.05) with a positive r values (ranged from 0.67 until 0.75). The reliability evaluation using the test-retest method showed a Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.74. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Indonesian COPQ is proven to be valid and reliable to be used as an assessment tool of orofacial pain on children.

Odontomas are a common type of odontogenic tumor and are considered to be hamartomas, containing both epithelial and mesenchymal elements with unknown etiology. Odontomas have been classified into two main types – compound and complex. Compound odontomas consist of tooth-like structure, organized in an orderly pattern, but presents altered size and conformation. Complex odontomas are malformations in which all dental tissues are present as a disorganized amorphous mass and they are frequently detected around the second decade of life. This report attempts to describe a rare event of an erupting odontoma in a 25 year-old male patient, Caucasian, who sought care at the service of CESUPA School of Dentistry, complaining about slight discomfort at lower incisors' area. First was realized a clinical and radiographic examination and was found 3 teeth-like structures which one of them was exposed at oral cavity and the treatment of choice was cirurgical excision. Therefore, the professional must be able to diagnose and treat properly this uncommon condition.

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Special issue: Helmet use of adolescents at North American independent schools

Edited by Ronald Chow, Michael Borean, Drew Hollenberg, Jaclyn Viehweger, and Joav Merrick

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Special issue: Tribute to the pediatrician Emanuel Chigier, 1928-2017
Edited by Joav Merrick

Larger than life ambassador: Emanuel Chigier, pediatrician, 1928-2017 Daniel Hardoff and Joav Merrick

The quest for an alternative paradigm of STEM education for young people Daniel TL Shek and Po Chung

Assessment and intervention for perinatal bonding disorder Miki Mizumoto and Yoshiyuki Tachibana

Measuring child survival in Trinidad: Preparation for Sustainable Development Goal 3 Kameel Mungrue, Katavia Balfour, Binta Baptiste, Asa Badall, and Analiese Bates

Training of potential program implementers for the Tin Ka Ping P.A.T.H.S. Project in China: Subjective outcome evaluation findings Daniel TL Shek, Janet TY Leung, Lawrence K Ma, Li Lin, and Florence KY Wu

A qualitative study on the role of gender in the health and development of adolescents in disadvantaged communities in Ibadan, Nigeria Adesola O Olumide and Oladosu A Ojengbede

Overparenting from the perspectives of Chinese parents and youths Janet TY Leung, Daniel TL Shek, and Lorrie SL Ng

Mothers’ attributions in the relationship between young children’s temperament and parenting stress Melissa Middleton and Kimberly Renk

Does head and neck cancer (HNC) education have impact on adolescents’ knowledge and attitude towards HNC and HNC peer education? An example from Nigeria Kehinde K Kanmodi and Omotayo F Fagbule

Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and attitudes towards tobacco ban: A pilot survey of secondary school students in Ibokun Town, Nigeria Omotayo F Fagbule, Kehinde K Kanmodi, and Timothy O Aladelusi

Anaemia in infants: Is it always an 'iron clad' issue? An observational study Lutfi Jaber and Gary Diamond

Child abuse and alcohol misuse in a victim: The role of ethnic and societal factors, part 2 Sergei V Jargin

Incidental oral hairy leucoplakia (OHL) in a healthy asymptomatic individual Lyubov Matytsina-Quinlan, Mrinalini Mahto, Donald E Greydanus, and Laura Gwatkin

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Volume 11

Special issue: Development and validation of assessment tools on service leadership knowledge, attitude and behavior

Edited by Daniel TL Shek, Xiaoqin Zhu, and Joav Merrick

Development and validation of assessment tools on service leadership knowledge, attitude, and behavior Daniel TL Shek, Xiaoqin Zhu, and Joav Merrick

Leadership assessment tools in different Chinese contexts Li Lin and Daniel TL Shek

Conceptual background and the development of service leadership knowledge scale Daniel TL Shek, Xiaoqin Zhu, and Alex YF Zhu

Development of the attitude to Service Leadership Scale in Hong Kong Cecilia MS Ma, Daniel TL Shek, and Yanto Chandra

Development of Service Leadership Behavior Scale: Background and conceptual model Daniel TL Shek, Xiaoqin Zhu, and Kin-Man Chan

Psychometric properties of the Service Leadership Behavior Scale: Preliminary findings Daniel TL Shek, Lawrence K Ma, Li Lin, and Hildie Leung

Content validation of a Service Leadership Behavior Scale in Hong Kong Daniel TL Shek, Jing Wu, Li Lin, and Xiang Li

Validation of the Service Leadership Knowledge Scale: Factorial and convergent validity Daniel TL Shek, Lawrence K Ma, Lu Yu, and Loretta MK Leung

Convergent and factorial validation of the Service Leadership Behavior Scale Daniel TL Shek, Lawrence K Ma, Cecilia MS Ma, and A Reza Hoshmand YF Zhu, Lawrence K Ma, and Li Lin

The Service Leadership Knowledge Scale: Norms and psychological correlates Daniel TL Shek, Xiaoqin Zhu, and Samson Tse

The Service Leadership Attitude Scale: Normative data and personal correlates in Chinese university students Daniel TL Shek, Jing Wu, and Ben YB Chan

The Service Leadership Behavior Scale: Norms and personal correlates Daniel TL Shek, Diya Dou, and Robin S Snell

Volume 11

Volume 12, Issue 1

Synchronization between two Lorenz systems is analyzed through various forms of coupling between them. We have used direct, conjugate, delayed direct and delayed conjugate coupling mechanism. In each case Lyapunov exponent is computed for ascertaining the synchronized situation, which is then used to encrypt a signal and then retrieve the same by the second system. The situation is demonstrated with the help of electronic circuit. It is observed that both the numerical simulation and experimental results corroborates each other. Lastly the chaotic data from the circuit is also used to encrypt an image and retrieve by the second set. In both the cases the system security is discussed.

Clinical microbiologists are routinely engaged in the identification and taxonomic categorization of microorganisms having ‘morphological and genetic plasticity’ such as Enterobacter, Escherichia and Shigella responsible for urinary tract infections (UTI) in immunocompromised nosocomial patients. Nosocomial patients are amiable host for

The so-called experiencing of “anomalous experiences” has been reported by people in various cultures since ancient times. However, they only received systematic attention from science at the eighteenth century. Understood as human experiences that appear to have no known psychological or physical explanation, they suggest the possibility of direct interactions between mind and matter. This paper reports the results of a qualitative research that aimed to describe and characterize “anomalous” phenomena experienced by doctoral students of the Program of Engineering and Knowledge Management, at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Ten respondents, seven women and three men, aged between thirty-four and fifty-five years old, who volunteered for the survey and were interviewed. The data was collected and discussed according to five emerging categories of analysis: (1) types, (2) feelings and emotions, (3) time-space, (4) empowerment and interest, and (5) knowledge. Despite the impossibility of generalization of the findings, they indicate that people, including those with scientific and technological training, may be living much more with “anomalous” phenomena than one might expect. More qualitative research is suggested, analyzing new relationships and processes present in the context of these occurrences.

The Mandelbrot sets for complex polynomials were obtained using one-step feedback process since their advent. From 2004 onwards, two-step feedback process was used via superior iterates to obtain Mandelbrot sets for polynomials. In this paper, pattern in quadratic Mandelbrot sets called as superior Mandelbrot sets has been studied.

This paper deals with the connection between longitudinal and transversal sections of the state space of chaotic events in the nonlinear damped and forced oscillator (NLDFO), which may be considered the drosophila of physical chaos. In order to extract the above mentioned sections, which are nothing but tomographies of state space, the Poincaré techniques of slicing the cited space have been applied. The longitudinal sections of state space display the period bifurcation cascade of the chaotic event and, its transversal sections show the attractors of the dynamics; these display evidence that even during the most furious stages of chaos, there is order and structure in the chaotic behavior of the oscillator. It has been found that the attractor of a complete chaotic event is made up of a series of partial strange attractors, one after another and, that the transition from one to the next is smooth, i.e., the end of an attractor gradually becomes the beginning of the next. This report includes also some conclusions of investigations carried out by this author in the NLDFO; since this system transitions to chaos through a cascade of period bifurcations, these conclusions may be generalized to those systems transitioning to chaos following the same route.

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Special issue: Promotion of holistic development of university students in Hong Kong

The impact of a new 4-year undergraduate program in Hong Kong Daniel TL Shek, Yu Lu, and Joav Merrick

Leadership qualities as a foundation of serivce learning: The Hong Kong experience Daniel TL Shek

Service learning as a mandatory credit-bearing subject at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Stephen CF Chan, Grace Ngai, and Daniel TL Shek

University social responsibility and promotion of the quality of life Daniel TL Shek

The quest for holistic youth leadership development: What should be the desired attributes of youth leaders? Daniel TL Shek and Angelina Tsang-Yuen

General education at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University: A comprehensive evaluation study Daniel TL Shek, Lu Yu, Wen Yu Chai, Kevin Chan, and Joe Ngai

Achievement of desired university graduate attributes through a new 4-year undergraduate program Daniel TL Shek, Lu Yu, Wen Yu Chai, Florence KY Wu, and Wynants WL Ho

Perceptions of teachers of the new general education curriculum in Hong Kong: A focus group study Daniel TL Shek, Catherine WY Chai, and Florence KY Wu

Wellbeing of university students in Hong Kong: A longitudinal case study Florence KY Wu, Daniel TL Shek, Catherine WY Chai, and Julie XQ Zhu

Development of undergraduate university students: A 4-year longitudinal case study in Hong Kong Daniel TL Shek, Wen Yu Chai, Huijing Lu, Lu Yu, Kevin Chan, Wynants Ho, Cecilia MS Ma, Florence KY Wu, Hildie Leung, Li Lin, and Moon Law

Volume 11

Volume 11, Issue 3

All the contributions collected here have a unitary inspiration in the Mind Force conference and think-tank held in Siena on September 2016 at the Pontignano Charterhouse. The cloisters and gardens have inspired again an atmosphere of friendly, free and deep interdisciplinary reflections. All participants shared a sense of being a community based on Complexity Science and of being on a historical mission in laying the foundations of the shape of a new science to come. This special issue of Chaos and Complexity Letters contains some of the most interesting contributions shared and discussed during the conference. Lewis Carroll wrote in his Alice, “Sometimes I’ve believed as many as six impossible things before breakfast.” We kept believing and realised that Mind Force, as an integrated theory, is not only possible but already a shared common ground between scientists from different domains.

In contemporary debate regarding neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, philosophy or anthropology it is a commonplace to analyse the problem of the mind focusing on its emotional or, alternatively, cognitive and, lastly its symbolic character. Therefore, it is frequently spoken of as an emotional, a cognitive, or a symbolic mind. In the context of an increasingly branched dialogue and convergence of scientific and philosophical investigation with respect to the mind-body problem, philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, anthropologists and physicists have focused, in recent years, on the aesthetic dimension of the mind.

The epistemological characteristics of integration in psychotherapy, as part of life and health sciences, are presented and discussed from an analysis of the definitions of multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, consilience and transdisciplinarity, as models of scientific work.

Neuroscience and experimental psychology are recently making significant advances in the nature of the human mind, particularly in consciousness and the ability to process information unconsciously. Aside from their interest in terms of basic science, these advances have provided some new ideas for the interpretation of different psychopathological disorders, and for their treatment. In the first part of this paper, we analyze the psychological characteristics of consciousness and unconscious cognition (UCo), mainly unconscious perception (UPe), as well as their neurological bases, structured around the theory of the global neuronal workspace (GNW). In the second part, we analyze the consequences of these considerations for psychopathology with a dual mind model (DMM), made up of controlled and conscious cognitive processes and automatic and unconscious cognitive processes. Thereby, we highlight the incidence of the alterations of consciousness in some psychopathologies, such as schizophrenia, and of UCo, through automatic cognitive bias, in others, such as depression, phobias, or anxiety and consumption disorders (drug addiction and bulimia). Finally, we analyze different psychotherapeutic intervention procedures developed from previous approaches, especially the techniques of modification of cognitive biases.

In cognitive constructivist psychotherapy therapist-patient relationship represent a particular interaction with a high level of intersubjective confidence and emotional involvement [1, 2]. Both subjects inside the relationship are active subjects and they are emotionally involved in the interaction. The focus of this study is to analyze psychophysiological correlation in therapeutic relationship, in particular way, we will check the presence of emotional reciprocity. We used two synchronized physiopolygraphs, to measure activation and regulatory responses of fast and slow autonomic physiological indices. The entire sample consisted of ten dyads, patient-therapist, unique and homogeneous. During psychotherapeutic session we observed that there is an emotional dynamic between patient and therapist (positive or negative). This synchronization, or empathy, enables the therapist to induce emotional disturbances favoring processes that can help the patient to explore their ways of knowing and to re-organize their own personal meanings.

Innovations in information technology opened the way to monitor the nonlinear features of human change dynamics in real time. Especially the internet-based Synergetic Navigation System (SNS) was optimized for high-frequency assessment in real-world settings and for the nonlinear analysis of the collected time series data. The technology also has an impact on the conceptualization of psychotherapy feedback, e.g., concerning measurement frequencies and sampling rates, the variables to be assessed, the methods of time series analysis, the way how to practically use the technology, and how to do feedback-based interviews. One important aim is to identify order transitions and their precursors in psychotherapy and counseling. The options available in the SNS for analyzing and visualizing non-stationarities and related precursors are described and illustrated by Figures. The paper is completed by two perspectives on practice and theory – one on the individualization of measurement procedures and process-sensitive treatment designs, the other on the mathematization of models for understanding the complexity of change processes (computational systems psychology).

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Special issue: Awareness of Parkinson’s disease among young adults

Volume 11, Issue 2

Quantum probability fields are involved during processing of human perception and cognition with a wave function that mathematically is articulated in a proper Hilbert space and conceptually represents the space of all the potential alternatives at a semantic and semiotic level. Each subject has developed a unique mind within his/her correspondent context, hence his/her own wave function must be displayed as a complex-valued probability amplitude. Reaction time as well as the time of observation / decision / measurement also represent important variables contributing to our cognitive response and having also proper neurological correlates. Mind is a complex abstract entity so that we may assert that, generally speaking, the observer and the observed system are considered to be incompletely specified systems. An elementary wave function remains insufficient to represent a mental state, whereas a quantum wave function, which exhibits intrinsic indetermination and fluctuation of the basic probability amplitudes, may be implemented. In this paper, along with von Neumann’s postulate for non-existing dispersion-free ensembles, a new quantum statistical approach is elaborated to elucidate the peculiar quantum mechanical feature of the context dependent dynamics of human cognitive conceptual processing. In the framework of the present quantum statistical elaboration we introduce for the first time the possibility of using the Pareto distribution as a probability density function. This result links quantum statistical mechanics with the science of complexity.

The aim of this work is to describe a new formula relating the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann Zeta function to the energy levels of the harmonic oscillator, which we call the “Riemann wave,” whose nodes are located at the height of the non-trivial zeros (on the Riemann Hypothesis, RH). We illustrate the formula by means of various Figures, and we present a calculation up to relatively “high” heights. Then, we propose formally an “operator” in agreement to the Polya’s idea, which involves here the Lambert W function. We call it the “Quantum Riemann Wave.”

The aim of this work is to describe as fractal geometry, its property of self-similarity, and its processes of bifurcation can be appear in the arts and in architecture. These fractal features are common in different cultures and in different architectural styles.

The complexity of multimedia knowledge requires new methods of representation. This work addresses the problem by proposing the use of Petri nets, a powerful knowledge representation method suitable to manage complex concurrent events. An interactive interface allows the exploration of both the knowledge structure and the multimedia content. We have developed a web application that collects and systematizes Giovanni Degli Antoni's scientific and documentary work, mainly composed of web multimedia contributions, underlining his long-life research in the field of hypermedia world and Petri nets theory and applications.

A new nonlinear equation is proposed where the forcing is realised in a different manner and is aperiodic. It is observed that the system has a host of fixed points and the bifurcation pattern with respect to all the four parameters unravel a very rich structure of Chaotic dynamics. The Lyapunov exponents help to justify the range of values therein. Biparametric plots reveal the whole scenario in a very compact manner. Existence of attractor and various multi-periodic states are seen to occur for different choice of parameter values. They are actually projected very neatly in the biparametric plots.

Volume 11, Issue 1

This volume is dedicated, not just to Walter, but also to the cabal of scientists, scholars, and artist included in this volume, most of whom are one degree of authorship-connectivity to Walter. You could say they represent a community who have elected Walter as their honored colleague. Their scientific and philosophical exploits exemplify the standards he set. They recognize that the many arenas of his competency have made for an innovative and coherent corpus of research and conjecture. They also exemplify Köhler’s “The whole is different from the sum of its parts.”

Many have observed that Walter was ahead of his time and this is certainly true. But the question is, how did he get there? Was it just that he was more intelligent than others or was it simply a matter of luck and good timing? Perhaps. Had Walter been gifted with a duller mind or had he been born when Sherrington was born things might have turned out very differently. But I think the real explanation was to be found by looking around that strange library of his. Walter’s library attested to the fact that poetry and philosophy determined the fundamental mindset that he carried with him into the field of neuroscientific research. They were not a side line, not a diversion from what really mattered to him. And I believe that it was poetry more than anything else that set the parameters of his thinking and that shaped his unique perspective on everything, including the brain. For poetry holds things up in the light of being to reveal that they are more than what they seem to be individually because they are caught up in the dynamic of something much greater—the dynamic of being. Poetic thinking causes individual things to “resonate” in ways that make being itself palpable. And it is this kind of vision—a fundamentally poetic vision—that made Walter J. Freeman a truly great neuroscientist.

Remarkably, in our Cuban meeting Walter had referred to cell ensembles supported by reafference, a key concept for understanding the role of my cognits in the perception-action cycle, as well as the role of the frontal lobe in it. At the same time it was enlightening, already then, to hear him refer to the function of those ensembles in “biological intelligence,” with its basic attributes of autonomy and creative power. Today we know that those attributes of “biological intelligence” derive from the predictive and prospective cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex.

My time in the lab was during the heyday of Walter’s writing on Chaos in brains and the accompanying backlash among US neuroscientists. It was also a time in which the use of dynamical systems to explain physical, social and biological processes was accelerating rapidly. I tried in my dissertation to sort out the metaphor. It is a difficult ask to tie the theoretical concepts of complex nonlinear dynamics and chaotic systems to the messy complexity and nonstationarity of a mammalian brain. The methods in use at the time to point at chaos in neural data, correlation dimensions, etc., were very sensitive to nonstationarities in our data. My question was and remains: once we obtain some measure of complexity, will it help us to understand what brains are doing, or do we just swap one set of complexities for another? Walter approached proving chaos by building computational models and showing that the regimes in which they best reproduced physiological states were chaotic ones [6].

Walter Freeman was not only a great neuroscientist and pioneer in the field of mesoscopic brain dynamics, he was also an excellent teacher and mentor to many, all over the world. In this paper, I give a personal account of what Walter Freeman has meant to me and my research, primarily on computational modeling of the olfactory cortex, but also as a friend and mentor. I briefly describe the path from my postdoc period at Caltech in the late 1980s, when I first met Walter Freeman, through our meetings at numerous conferences around the world, and finally to the TSC conference in Tucson 2016, which Walter missed by a couple of days. In more detail, I describe my modeling work on complex neurodynamics, and how oscillations, noise and chaos may play a role for perception and associative memory. I end with some personal remarks and memories from discussions with Freeman, including the relevance of the complex neurodynamics for cognitive and mental functions, in particular relating to intentionality and consciousness.

Walter Jackson Freeman III (January 30, 1927 – April 24, 2016) was a true explorer, a Renaissance Man, who transcended the boundaries of disciplines and scientific knowledge. He has revolutionized the field of neuroscience, by bringing into it many pioneering ideas on brain dynamics. The authors of this brief essay address the main legacy of Walter Freeman through their framework of Operational Architectonics of brain-mind functioning that encompasses Freeman’s mass action in the nervous system in the form of nested, dynamic neuronal assemblies and his cinematic model of cognitive dynamics, leading to emergence of consciousness. According to Operational Architectonics theory, the hierarchy of phenomenal world (features, patterns, objects, scenes) has its electrophysiological equivalent in an operational hierarchy of neuronal assemblies and nested spatial-temporal conglomerates of them in the form of operational modules (with different size and life-span), which correspond to the phenomenal entities of different complexity.

In this commemoration of Walter Freeman’s life and legacy, we review some his key contributions to the field of cognitive neuroscience. We elaborate on his groundbreaking contribution to neural aspects of intentionality, what he called intentional neurodynamics. We describe the conceptual framework of intentional neurodynamics and its neurophysiological manifestations. We conclude with the outline of Freeman K (Katchalsky) sets, a hierarchical model of brain structure, dynamics, and functions, which provide a suitable mathematical and computational framework to grasp essential aspects of intentionality.

It has been proposed in cognitive neuroscience that the operations of large-scale cortical networks are directly related to various aspects of cognitive function. However, the dynamic neural mechanisms responsible for these network operations are only poorly understood. This paper re-introduces Walter Freeman’s idea of the wave packet as both an experimentally and theoretically unifying concept in neural dynamics. We begin by discussing the history of the wave packet as empirically observed in the olfactory local field potential by Freeman and colleagues. Freeman claimed that the wave packet, a mesoscopically self-organized cooperative neuronal activity pattern, is the way in which sensory information is turned into percepts, and ultimately, by which brains create meaning. He surmised that the wave packet is the most fundamental functional unit in the brain that carries meaningful context-dependent information. We extend Freeman’s work to all cognitive function, which we propose is subserved by large-scale networks of linked neuronal populations in different neocortical areas, each generating a wave packet. We propose that the neocortical wave packet is comprised of locally-generated gamma oscillatory activity, as it is in paleocortex, and the linking mechanism consists of inter-areal phase coupling of beta oscillatory activity. We argue that neurocognitive function derives from wave packets in multiply linked neocortical areas reaching a functionally consistent consensus, and claim that the wave packet, discovered in the paleocortex, is key to the operation of the neocortex in cognition.

This article pursues Walter J. Freeman’s agenda to understand how we come to encode and represent the causes of our sensations. It attempts to derive the sentient aspects of any dynamical system (e.g., a brain), where the system’s internal (e.g., neuronal) states come to represent the outside world in a probabilistic fashion. The argument goes as follows: any self-organising dynamical system must be statistically distinguishable from the environment in which it is immersed. This leads to the notion of a Markov blanket; namely, a set of states that intervene between the internal states of a system and those external to the Markov blanket. This Markov blanket plays the role of sensory epithelia – that mediate the influence of the world on the system – and active states, such as our actuators and effectors – that mediate the influence of our internal states on the world. If a random dynamical system (e.g., you or me) persists over a sufficient amount of time, then we possess an attracting set (technically, a random dynamical attractor). Crucially, this means that there is always a mapping between the (expected) internal and external states, when conditioned upon the Markov blanket. This provides a probabilistic link between the internal states of a system and the external states of the world it has to navigate. By following some fairly straightforward maths, it is possible to show that the internal states perform approximate Bayesian inference about external states; thereby equipping internal dynamics with a representational or sentient aspect. These points are illustrated using simulations of loosely coupled dynamical systems to show that even (synthetic) virus-like particles behave like little Bayesian statisticians.

Metastability has been proposed as a new principle of behavioral and brain function and may point the way to a truly complementary neuroscience. From elementary coordination dynamics we show explicitly that metastability is a result of a symmetry breaking caused by the subtle interplay of two forces: the tendency of the components to couple together and the tendency of the components to express their intrinsic independent behavior. The metastable regime reconciles the well-known tendencies of specialized brain regions to express their autonomy (segregation) and the tendencies for those regions to work together as a synergy (integration). Integration ~ segregation is just one of the complementary pairs (denoted by the tilde (~) symbol) to emerge from the science of coordination dynamics. We discuss metastability in the brain by describing the favorable conditions existing for its emergence and by deriving some predictions for its empirical characterization in neurophysiological recordings.

The results of laboratory observations and of theoretical analysis carried on by Walter Freeman and other investigators suggest that the macroscopic functional stability and high efficiency of the brain depend on the coherent oscillations of assemblies of millions of neurons, not solely by the properties of single neurons. The approach focusing on the study of single neurons that dominates current neuroscientific research, although absolutely necessary, reveals itself insufficient for understanding how to fill the gap between the fluctuations in the biochemical cellular and molecular microscopic activity and the stable and efficient global functional performances of the brain. In this paper, it is discussed how some aspects of the dissipative quantum model of the brain may contribute to find a solution to such a problem. The “brain like an orchestra” metaphor proposed by Freeman is mentioned to emphasize the integration within and between these domains to which quantum concepts may contribute. Chaotic behavior and fractal-like self-similarity properties of the brain functional activity are briefly discussed.

Since 1960 at least, I have been sharing chaos thinking with my brother Fred, and reciprocally, learning about brain research from him. This is a brief reminiscence of those early years.

The exclusion of semantics, meaning, and interpretation from exact sciences is nothing but an antiquated prejudice. It is a consequence of a centuries-old approach toward science, and it seems inevitable to update scientific reasoning in a way capable of taking these issues into account (Atmanspacher, 1994; Atmanspacher et al. 1992). This does not at all mean that any separation of different semiotic approaches or any sort of operationalization criteria should be abandoned in general.

Across disciplines, cultures and millennia, transformative instability has been viewed as a potentiating force that is the essence of all creativity. It is given many descriptive forms but reveals itself only in the patterns it informs, arising out of turbulent gaps and at chaotic edges of liminal space. This essay looks at three depictions of such primal shaping energies: one, ancient philosophy of the Tao, a pathless path to enlightenment that, like processes in the natural world, proceeds spontaneously and mindlessly; two, complexity theory's strange attractors, activating unpredictable new order out of chaos; and three, the unconscious, the subterranean fount of much if not most of our behavior, presented in the context of Dada's anarchic anti-reasoning that found creative inspiration in vast realms of the unconscious. Strongly influenced by Walter Freeman's work, in particular his writing concerning the “I don't know” mode of neural activity, I weave these commonalities together into the argument offered here, that knowing by not-knowing is not only an essential phase of cognitive neurodynamics, it is also a powerful heuristic for heightened creativity. Several of my paintings serve to illustrate, in themes and process, how this paradoxical stance of unknowing draws strength from imperceptible attractions-interactions of poetic, noetic and somatic ways of knowing.

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Dr. Prasad S. Koka (
National Professor & Visiting Scientist of Virology and Immunology
Haffkine Institute for Training Research and Testing, Mumbai, India

Featured Scientific Article by Dr. Prasad S. Koka
“Biomarker Discovery and Biotherapeutics Applications of Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting and Bioluminescence Light-Emitting Chromophore-Protein Complexes in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine”

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Dr. Kenneth R. Boheler
Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Consortium
Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine
The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Dr. Richard K. Burt
Division of Immunotherapy, Department of Medicine
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Chicago, Illinois, USA

Dr. Robert E. Donahue
National Institute of Health
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Rockville, Maryland, USA

Dr. Connie J. Eaves
Terry Fox Laboratory
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Dr. David Edgar
School of Medical Sciences
University of Liverpool
Liverpool, United Kingdom

Dr. Ahmed El-Hashash
Biomedicine, Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine
University of Edinburgh-ZJU Institute
Haining, Zhejiang, China

Dr. Stan Gronthos
Hanson Institute
University of Adelaide
Adelaide, Australia

Dr. Jan-Ingvar Jönsson
Division of Cell Biology
Linkoping University
Linkoping, Sweden

Dr. Hans Keirstead
Reeve-Irvine Research Center
University of California at Irvine
Irvine, California, USA

Dr. Wasim Khan
University of Cambridge and Addenbrooke's Hospital
Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery

Dr. Tomohiko Kisaka
Heart Failure Center, Hiroshima University Hospital
Biodesign School, All India Institute of Medical Sciences
AIIMS | Hiroshima Uni | IIT Delhi | QUT | Tottori Uni

Dr. Toshio Kitamura
The Institute of Medical Science
University of Tokyo
Tokyo, Japan

Dr. J. Michael McCune
Chief, Division of Experimental Medicine
University of California at San Francisco
San Francisco, California, USA

Dr. Michel Puceat
Faculté de Médecine La Timone
13885 Marseille, France

Dr. David Scadden
Harvard Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology
Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Dr. Alka Sharma
Department of Biotechnology
Ministry of Science and Technology
New Delhi, Delhi, India

Dr. Inger Birgitta Sundell-Ranby
Department of Anthropology
Wayne State University
Detroit, Michigan, USA

Dr. Sarah E. Webb (Ho)
Division of Life Science
HKUST, Clear Water Bay
Kowloon, Hong Kong

Bhishma Amlani, Developmental Biology, New York University, New York, USA
Palas Kumar Chanda, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, USA
Songjie Chen, Metabolomics & Proteomics, Stanford University, Stanford, USA
Jun Cui, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA
Suhasni Gopalakrishnan, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA
Yuning Hou, Center for Molecular and Translational Medicine, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA
Rajneesh Jha, Cardiomyocyte Stem Cell Laboratory, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA
Riya Kanherkar, Howard University, Washington DC, USA
Suhail Khoja, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
Gauri Kulkarni, Wake Forest Inst. for Regenerative Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
Akhilesh Kumar, Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Madison, USA
Nan Li, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, USA
Liu Liu, Cardiac Surgery Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
Yifei Liu, Yale Stem Cell Center, New Haven, USA
Jie Luo, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
Siu Ping Ngok, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, USA
Bhagat Patlolla, International Technological University, San Jose, USA
Indulekha Pillai, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA
Alfredo Procino, University of Naples "Federico II,” Italy
Xuefeng Qiu, Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
Pavan Rajanahalli, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
Kanchan Sarda, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, USA
Jian Shu, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Whitehead Inst. for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts, USA
Praveen Kumar Chandranath Shukla, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, USA
Pulavendran Sivasami, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, USA
Yunlong Tao, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Lei Teng, Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, USA
Mahdi Tondar, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
Zhixiang Tong, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA
Chenran Wang, Department of Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, USA
Yefei Wen, The University of Texas, Houston, USA
Shaogen Wu, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Newark, USA
Yonggang Xie, Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, USA
Pengfei Xu, Department of Developmental Biology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA
Mei Yang, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
Xue Yu, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA
Jinyun Yuan, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA
Bing Zhang, Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Massachusetts, USA
Danhua Zhang, University of California, San Diego, USA
Yu Zhang, The J David Gladstone Institutes, University of California, San Francisco, USA
Qingshi (Erik) Zhao, New Jersey Medical School and Rutgers University, Rutgers, USA
Wei Zhao, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, USA
Ting Zhou, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, USA
Fangfang Zhu, Lorry I. Lokey Stem Cell Research Building, Stanford, USA
Jun Zou, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, USA



Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Stem Cells,
Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, New York, United States

Editor-in-Chief, Stem Cell Biology and Research,
Herbert Publications, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom

Honorable Editor, Journal of Human Virology and Retrovirology,
MedCrave Group Journals, Edmond, Oklahoma, United States

Honorable Editor, Hematology & Transfusion International Journal,
MedCrave Group Journals, Edmond, Oklahoma, United States

Computers in Biology and Medicine (CBM),
Elsevier Editorial Systems (EES)

Editor, Haematology International Journal (HIJ),
Medwin Publishers, Troy, Michigan, United States

Editorial Board, Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering,
Herbert Publications, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom

Editorial Board, Current Research in Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine,
Kenkyu Publishing Group, Hyderabad, India

Editorial Board, Journal of Stem Cell Research & Regenerative Medicine,
Enliven Archive, Dover, Delaware, United States

Editorial Board, Indian Journal of Case Reports, Atharva Scientific Publications, Bhopal, India

Editorial Board, ARC Journal of Surgery (AJS), ARC Publications Pvt. Ltd., Ongole, India



Applications of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine: (1) their potential role in the increased half-life of cardiomyocytes, (2) latest technologies of FCXM and HLA matching in organ transplantation, and (3) in the formation or curtailment of cancer stem cells from embryonic stem cells differentiation

Pre-clinical Translational Humanized In Vivo Mouse Model Systems - NOD/SCID-hu Mice (Human Fetal Thymus/Liver Conjoint Organ Growth +/- Autologous CD34 Cell Engrafted), Generation of Cancer Stem Cells using these Chimeric Humanized Mice In Vivo/Ex Vivo and In Vitro, Gene and Drug Therapy for Rescue from Hematopoietic Cell Dysfunction in HIV Infection, Safer and Greater Efficacy Drug for HIV Replication and Rescue of Hematopoiesis, Molecular Factors, Mechanisms and Therapies of Hematological Disorders in HIV Infection and in Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Infection, Host Cellular Factors in HIV Induced Hematological Disorders, Role of microRNA and its characterization in this context



Professor (2013-Present) and National Professor & Visiting Scientist of Virology and Immunology (2014-2019)
Hematological disorders in HIV infection; Generation and characterization of cancer stem cells in vitro

Head – Cancer Stem Cells
Initiating new projects and seeking governmental regulatory approvals

Scientific Director
In charge of all the institutions and centres that are part of these establishments to consolidate research efforts

Additional Professor of Biochemistry
Research and teaching duties for medical students

Scientific Director; Chief Scientific Director; Professor of DiponEd Institute of Regenerative Medicine
R&D, servicing no-option medical conditions through development of products comprising stem cells and minimally invasive treatments; Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine based therapies

Chief Advisor for Stem Cell Biology and Oncolytic Viral Therapy
Targeted delivery of candidate anti-tumor drugs via vaccinia virus recombinants using humanized mouse model systems

Professor of Virology and Immunology, SVYASA University, Bengaluru (2010-2012); Haffkine Institute, Mumbai (2012-Present)
Isolation of placental cells for role of host factors in HIV mediated indirect effects such as in mother to child transmission of HIV infection – potential role of putative cellular factors – Characterization of cellular host or viral factors in HIV induced hematopoietic inhibition - Government of India funded (2010-2015)

Chief Scientific Officer and Head – Cancer Stem Cells
Directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into hepatocytes and their amplification

Associate Member (“Associate Professor”) and Head of Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Division of Immunology, Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology
Role of c-Mpl in HIV-1 induced cytopenias – US NIH/NHLBI R0-1 funded – gene therapy, lentivirus transduction, humanized mice, rescue of hematopoiesis; generation and characterization of cancer stem cells in vivo in humanized severe combined immunodeficient (SCID-hu) mice

Research Faculty Positions

Associate Researcher, Department of Molecular & Medical Pharmacology, 2002 – 2004
Mechanisms of HIV-1 induced hematopoietic inhibition – California HIV/AIDS Research Program funded – gene targeting in humanized mice

Assistant Research Virologist, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, 2000 – 2002
In vitro tissue culture design for hepatitis C virus and co-culture with HIV-1 – UCLA AIDS Institute funded – work patented

Assistant Research Biologist, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, 1995 – 2000
Establishment of inhibition of hematopoiesis in HIV-1 infection in vivo in humanized mice and in vitro in cell culture; humanized mice are generated by the transplantation of the thymus/liver tissues under the kidney capsule of the severe combined immunodeficient mice, SCID-hu – Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation Scholar Award funded

Assistant Research Neurologist, Department of Neurology, 1992 – 1995
Cytokine secretion by human brain tissue derived microglia and astrocytes following infection with HIV-1 envelope protein gp120/160/41-vaccinia virus recombinants as mechanisms for AIDS dementia – National Institute of Mental Health – NIH funded

Assistant Research Immunologist, Histocompatibility / Immunogenetics Center, Department of Surgery / Pathology, 1989 – 1992
Donor-recipient histocompatibility antigens matching for human organ transplantation – University of California Medical Center Clinical Services funded

Instructor in Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Division of Pediatric Oncology, 1988 – 1989
Research Fellow in Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Divisions of Immunogenetics and Pediatric Oncology, 1985 – 1988

Transcriptional regulation of human CD4 expression by HIV-1 Tat protein; transcriptional regulation of the human T-cell immune response antigens by murine retroviral sequences – Leukemia Society of America Special Fellowship funded

Postdoctoral Associate, Center for Cancer Research, Department of Biology
Tissue tropism of the Moloney and Friend murine retroviral transcriptional enhancer sequences in causing thymic and erythro leukemias respectively

Postdoctoral Fellow, Bacteriophage Mu (µ) Laboratory
Molecular characterization of the Mu transposition proteins at the genomic and protein levels

Research Associate, Department of Biology
Involvement of ATP as a cofactor in the DNA repair mechanism of the photoreactivating enzyme of Escherichia coli

Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identification and characterization of the light emitter in the bioluminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreumas the riboflavin precursor, 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityl lumazine, from which riboflavin (vitamin B2) is known to be generated by action of riboflavin synthase

Doctoral Degree Graduate Student and Part-time Instructor (Biochemistry; General Chemistry; Organic Chemistry)
PhD degree dissertation produced the characterization of energy transfer and molecular topology of a unique biological fluorescence label, peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PerCP) from marine dinoflagellates, which has subsequently been used in applications for detection of antigens that is now widely used in flow cytometry (FACS) with PerCP labeled antibody binding to target molecules on the mammalian cell surface – Robert A. Welsh Foundation Pre-doctoral Fellowship funded

Master’s Degree Graduate Student and Teaching Assistant (General Chemistry; Organic Chemistry)
Master’s degree thesis on the photosensitizer properties of flavin mononucleotide and its photoreduction

Master’s Degree Graduate Student and Teaching Assistant (General Chemistry; Organic Chemistry)
Gaseous phase ultraviolet light photochemistry


1977 PhD (Major – Biochemistry: Minor - Physical Chemistry: Degree - Doctorate), Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA, 1973-1977
Doctoral dissertation dealt with energy transfer from the carotenoid, peridinin, to chlorophyll a, in a unique biological fluorescence label, peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PerCP), for antibodies that is now widely used in flow cytometry for detection of antibody binding to target molecules on the cell surface.

1973 AM (Major - Physical Chemistry: Degree - Master of Arts - Chemistry), University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA, 1970-1973
Master’s degree thesis dealt with photoreduction of flavin mononucleotide (FMN)

1969-70 Master’s Degree Graduate Student (Major - Physical Chemistry), University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA

1967-69 Master’s Degree Graduate Student (Major - Analytical Chemistry), Osmania University, Hyderabad, India

1967 BSc (Majors - Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics), Degree - Bachelor of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India, 1964-1967


  • Ministry of Science & Technology, Department of Biotechnology (DBT), India, 2010 – Present
  • American Society of Hematology Award of Excellence, 2007
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), USA, 2004 – 2010
  • California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP), USA, 2002 – 2004
  • University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) AIDS Institute, USA, 2000 – 2001
  • Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation Scholar, USA, 1996 – 1999
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), USA, 1992 – 1995
  • Leukemia Society of America Special Fellow, USA, 1985 – 1987
  • Robert A. Welch Foundation Pre-doctoral Fellow, USA, 1975 – 1977



  • Presided the session on Bioluminescence & Chronobiology, 9th Annual Meeting, American Society for Photobiology, Asilomar, California, 1979
  • Selected speaker at the Biannual International Congress on Photobiology, Strasbourg, France, 1980
  • Invited speaker at Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India, 1982
  • Invited speaker at National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India, 1982
  • Invited speaker at Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, 1982
  • Selected speaker at the 5th HLA and Histocompatibility Workshop, Les Avants, Switzerland, 1986
  • Invited speaker, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA, 1989
  • Invited speaker (invited by Dr. Flossie Wong-Staal), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 1989
  • Invited speaker, Hoffman LaRoche, Nutley, New Jersey, USA, 1989
  • Invited speaker, University of Tulane Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 1989
  • Invited speaker at Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India, 1992
  • Selected speaker at the Biannual International Congress on Transplantation and Immunogenetics, Paris, France, 1992
  • Invited speaker, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans, USA, 1993
  • Invited speaker at M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, 1993
  • Plenary Session Speaker at the Annual University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) AIDS Symposium, 1993
  • Invited speaker at International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India, 2003
  • Invited speaker at Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India, 2003
  • Honorary Member, International Advisory Council, SVYASA University, Bangalore, India, since 2003
  • Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Stem Cells, (indexed on PubMed/Medline), Nova Science Publishers, New York, since its inception in 2005. Journal Website:
  • Invited speaker (invited by Dr. Kenneth Kaushansky - Chair of Medicine), University of California, San Diego, USA, 2005
  • Reviewer, Scottish Executive Health Department, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2005 – 2006
  • Reviewer, AIDS Vaccines and Immunology Special Emphasis Panel, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, USA, 2006
  • Inclusion in the 9th Edition of Marquis Who’s Who in Science and Engineering, 2006 – 2007
  • Reviewed for the Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2006
  • Member, Peer Review Committee, American Heart Association, Western Review Consortium, 2006 – 2010
  • Submitted industrial-academic grant proposals between Avesthagen and University College London (UCL) to SC4SM. SC4SM = Stem Cells for Safer Medicines (UK), 2007
  • Member, Organizing Committee, The Stem Cell Partnering Series, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2007
  • American Society of Hematology: Award of Excellence May 1, 2007 for significant contribution to the field of Hematology
  • Inclusion in the 62ndEdition of Marquis Who’s Who in America, 2008
  • Inclusion in the 25thEdition of Marquis Who’s Who in the World, 2008
  • Reviewed for the journal Tuberculosis and The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2008
  • Invited to the California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP) stakeholder input meetings as part of their ongoing strategic planning process, San Francisco, CA, 2008
  • Member, Advisory Board, The Stem Cell Partnering Series, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2009
  • Session Moderator for the Fostering Business Collaborations Sessions, Stem Cell Partnering Series 2nd Annual Meeting, La Jolla, CA, 2009
  • Reviewed for the journals Acta Hematologica and Current HIV Research, 2010
  • Invited to review grants for the Italian Ministry of Health, 2010
  • Editorial Board Member, World Journal of Virology, Beijing, China, 2011 – 2015
  • External reviewer of doctoral dissertation in the field of hematological malignancies for University of Calcutta, India
  • Invitation to meet the Karger Publishers CEO, Ms. Gabriella Karger- S. Karger AG, Medical and Scientific Publishers, Basel, Switzerland, 2012
  • Reviewer for International Journal of Yoga (IJOY), 2011 – 2012
  • Listed in 2012 by BioMedLib ( as 1 in top 20 Articles published on the same topic. Placental membrane as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Sundell IB, Koka P. J Stem Cells; 2010; 5(2):83-88.
  • Standing reviewer for the journal Current HIV Research published by Bentham Science Publishers (USA), 2012 – Present
  • Chairman, Institutional Committee for Stem Cell Research and Therapy (IC-SCRT at Merisis Therapeutics (DiponEd BioIntelligence LLP, Bangalore), with approval from Indian Council for Medical Research National Apex Committee for Stem Cell Research and Therapy (ICMR NAC-SCRT), 2012 – Present
  • Editorial Board Member, Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, New York, 2012 – Present
  • Reviewer for the journal Human Gene Therapy published by Mary Ann Liebert Publishers (USA), 2013 – Present
  • My/our 2010 paper in Virology (doi:10.1016/j.virol.2010.03.005) has been featured in 2013 on the use of CD34 antibodies (clones QBEND/10 and AC136). Webpage of The #1 Antibody Resource:
  • Reviewed for the World Journal of Gastroenterology, 2013
  • Invited Continuing Medical Education (CME) lecture at Fortis Hospital, Bangalore, March 2013
  • Invitations from the journals Hematology and Leukemia (Herbert Publications, UK); Virology: Research and Treatment (Libertas Academica; Virology Discovery (Herbert Publications, UK); Immunological Reviews; and Current HIV Research (Bentham Science Publishers, USA) to submit manuscripts for publication
  • The #1 Antibody Resource: Featured in 2013 my/our 2010 paper in Virology (doi:10.1016/j.virol.2010.03.005 ) on the use of CD38 antibodies (clone IB6). Webpage:
  • Reviewed for the World Journal of Virology, 2013
  • Re-listed in 2013 by BioMedLib ( as our paper continues to be 1 in top 20 Articles published on the same topic. “Placental membrane as a source of mesenchymal stem cells.” Sundell IB, Koka P. J Stem Cells; 2010; 5(2):83-88.
  • Editorial Board Member, Current HIV Research, Bentham Science Publishers, USA, 2013 – Present
  • Reviewer for the journal, Stem Cells International, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, New York, 2013 – Present
  • Consultant on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for Guidepoint Global, New York, USA
  • Invited to review grants for the Italian Ministry of Health, 2013
  • Editorial Board Member, for the journal, Stem Cell Biology and Research, Herbert Publications, United Kingdom, 2013
  • Identified as a leader based on publications in the scientific literature, role in the field and the recommendations of colleagues in the field, by a global management consultancy (whose confidentiality is being maintained but can be communicated), on perceptions of the pharmaceutical industry's medical activities. As health systems seek reform, they were interested in my opinions on the value of non-promotional interactions with the industry, 2013, New Jersey, USA
  • Listed in 2013 by BioMedLib ( as 1 in top 20 Articles published on the same topic. Sundell IB, Cortado RV, Koka PS: “Sulfatide--a new candidate for ART treatment in HIV-1 infection.” J Stem Cells; 2012; 7(1):61-72. PMID: 23550344.
  • Editorial Board Member, International Journal of Aids & Its Research (IJAR), Nuclei Online Publishers (NOP), Quincy, Massachusetts, USA, (, 2013 – Present
  • Editorial Board Member for the journal Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Herbert Publications, United Kingdom, 2013 – Present
  • Editorial Board Member for the journal Archives of Cytology, Herbert Publications, United Kingdom, 2013 – Present
  • According to Carina Paraiso, Frontiers Editorial Project Manager ( | ( Lausanne, Switzerland, our article "Placental membrane as a source of mesenchymal stem cells", by Sundell IB and Koka PS, in Journal of Stem Cells, highlights content that would be ideal to serve as a foundation for a (Frontiers Research Topic These community-driven article collections provide a forum to promote scientific discussion, and can be updated yearly to incorporate the latest research. Frontiers has partnered with Nature Publishing Group which shares their vision of a researcher-driven open-science platform. Communicated to Dr. Sundell on May 19, 2014.
  • Invited Continuing Medical Education (CME) lecture at Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore, June 2014
  • Editorial Board Member, Journal, Stem Cell Biology Research, Herbert Publications, UK, 2014
  • Frontiers, an open-access publishing partner of Nature Publishing Group sought proposals for Frontiers Research Topics, in particular for their section on Stem Cell Treatments in the journal Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 23 Sep 2014
  • Editorial Board Member, Indian Journal of Case Reports, Atharva Scientific Publications, Bhopal, India, 2014 – Present
  • Our article (Sundell IB, Cortado RV, Koka PS.) “Sulfatide a new candidate for ART treatment in HIV-1 infection.” J Stem Cells 2012; 7(1): 61-72] was ranked 8th in the top 20 articles of Communicated on Oct. 16, 2014:
  • Editor-in-Chief, Stem Cell Biology and Research, Herbert Publications, Regd. Off: Bedfordshire, United Kingdom; Editorial Off: Hyderabad, India, 2014 – Present. Journal website:
  • Editorial Member, Asian Pacific Journal of Microbiology Research, Academic Research Publishers, UK, 2014
  • Editorial Board Member, International Journal of Virology and AIDS, Lewes, Delaware, USA, 2014.
  • Organizing Committee - Advisory Committee, International Conference on Translational Medicine in 21st Century “Stem Cell Transplantation: Current Status.” April 11-14, 2015, Bhopal, India
  • Honorable Editor, Journal of Human Virology and Retrovirology, * JHVRV * MedCrave Group, Danforth Road, Edmond, Oklahoma, USA, 2015 – Present,
  • Our paper “Ligament and Tendon Repair through Regeneration Using Mesenchymal stem cells” (published in Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy.2015 10(1):84-88) has been selected to be featured in the issue of World Biomedical Frontiers, because of its innovation and potential for significant impact. World Biomedical Frontiers [ISSN: 2328-0166] focuses on cutting-edge biomedical research from around the globe. Their website receives more than 8,000 visits per month from an international audience of academic and industrial researchers and developers, providing greater opportunity for our results to be recognized and appreciated, Year 2015
  • Frontiers Research Topics noticed that our Review “Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Potency in the Cell-Based Therapy,” published in Journal of Stem Cells 2013; 8(1): 1-16 has already received 8 citations as communicated by Catriona Christodoulou on 10 August 2015 | Lausanne, Switzerland. Frontiers has pioneered the use of article-level metrics, which allows them to keep an eye on the “rising star” articles — even those of other publishers, which underscores the wide-ranging and growing interest for this work.
  • Editor, Journal of Virology and Current Research, Juniper Publishers, Ontario, California, USA, August 2015 – Present,;;
  • Honorary Life Member, Society of Regenerative Medicine, SRMORG.IN, 2015
  • Editorial Board Member, ARC Journal of Surgery (AJS), ARC Publications, Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad, India, Since November, 2015.
  • Editorial Board Member, Current Research in Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Kenkyu Group, Hyderabad, India, since November, 2015,
  • Adjudicator of PhD dissertation in Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences (SVIMS, TTD) University, Tirupati, India, 2016
  • Invited speaker at Akanksha Hospital & Research Institute (AHRI), Anand, Gujarat, India, July, 2016
  • Invited speaker at P D Patel Institute of Applied Sciences, Charotar University of Science & Technology (CHARUSAT), Changa-Anand, Gujarat, India, July 2016
  • Honorable Editor, Hematology & Transfusion International Journal, * HTIJ * MedCrave Group, Danforth Road, Edmond, Oklahoma, USA, October 2016 – Present,
  • Invitation to deliver a talk at the “International Conference on Atomic and Nuclear Physics,” November 17-18, 2016, Atlanta, USA
  • Invitation to be the speaker under Video Presentation category at 8th World Congress on Virology,” November 28-30, 2016, San Antonio, USA. Theme: “Exploring Novel Approaches in Virology”
  • Invitation to be Organizing Committee Member at “4th Global Applied Microbiology Summit,” Sept. 18-20, 2017, Dallas, USA. Theme: “One Platform to Gather World Renowned Microbiologists.” Microbiology 2017, PULSUS Medical Meetings. PULSUS - Established in 1984 and headquartered in London, UK,
  • Invitation to be a Speaker/Delegate for the conference “Global Summit and Expo on Proteomics,” Valencia, Spain, November 09-11, 2017. Theme: “Translating Proteomics Technologies from Modern Life Science."
  • Invitation as a Speaker in the international quest “3rd World Congress & Expo on Oncology and Radiology” (Oncology & Radiology-2017), December 04-06, 2017, San Francisco, USA. Theme: “Latest Invention and Discoveries in Oncology & Radiology.”
  • Eminent Speaker invitation by PULSUS Group, “4th World Applied Microbiology Summit,” September 18-20, 2017, San Antonio, Texas, USA.
  • On the behalf of International Association of Advanced Materials (IAAM,, invitation to submit abstracts for the 8th anniversary of Advanced Materials World Congress (AMWC,, Singapore. The congress will be host on the Strait of Malacca - Conference Center, Mariner of the Seas, Royal Caribbean Cruise Ship, sailing from Singapore - Penang (Malaysia) – Singapore, February 04 – 08, 2018.
  • Invited as an Organizing Committee Member for the International Hematologists Summit (HIS - 2018), May 21-22, 2018 held at Valencia, Spain,
  • Invitations from The Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), a world association of academics and researchers based in Athens, organized the following two panels-streams on "Stem Cells” as part of the 6th Annual International Conference on Health & Medical Sciences, May 7-8, 2018, Athens, Greece, and a stream on “Stem Cells Biology” as part of the 4th Annual International Conference on Biology, June 25-26, 2018, Athens, Greece.
  • Reviewer for Elsevier – Computers in Biology and Medicine, since 2018.
  • Invited to be Organizing Committee Member (OCM) for the first International Conference on Oncology and Hematology, June 2019, Dubai.



In Vitro Tissue Culture Assay to Screen Potential Drugs for HCV, University of California (UC) Case No. 2001-067-1 (Hepatitis C Virus), approved in February 2007 in USA.

PUBLICATIONS (Chronological Order)

  1. Song PS, Koka P, Prezelin BB, Haxo FT. Molecular topology of the photosynthetic light-harvesting pigment complex, peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein from marine dinoflagellates. Biochemistry, 1976; 15: 4422-4427.
  2. Koka P, Song PS. The chromophore topography and binding environment of peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein from marine dinoflagellate algae. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1977; 495: 220-231.
  3. Koka P, Song PS. Protection of chlorophyll a by carotenoid from photodynamic decomposition. Photochem Photobiol, 1978; 28:509-515.
  4. Lee J, Koka P. Purification of blue fluorescence protein from the bioluminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum. Methods in Enzymology, 1978; 57: 226-234.
  5. Koka P, Lee J. Separation and structure of the prosthetic group of the blue fluorescence protein from the bioluminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1979; 76: 3068-3072.
  6. Small ED, Koka P, Lee J. Lumazine protein from the bioluminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum purification and characterization. J Biol Chem, 1980; 255: 8804-8810.
  7. Lee J. Carreira LA, Gast R, Irwin RM, Koka P, Small ED, Visser AJWG. Properties of a lumazine protein from the bioluminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum. Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence, 1981; 103-112, Academic Press, New York.
  8. Koka P. Stimulation of Escherichia coli DNA photoreactivating enzyme activity by adenosine 5’-triphosphate. Biochemistry 1984; 23: 2914-2922.
  9. Koka P, Yunis J, Passarelli AL, Dubey DP, Faller DV, Yunis EJ. Increased expression of CD4 molecules on Jurkat cells mediated by human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein. J Virol 1988; 62:4353-4357.
  10. Koka P, Cecka JM. Sensitization and crossmatching in renal transplantation. Clinical Transplants 1989; 379-390.
  11. Koka P, Cecka JM. Sex and age effects in renal transplantation. Clinical Transplants 1990; 437-446.
  12. Koka P, van de Mark K, Faller DV. Trans-activation of genes encoding activation-associated human T-lymphocyte surface proteins by murine retroviral sequences. J Immunol 1991; 146:2417-2425.
  13. Lim EC; Chia D, Gjertson DJ, Koka P, Terasaki PI. In vitro studies to explain high renal allograft survival in IgA nephropathy patients. Transplantation 1993; 55:996-999.
  14. Koka P. Anti-HLA antibodies: Detection and effect on renal transplant function. Transplant Proc 1993; 25: 243-244.
  15. Koka P, Chia D, Terasaki PI, Chan H, Chia J, Ozawa M, Lim E. The role of IgA anti-HLA Class I antibodies in kidney transplant survival. Transplantation 1993; 56: 207-211.
  16. Koka P, He K, Camerini DC, Tran T, Yashar SS, Merrill JE. The mapping of HIV-1 gp160 epitopes required for interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor a production in glial cells, J Neuroimmunol 1995; 57:179-191.
  17. Koka P, He K, Zack JA, Kitchen S, Peacock W, Fried I, Tran T, Yashar SS, Merrill JE. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope proteins induce interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor α, and nitric oxide in glial cultures derived from fetal, neonatal, and adult human brain. J Exp Med 1995; 182: 941-952.
  18. Koka P, Merrill JE. The putative role of HIV-1 envelope proteins in the neuroimmunology and neuropathology of CNS AIDS. Immunology of HIV Infection, Ed: Gupta S, Plenum Press, New York, 1996; 417-435.
  19. Withers-Ward ES, Amado R, Koka PS, Jamieson BD, Kaplan AH, Chen ISY, Zack JA. Transient renewal of thymopoiesis in HIV infected human thymic implants following antiviral therapy. Nature Med 1997; 3: 1102-1109.
  20. Koka PS, Fraser JK, Bryson Y, Bristol GC, Aldrovandi GM, Daar ES, Zack JA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 inhibits multilineage hematopoiesis in vivo. J Virol 1998; 72: 5121-5127.
  21. Amado RG, Koka P, Zack JA. Modeling precursor cell gene therapy and HIV pathogenesis in the SCID-hu mouse. Cancer Res Ther Cont 1998; 7: 43-47.
  22. Koka PS, Jamieson BD, Brooks DG, Zack JA. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 induced hematopoietic inhibition is independent of productive infection of progenitor cells in vivo. J Virol 1999; 73: 9089-9097.
  23. Uittenbogaart CH, Boscardin WJ, Anisman-Posner DJ, Koka PS, Bristol G, Zack JA. Interleukin-2 and Interferon- delay depletion of immature thymocytes after infection with HIV-1 in vivo. AIDS 2000; 14: 1317-1325.
  24. Koka PS, Brooks DG, Razai A, Kitchen CM, Zack JA. HIV-1 infection alters cytokine mRNA expression in the thymus. AIDS Res Hum Retr 2003; 19: 1-12.
  25. Koka PS, Reddy ST. Cytopenias in HIV infection: Mechanisms and alleviation of hematopoietic inhibition. Curr HIV Res 2004; 2: 275-282.
  26. Koka PS, Kitchen CM, Reddy ST. Targeting c-Mpl for revival of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced hematopoietic inhibition when CD34+ progenitor cells are re-engrafted into a fresh stromal microenvironment in vivo. J Virol 2004; 78: 11385-11392.
  27. Brooks DG, Cohen M, Jamieson BD, Poon B, Kitchen SG, Chow SA, Chen ISY, Zack JA, Koka PS. Rapid size dependent deletion of foreign gene sequences inserted into HIV-1 upon infection in vivo: Implications for vaccine development. Curr HIV Res 2005; 3: 377-392.
  28. Sundell IB, Koka PS. Thrombocytopenia in HIV infection: Impairment of platelet formation and loss correlates with increased c-Mpl and ligand thrombopoietin expression. Curr HIV Res 2006; 4: 106-117.
  29. Koka PS. Foreword: Stem Cells. J Stem Cells 2006; 1: p iii.
  30. Yunis EJ, Zuniga J, Koka PS, Husain Z, Romero V, Stern JNH, Fridkis-Hareli M. Stem cells in aging: Influence of ontogenic, genetic and environmental factors. J Stem Cells 2006; 1(2): 125-147.
  31. Sundell IB, Koka PS. Chimeric SCID-hu Model as a Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Host that Recapitulates the Effects of HIV-1 on Bone Marrow Progenitors in Infected Patients. J Stem Cells 2006; 1(4): 283-300.
  32. Yunis EJ, Romero V, Diaz-Giffero F, Zuniga J, Koka P. Natural killer cell receptor NKG2A/HLA-E interaction dependent differential thymopoiesis of hematopoietic progenitor cells influences the outcome of HIV infection. J Stem Cells 2007; 2(4): 237-248.
  33. Koka PS, Khanna A. Foreword: A compendium on latest developments in stem cell research and cell therapy applications. J Stem Cells 2009; 4(2): 81-82.
  34. Zhang M, Poh TY, Louache F, Sundell IB, Yuan J, Evans S, Koka PS. Rescue of multi-lineage hematopoiesis during HIV-1 Infection by human c-mpl gene transfer and reconstitution of CD34+ progenitor cells in vivo. J Stem Cells 2009; 4(3): 161-177.
  35. Zhang M, Evans S, Yuan J, Ratner L, Koka PS. HIV-1 determinants of thrombocytopenia at the stage of CD34+ progenitor cell differentiation in vivo lie in the viral envelope gp120 V3 loop region. Virology 2010; 401(2):131-136. This Article, doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2010.03.005, has been "Featured on Antibody Resource"
  36. Zhang M, Dias P, Minev B, Koka PS. Induction, isolation and characterization human fetal hematopoietic cancer stem cells in vivo. J Stem Cells 2010; 5(1): 1-7.
  37. Sundell IB, Halder R, Zhang M, Maricic I, Koka PS, Kumar V. Sulfatide administration leads to inhibition of HIV-1 replication and enhanced hematopoiesis. J Stem Cells 2010; 5(1): 33-42.
  38. Yuan J, Devarajan A, Moya-Castro R, Zhang M, Evans S, Bourquard N, Dias P, Lacout C, Vainchenker W, Reddy ST, Koka PS. Putative innate immunity of antiatherogenic paraoxonase-2 via STAT5 signal transduction in HIV-1 infection of hematopoietic TF-1 cells and in SCID-hu mice. J Stem Cells 2010; 5(1): 43-48.
  39. Sundell IB, Koka PS. Placental membrane as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. J Stem Cells 2010; 5(2): 83-88. [Listed in 2012 by BioMedLib ( as rank 1 in top 20 Articles published on the same topic. Re-listed in 2013 by as our paper continues to rank 1 in top 20 Articles published on the same topic.]
  40. Bhargav H, Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR, Tekur P, Koka PS. Potential yoga modules for treatment of hematopoietic inhibition in HIV-1 infection. J Stem Cells 2010; 5(3): 129-148.
  41. Sundell IB, Cortado RV, Koka PS. Sulfatide ~ a new Candidate for ART treatment in HIV-1 infection. J Stem Cells 2012; 7(1): 61-72. [Listed in 2013 by BioMedLib ( as rank 1 in top 20 Articles published on the same topic. Ranked 8 in the top 20 articles of Oct 2014.]
  42. Bhargav H, Huilgol V, Metre K, Sundell IB, Tripathi S, Nagaratna R, Jadhav M, Raghuram N, Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR, Koka PS. Evidence for extended age dependent maternal immunity to virus in infected children: mother to child transmission of HIV infection and potential interventions including role of sulfatides of the human fetal adnexa and complementary or alternative medicines. J Stem Cells 2012; 7(3): 127-153.
  43. Bhargav H, Metri K, Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR, Koka PS. Enhancement of cancer stem cell susceptibility to conventional treatments through complementary yoga therapy: possible cellular and molecular mechanisms. J Stem Cells 2012; 7(4): 261-267.
  44. Ram A, Nagarathna R, Rao RM, Bhargav H, Koka PS, Tripathi S, Raghuram NV, Kodaganur GS, Nagendra HR. Development and validation of a need based integrated yoga program for cancer patients: A retrospective study. J Stem Cells 2012; 7(4): 269-282.
  45. Das M, Sundell IB, Koka PS. Potency of adult mesenchymal stem cells in the cell based therapy. J Stem Cells 2013; 8(1): 1-16. This article has been cited in Role of ECM/peptide coatings on SDF-1α triggered mesenchymal stromal cell migration from microcarriers for cell therapy. Levato, R., Planell, J.A., Mateos-Timoneda, M.A., Engel, E. Acta Biomaterialia, volume 18, issue , year 2015, pp. 59 – 67. Frontiers Research Topics noticed that this Review of ours has already received 8 citations as communicated by Catriona Christodoulou | Lausanne, Switzerland, on 10 August 2015. Frontiers have pioneered the use of article-level metrics, which allows them to keep an eye on the “rising star” articles — even those of other publishers, which underscores the wide-ranging and growing interest for this work.
  46. Metri K, Bhargav H, Chowdhury P, Koka PS. Ayurveda for chemo-radio therapy related side effects in cancer patients. J Stem Cells 2013; 8(2): 115-130.
  47. Duggal R, Minev B, Geissinger U, Wang H, Chen NG, Koka PS, Szalay AA. Biotherapeutic approaches to target cancer stem cells. J Stem Cells 2013; 8(3/4): 135-150.
  48. Ramdass B, Chowdhary A, Koka PS. Hematological malignancies: disease pathophysiology of leukemic stem cells. J Stem Cells 2013; 8(3/4): 151-188.
  49. Ramdass B, Duggal R, Minev B, Chowdhary A, Koka PS. Functional role of solid tumor stem cells in disease etiology and susceptibility to therapeutic interventions. J Stem Cells 2013; 8(3/4): 189-232.
  50. Ramdass B, Chowdhary A, Koka PS. Cancer initiating cells as target for prevention of recurring disease etiology: role of these malignant putative progenitor cells in relapse or metastasis of human cervical carcinoma. J Stem Cells 2013; 8(3/4): 233-251.
  51. Koka PS. Biomarker Discovery and Biotherapeutics Applications of Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting and Bioluminescence Light-Emitting Chromophore-Protein Complexes in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. J Stem Cells 2014; 9(3): 127-133.
  52. Ramdass B, Koka PS. Ligament and tendon repair through regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 2014; 10(1):84-88, 2014 Oct 2 [Epub ahead of print]. [This paper has been selected to be featured in the issue of World Biomedical Frontiers because of its innovation and potential for significant impact. World Biomedical Frontiers [ISSN: 2328-0166] focuses on cutting-edge biomedical research from around the globe. This website receives more than 8,000 visits per month from an international audience of academic and industrial researchers and developers, providing greater opportunity for our results to be recognized and appreciated. Year 2015.
  53. Govindappa M, Sadananda TS, Channabasava, Ramachandra YL, Chandrappa CP, Padmalatha RS, Koka PS. In vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity of lectin (N-acetyl-galactosamine, 64 kDa) isolated from endophytic fungi, Alternaria species from Viscum album on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Integr Diabetes Obesity 2015; 1(1): 11-19, doi: 10.15761/IOD.1000104
  54. Kulkarni A, Govindappa MC, Ramachandra YL, Koka P. GC-MS analysis of methanol extract of Cassia fistula and in vitro anticancer activity on prostate cancer cell line. Indo Amer J Pharm Res 2015; 5(2): 937-944.
  55. Kulkarni A, Govindappa M, Channabasava, Chandrappa CP, Ramachandra YL, Koka PS. Phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula and its in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Adv Med Plant Res 2015; 3(1): 8-17.
  56. Bansal H, Bansal A, Kachhap MN, Chowdhary A, Koka PS. Therapeutic application of bone marrow derived stem cells in a patient with methanol induced blindness. J Stem Cells 2015; 10(1): 1-11.
  57. Koka PS. Potential Safer Drug for Containment of Lentivirus Infection and Ensuing Cytopenias: Necessity of Clinical Trials in Control and Infected Patients. J Hum Virol Retr Virol 2015; 2(4): 00050. DOI: 10.15406/jhvrv.2015.02.00050
  58. Rao KS, Chakrabarti SK, Dongare VS, Chetana K, Ramirez CM, Koka PS, Deb KD. Antiaging Effects of an Intensive Mind and Body Therapeutic Program through Enhancement of Telomerase activity and Adult Stem Cell Counts. J Stem Cells 2015; 10(2): 107-125.
  59. Bansal H, Chaparia Y, Agrawal A, Koka PS. Reversal of methanol induced blindness in adults by autologous bone marrow mononuclear stem cells: a case-series. J Stem Cells 2015; 10(2): 127-139.
  60. Ramdass B, Koka PS. Supplementary: Ligament and Tendon Repair through Regeneration Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy 2015 10(1):84-88) World Biomedical Frontiers [ISSN: 2328-0166] 2015
  61. Koka PS, Pavithra V. The Role of Poietins in the Alleviation of Cytopenias in HIV Infection. J Hum Virol Retr Virol 2015; 2(5): 00055. DOI: 10.15406/jhvrv.2015.02.00055
  62. Srikruthi N, Deb KD, Koka PS. An Introduction to Stem Cells.
  63. Koka PS. Degeneration vs Regeneration.J Stem Cells 2015; 10(3): 157-158.
  64. Padmanabhan U, Chowdhary AS, Dahake R, Koka PS. Vaccines against HIV. J Virol Curr Res 1(1): JVCR.MS.ID.555554 (2015)
  65. Koka PS. Efficacy of modern drugs against recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in co-infected HIV infected patients. J Virol Curr Res 1(2): JVCR.MS.ID.555557 (2015)
  66. Bhargav H, Srinivasan TM, Varambally S, Gangadhar BN, Koka PS. Effect of Mobile Phone Induced Electro-magnetic Field on Brain Hemodynamics and Human Stem Cell Functioning: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk and Early Diagnostic Value of Electro-photonic Imaging. J Stem Cells 2015; 10(4): 287-294.
  67. Koka PS. HIV and HCV: Intractability of Vaccine Development. CuttingEdge 2016; 5(11): 9-12,
  68. Verma P, Bansal H, Agrawal A, Leon J, Sundell IB, Koka PS. Evaluation of bone marrow processing protocol for therapeutic applications via culture and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. J Stem Cells 2016; 11(1): 3-13.
  69. Bansal H, Singh L, Agrawal A, Leon J, Sundell IB, Koka PS. Therapy with bone marrow derived autologous adult stem cells in quadriparesis due to motor neuron disease. J Stem Cells 2016; 11(1): 15-23.
  70. Bansal H, Verma P, Agrawal A, Leon J, Sundell IB, Koka PS. A short study report on bone marrow aspirate concentrate cell therapy in ten South Asian Indian patients with autism. J Stem Cells 2016; 11(1): 25-36.
  71. Bansal H, Singh L, Verma P, Agrawal A, Leon J, Sundell IB, Koka PS. Administration of Autologous Bone Marrow derived Stem Cells for Treatment of Cerebral Palsy Patients: A Proof of Concept. J Stem Cells 2016; 11(1): 37-49.
  72. Bansal H, Verma P, Agrawal A, Leon J, Sundell IB, Koka PS. Autologous bone marrow derived stem cells in spinal cord injury. J Stem Cells 2016; 11(1): 51-61.
  73. Nandeesh N, Janardhan K, Subramanian V, Ashtekar AB, Srikruthi N, Koka PS, Deb KD. Treatment of AVN using Autologous BM Stem Cells and Activated Platelet derived Growth Factor Concentrates. J Stem Cells 2016; 11(3): 135-148.
  74. Jyothi NS, Koka PS. Need for in vivo triggering of homeostasis to repair irreversible tissue degeneration by stem cells through innate and invasive regenerative processes. J Stem Cells 2016; 11(3): 171-179.
  75. Koka PS. Mesenchymal stem cells in androgenic alopecia: hair loss regeneration. J Stem Cells 2016; 11(4): 181-182.
  76. James R, Chetry R, Subramanian V, Ashtekar A, Srikruthi N, Ramachandran S, Koka PS, Deb KD. Platelet-rich Plasma Growth Factor concentrated spray (Keratogrow ®) as a Potential Treatment for Androgenic Alopecia. J Stem Cells 2016; 11(4): 183-189.
  77. James R, Chetry R, Subramanian V, Ashtekar A, Srikruthi N, Ramachandran S, Koka PS, Deb KD. Platelet-rich Plasma as a Potential Treatment for Androgenic Alopecia. J Stem Cells 2016; 11(4): 191-199.
  78. Mahapatra S, Subramanian V, James R, Deb KD, Koka PS. Follicular Transection Rates in Follicular Unit Extraction Method. J Stem Cells 2017; 12(1): 1-6.
  79. Koka PS, Sundell IB Padmanabhan U, Minev B, Setzer TJ, Chowdhary A. Potential Origins of Cancer Stem Cells in the Disease Evolution and its Etiology. J Stem Cells 2017; 12(1): 25-31.
  80. Koka PS. Vertical Transmission of Virus Infections – Placenta as Facilitator or Inhibitor. J Hum Virol Retr Virol 2017; 5(3); 00152.
  81. Koka PS, Chowdhary A. Assessment of necessity of transfusions in vector-borne primary and secondary infections. Hematol Transfus Intl J 2017; 4(5): 00097.
  82. Bansal H, Comella K, Leon J, Verma P, Agrawal D, Koka P, Ichim T. Intra-articular Injection in the Knee of Adipose Derived Stromal Cells (Stromal Vascular Fraction) and Platelet Rich Plasma for Osteoarthritis. J Transl Med 2017; 15(1): 141 doi: 10.1186/s12967-017-1242-4.
  83. Koka PS. Lineage origins of cancer stem cells. CHARUSAT J 2017; 1(1): 17-20.
  84. Jyothi NS, Koka PS. A Concept of Inducing Innate Regeneration through Cell Free Regenerative Medicine - A Possible Therapeutic Approach for the Ischemic Cerebrovascular Insult. J Stem Cells 2017; 12(3): 113-132.
  85. Koka PS. Need for Improved Contrast Dyes to Prevent Life-Threating Consequences. Hematol Transfus Intl J 2018; 6(1): 00144. DOI: 10.15406/htij.2018.06.00144
  86. Koka PS. The often overlooked deleterious malignant effects of mesenchymal stem cells. Curr Res Stem Cell Regen Med. Manuscript in preparation.
  87. Koka PS, Palep HS, Bichile S, Chowdhary A, Lele RD. Thalassemia in Adult Patients: Allogeneic CD34+ Progenitor Cells for Increased Success Rate in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Manuscript in preparation.
  88. Padmanabhan U, Dahake R, Chowdhary A, Koka PS. HIV-1 inhibits multi-lineage hematopoiesis via microRNA host factors secreted by infected CD4+ T cells. Manuscript in preparation.


EDITED BOOKS, Editor: Koka PS, Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA

Journal of Stem Cells is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes four issues per year. The journal is owned and operated by Nova Science Publishers and funded entirely by subscription revenue and author-optional publication services.

Instructions for Reviewers
Requests to serve as a Reviewer should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief, Prasad Koka, at

Reviewers who repeatedly decline to review manuscripts following their formal inclusion on the journal's website will be removed from the list of reviewers at the Editor's discretion.

Serving reviewers are advised not to recommend their colleagues to review the same assigned manuscript unless it falls within the scope of their expertise.

Contributing authors can also recommend referees in their fields of expertise for reviewing their articles.

Notes for Authors
There is no charge to submit your article and have it published in the journal, and there is no charge for color printing. Nova offers a number of optional publication services that carry fees, but authors are not required to select these services, and the services won’t be offered until after acceptance of the articles. These services include Open Access, article offprints, discounted print copies of the journal issue, and licenses for use of the published articles.

Submission of an article implies that the authors will assign the copyright to Nova if their article is accepted for publication. A standard Copyright Transfer Form will be provided to the Corresponding Author of each article during the page proof stage of production.

Authors will receive a complimentary PDF of the full final issue and a complimentary PDF of his or her final article upon publication.

Authors may deposit and display the proofed versions of their articles in and on their personal non-commercial and affiliate non-commercial repositories and websites at any time. The same may be done with their final published articles only after a period of one year has elapsed from the day of publication.

Original or review articles submitted to Journal of Stem Cells are sent for peer review to at least three reviewers. This number of reviewers can increase if some of the reviewers fail to respond, or if there is a conflict between the reviewers on the decision making process by the Editor. If some of the reviewers' comments are severely adverse in nature then the Editor will seek the response of additional reviewer(s). A final decision to accept or reject the article is made by the Editor after seeking a suitable response from the authors to the reviewers' comments. The revised version of the article may be sent back to the same reviewers before a decision is made. The authors' responses and rebuttals on the reviewer(s) comments on the revised version of the manuscript will determine the decision of acceptance or rejection of the manuscript / article.

Manuscript Submissions
Before submitting your article, please read the complete notes and instructions below to ensure that you understand Nova’s manuscript requirements and publication procedures and that you are in compliance with the ethical standards rightfully set forth by Nova, the publishing industry, and the scientific community.

Articles should be submitted by email to the Editor-in-Chief listed below.

Prasad S Koka, PhD

All abstracts and articles must be written in English with references in standard Roman script.

It is understood that articles submitted to the journal have not been submitted elsewhere for simultaneous publication consideration and have not been previously published, in whole or in part, unless the new article is an expansion of the original, in which case full transparency of the re-used portions must be provided.

Manuscript Preparation
The Journal will be published in the standard letter size with soft cover. The articles will include peer-reviewed original research and review articles, brief reports, rapid communications, mini- or short reviews, news items, book reviews, and letters to the Editor. Regular research articles will consist of an abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements, table and figure legends, and references.

The word count limitations for all submissions will be considered on case-by-case basis with importance to the delivery of the scientific information to the readers. Cover illustration of scientific significance for a specific issue of the Journal from a contributing author will be considered by the Editor in consultation with the Publisher. The authors will submit to the Editor an electronic version of the article including cover letter, text, tables, figures, and illustrations as accepted for publication. The Editor reserves the right to reject publication of an article that does not meet these requirements or in his opinion is not original. Personal and institutional subscriptions are available.

An average issue will constitute between 100-150 pages and will be 8.5 x 11 double column. Contributors trying to submit articles above 4MB in size should contact the Editor for instructions on how to submit the article through our FTP server. For final submission of publication, the manuscript text should be in MS Word and the figures, graphics, and illustrations should be in TIFF format.

In-text references should be either author-identified or reference-number-identified and placed in square brackets on the line, e.g., [37]. Examples of acceptable forms of reference lists at the end of the article are as follows:

Author, AB; Author, CD. Title of journal article. Title of journal, year of publication, volume number, first page-last page.

Publication Ethics
Nova is committed to maintaining trust in the journal, the value of authorship, and the integrity of science. Authors should be eager to help us maintain these standards. The following guidelines are provided to help authors avoid the appearance of ethical misconduct in their research and to help ensure adherence to the best practices set forth by national and international professional and regulatory bodies.

Plagiarism is a blight on the scientific community and a crime. The unauthorized use or close imitation of another’s language, text, data, ideas, or theories is prohibited. In all instances of authorized use, full credit to and representation of the original author’s work must be provided. It is the authors’ responsibility to secure permission for the use of copyrighted material. Nova uses software during the page proof stage of production to check for instances of plagiarism. Articles will not be accepted for publication by the Publisher until articles are proven not to consist of plagiarized material. The journal will investigate all reports and suspicions of plagiarism. Authors suspected of plagiaristic misconduct will be contacted and given the opportunity to prove the validity of their work and refute the allegations. All instances of proven plagiarism will be reported to the Publisher by the editorial office, and the author’s institute, and other governing bodies will be contacted as necessary. Plagiarized articles already accepted for publication will be cancelled, and plagiarized articles that have already been published will be retracted and denounced in a public erratum.

It is important that all authors and organizations where the research has been carried out have consented to the work’s submission and that all authors have significantly contributed.

In order to establish transparency in research, authors should be sure to provide the following items.

1) Information regarding the source(s) of the work’s funding;
2) All financial and non-financial potential conflicts of interest;
3) A statement of informed consent for all studies that involve human participants;
4) A statements of human rights for all studies that involve human participants;
5) A statement on the humane treatment and proper welfare of all animals involved in the study.

The appropriate statements are provided below. They should be included in the article’s text in a section titled Ethical Compliance. This section should immediately precede the References section.

1) Sources of Funding
Please provide the names of all funding agencies, research grants, and grant numbers.

Source of Funding: This study was funded by ____________________.

2) Potential Conflicts of Interest
Authors are required to disclose all personal and professional relationships and interests that can be viewed as potentially imparting bias in the work. Readers are entitled to this information and to their own conclusions and perceptions of conflict. Potential conflicts could be financial relationships, employment, sponsorships, public holdings, competing interests, spousal interests, personal relationships, personal beliefs, etc.

a) Disclosure of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


b) Disclosure of Interest:

3) Informed Consent
Study participants have the right to decide how the identifiable personal information gathered on them is used. It is essential that all participants (or guardians) give their written informed consent to participate in the study and its subsequent publication.

Informed consent was obtained from each individual participant involved in this study.

4) Statement of Human Rights
The wellbeing of human subjects takes precedence over the interests of science. If a study involves human participants, authors should include a statement that the study was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its subsequent amendments.

This study was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its subsequent amendments.

5) Statement of Animal Welfare
All studies that involve animals should contain a statement that the study and its procedures have been approved by their affiliate institutional research ethics committee.

All animals involved in this study were treated in accordance with the ethical standards set forth by the institution at which the study was conducted.

Committee on Publication Ethics
Nova and its editors follow the Codes of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). These codes and guidelines are valuable instructions that ensure transparency and fairness in research and publishing. The single document provides steps for submissions, peer-review, confidentiality, the creation and maintenance of editorial boards, editorial responsibilities and decision-making, communication policy, appeal procedures, handling complaints and instances of misconduct, quality assurance, publishing corrections and retractions, adherence to national and international ethics guidelines, and many more aspects of the publication process.

The COPE Codes of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines can be read at the link below. We recommend your familiarity with them while you publish with Nova and any other scientific publisher.

If you notice any ethical misconduct in Nova’s publications, please contact us.

Publisher’s Office
Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
400 Oser Avenue, Suite 1600
Hauppauge, New York 11788, USA
Phone: (631) 231-7269

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