Iranians in the Minds of Americans

Ehsan Shahghasemi
Assistant Professor, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Series: Dialogues among Civilizations and Cultures
BISAC: HIS026020


Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick


Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:



Iranians in the Minds of Americans is hitherto the most extensive study on perceptions American people have of Iranians. Also, though there are many books that study political relations between Iran and the US, this book tries to take an intercultural approach and reveal what is actually behind politics. This book not only studies perceptions Americans hold for Iranians, but also tries to put these views in the wider historical, political, cultural and social context. Therefore, we can see in this book a very well-documented history of American missionary work and life in Iran’s 19th century. The work of these missionaries, particularly in the field of education, changed the history of Iran forever. Also, missionaries provided the scene for the establishment of the first American legation in Iran. Therefore, in this book the historical relationship between these countries is depicted from before a time of formal relationships to present day.

Through the introduction of the concept of cross cultural schemata by Shahghasemi and Heisey (2009), the book presents a framework for analysis and then it goes on to present results of a study on 1,752 American citizens across 50 American states. The results show clearly the negative role of American media in creating an unfavorable image of Iranian people. Also, we can see that historical events like Hostage Crisis have left a negative effect on Americans’ perception of Iranians. Conversely, American citizens who knew an Iranian citizen in person have shown much more positive perceptions about Iranian people. (Imprint: Nova)


Chapter 1. The "Great Satan" versus "the Axis of Evil" (pp. 1-38)

Chapter 2. American Missionary Life and Work in Iran (pp. 39-76)

Chapter 3. Iran and United States in Historical Context (pp. 77-106)

Chapter 4. Studying American Cross Cultural Schemata (pp. 107-118)

Chapter 5. Findings (pp. 119-158)

Chapter 6. Cross Cultural Schemata (pp. 159-240)

Conclusion (pp. 241-244)

Bibliography (pp. 245-262)

About the Author (pp. 263-264)

Index (pp. 265)

“Behind the hardened, intensely presentist stereotypes of Iran and Iranians in contemporary media, Ehsan Shahghasemi finds more diverse cultural schemata that compound prior knowledge and personal experience conveyed in writings of missionaries, travelers and observers going back to the nineteenth century and revealed through his own ingeniously conducted survey research. He presents a wealth of data on both the self-reported sources and the content in schemata that frame images of Iranians in the Minds of Americans that are more varied, positive, and tentative than of the Iranian government. These, he argues, are the basis for intercultural dialogue.” - Jon W. Anderson, Emeritus Professor of Anthropology, Catholic University of America

ABCFM. (1819). The Panoplist, and Missionary Herald, Volume 15. Boston: Samuel T. Armstrong.
ABCFM. (1825). The Missionary herald XXI. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
ABCFM. (1834). The Missionary Herald, Volume 30. Boston: Crocker and Brewster.
Abrahamian, E. (1982). Iran between two revolutions. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Abrahamian, E. (2004). Empire strikes back: Iran in U.S. sights . In B. Cumings, E. Abrahamian, & M. Maʻoz, Inventing the axis of evil : the truth about North Korea, Iran, and Syria (pp. 93-156). New York: New Press.
Abrahamian, E. (2008). A history of modern Iran. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Adolphs, R. (2001). The neurobiology of social cognition. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11(2), 231–239.
Afary, J. (1996). The Iranian constitutional revolution, 1906-1911: Grassroots democracy, social democracy & the origins of feminism. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ahmadzadeh, M., Sabaghi, A., Motamedi, B., & Esmaeili, A. (2005). Assessing the intercultural sensitivity of Americans toward the Iranians. doi: = sarticles&
group = 6.
Ahmad-Zadeh-Namvar, F. (2008). Studying intercultural relations between Iran and the US emphasizing Schema and Intercultural Sensitivity theories. Tehran: MA thesis in Communication, University of Tehran.
Alexander, Y., & Nanes, A. S. (1980). The United States and Iran: A documentary history. Frederick: Aletheia Books.
Alloy, L. B., Clements, C. M., & Koenig, L. J. (1993). Perceptions of control: Determinants and mechanisms. In G. Weary, F. Gleicher, & K. L. Marsh, Control motivation and social cognition (pp. 33-73). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Amanat, A. (1997). Pivot of the universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ameli, S. R. & Shahghasemi, E. (2017). Americans’ cross-cultural schemata of Iranians: an online survey, Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 24(4),
Ameli, S. R. (2012). Bibliographical Discourse Analysis: The Western Academic Perspective on Islam. 1, Muslims and Islamic Countries: 1949-1979. London: Islamic Human Rights Commission.
Ameli, S. R., Mohseni, E., & Merali, A. (2013). Once Upon a Hatred : Anti-muslim Experiences in the USA. London: Once Upon a Hatred : Anti-muslim Experiences in the USA.
Andersen, H. C. (2012). The Wild Swans and Other Tales. London: Sovereign.
Anderson, G. H. (1998). Biographical dictionary of Christian missions. New York: Macmillan Reference.
Anderson, G. H. (1999). Biographical dictionary of Christian missions. New York: Macmillan Reference.
Asgard, R. (2010). U.S.-Iran cultural diplomacy: A historical perspective. al Nakhlah.
Badiozamani, B., & Badiozamani, G. (2005). Iran and America: Re-kind[l]ing a love lost. California: East-West Understanding Press.
Bartlotti, L. N. (2001). Open access in closed societies: Theological education in Muslim contexts. Transformation: An International Journal of Holistic Mission Studies, 18(2), 99–113.
Bassett, J. (1886). Persia: the land of the imams. A narrative of travel and residence, 1871-1885. New York: Scribner.
Bateson, M. C. (1979). “This Figure of Tinsel”: A Study of Themes of Hypocrisy and Pessimism in Iranian Culture. Daedalus, 108(3), 125-134.
Beattie, G. W., Agahi, C., & Spencer, C. (1982). Social stereotypes held by different occupational groups in post-revolutionary Iran. European Journal of Social Psychology, 12(1), 75-87.
Benjamin, S. G. (1886). Persia and the Persians. Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York, 18, 27-66.
Benjamin, S. G. (1887). The story of the nations: Persia. London and New York: Putnam’s Sons.
Bill, J. A. (1988). The Eagle and the Lion: The tragedy of American-Iranian relations. New Heaven and London: Yale University Press.
Bonakdarian, M. (2007). US-Iranian relations, 1911–1951. In A. Amanat, & M. T. Bernhardsson, U.S.-Middle East historical encounters (pp. 121-141). Tallahassee: University Press of Florida.
Bozorgmehr, M. (1998). From Iranian studies to studies of Iranians in the United States. Iranian Studies, 31(1), 4-30.
Brock, S. P., & Witakowski, W. (2001). At the turn of the third millennium: The Syrian Orthodox witness. Roma: Trans World Film Italia.
Browne, E. G. (1893). A year amongst the Persians : impressions as to the life, character, and thought of the people of Persia, received during twelve months’ residence in that country in the years 1887-8. London: A. and C. Black.
Campbell, J. (1995). Portrayal of Iranians in U.S. motion pictures. In Y. R. Kamalipour, The U.S. media and the Middle East: Image and perception (pp. 177-186). Westport: Greenwood Press.
Carter, R., & McRae, J. (2001). The Routledge history of literature in English : Britain and Ireland. London: Routledge.
Celmer, M. C. (1987). Terrorism, U.S. strategy, and Reagan policies. New York: Greenwood Press.
Chapman, C. (2011). Christians in the Middle East - past, present and future. Transformation: An International Journal of Holistic Mission Studies, 29, 90-110.
Clark, L. S. (2008). Reflections on Iran. Journal of Media and Religion, 7(1-2), 96-99.
Coan, F. G. (1939). Yesterdays in Persia and Kurdistan. Claremont: Saunders studio Press.
Cohen, J. M. (2008). A history of Western literature : from medieval epic to modern poetry. Piscataway: AldineTransaction.
Colby, F. M., & Williams, T. (1925). The new international encyclopaedia (Vol. I). New York: Dodd, Mead and Co.
Cole, J. R. (2005). The evolution of charismatic authority in the Bahai faith. In R. Gleave, Religion and Society in Qajar Iran (pp. 311-345). London: RoutledgeCurzon.
Collier , D. R. (2013). To Prevent a Revolution: John F. Kennedy and the Promotion of Democracy in Iran. Diplomacy and Statecraft, 24(3), 456-475.
Cook, A. H., & Rawshandil, J. (2009). The United States and Iran : policy challenges and opportunities. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cooke, S. (2013). Travellers’ tales of wonder : Chatwin, Naipaul, Sebald. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Corte, C. (2007). Schema model of the self-concept to examine the role of the self-concept in alcohol dependence and recovery. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 13(1), 31-41.
Cottam, R. W. (1979). Nationalism in Iran: Updated through 1978. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Cyrino, S. M. (2010). “This is sparta!”: The reinvention of the epic in. In R. Burgoyne, The epic film in world (pp. 19-38). New York: Routledge.
Dallalfar, S., & Movahedi, S. (1996). Women in multinational corporations: Old myths, new constructions and some deconstruction. Organization, 3(4), 546-559.
Daniel, R. L. (1964). American Influences in the Near East before 1861. American Quarterly, 16(1), 72-84.
Daryaee, T. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.
Davids , J., & Nielson, J. M. (2002). Extraterritoriality. In A. DeConde, R. D. Burns, & F. Logevall, Encyclopedia of American foreign policy / Vol. 2, E-N (pp. 81-92). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Davis, C. D. (2002). Arbitration, mediation, and conciliation. In T. G. Paterson, J. G. Clifford, & K. J. Hagan, Encyclopedia of American foreign policy / Vol. 1 , A-D (pp. 61-72). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
DeConde, A., Burns, R. D., & Logevall, F. (2002). Encyclopedia of American foreign policy / Vol. 1 , A-D. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Dodge, B. (1972). American Educational and Missionary Efforts in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 401.
Douglas, W. O. (1951). Strange Lands and Friendly People. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers.
Elder, J. (1960). History of the American Presbyterian Mission to Iran. Tehran: Literature Committee of the Church Council of Iran.
Endicott, L., Bock, T., & Narvaìez, D. (2003). Moral reasoning, intercultural development, and multicultural experiences : relations and cognitive underpinnings. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27, 403-419.
Farmanfarmaian, R. (2008). War and peace in Qajar Persia : implications past and present. London and New York: Routledge.
Fazeli, N. (2006). Politics of culture in Iran: Anthropology, politics and society in the twentieth century. London and New York: Routledge.
Ferraro, G. P., & Andreatt, S. (2011). Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective. Belmont: Wadsworth.
Fiske, S. T., & Linville, P. W. (1980). What does the schema concept buy us? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 6, 543-557.
Fiske, S. T., & Linville, P. W. (1980). What does the Schema Concept Buy us? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 6, 543-557.
Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (1991). Social cognition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Foldy, E. G. (2006). Dueling schemata: Dialectical sensemaking about gender. Human Resources Abstracts, 42(3), 350-372.
Forrest, A. I. (2006). The soldiers of the revolution and empire. London: MPG Books.
Fozooni, B. (2004). Religion, politics and class: Conflict and contestation in the development of football in Iran. Soccer & Society, 5(3),
Frends to Evangelical Truth. (1806). The Panoplist (and Missionary magazine) conducted by an association of. Boston: E. Lincoln, Water-Street.
Frye, R. N. (2003). Persia in the mind of the West. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 14, 403-406.
Gable, R. W. (1959). Culture and administration in Iran. Middle East Journal, 13(4), 407-421.
Garret-Rempel, D. (2008). The end of British empire in Iran: An Anglo-American sleight of hand. the Clearihue Review, 2(1), 45-55.
Gastil, R. D. (1958). Middle class impediments to Iranian modernization. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 22(3), 325-329.
Gerges, F. A. (2003). Islam and Muslims in the mind of America. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 588, 73-89.
Gibson, D. (2004). Communication, power, and media. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Goode, E., & Ben-Yehuda, N. (2009). Moral panics: The social construction of deviance. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Grant, A. (1841). The Nestorians, or, The lost tribes . New York: Harper.
Hansen, B. (2001). Learning to Tax: The political economy of the opium trade in Iran, 1921-1941. The Journal of Economic History, 61(1), 95-113.
Hassler-Forest, D. (2010). The 300 controvercy: A case study in the politics of adaptation. In J. Goggin, & D. Hassler-Forest, The rise and reason of comics and graphic literature: Critical essays on the form (pp. 119-127). United States of America: McFarland.
Haynes-Peterson, R. (2014, August 10). Examiner. Retrieved Spetember 1, 2014, from Anthony Bourdain kicks off chef talks at Long Island’s Guild Hall:
Heisey, D. R. (2008). ‘The Great Satan’ vs. An Axis of Evil’: Perceptions Iranians and Americans have of each other. Hiram, Ohio, U.S.
Heisey, D. R., & Sharifzadeh, M. (2011). The visual and artistic rhetoric of Americans and Iranians of each other impacted by media. Phi Beta Delta. Philadelphia.
Hellot, F. (2005). The Western missionaries in Azerbaijani society (1835-1914). In R. Gleave, Religion and Society in Qajar Iran (pp. 270-292). London: Routledge Curzon.
Heradstveit, D., & Bonham, G. M. (2007). What the axis of evil metaphor did to Iran. Middle East Journal, 61(3), 421-441.
Heravi, M. (1999). Iranian-American Diplomacy. United States of American: Ibex Publishers.
Herman, E. S., & Chomsky, N. (2002). Manufacturing consent: The political economy of the mass media. New York: Pantheon Books.
Heubeck , A., & Hoekstra, A. (1990). A Commentary on Homer’s Odyssey. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Heuser, F. J. (1988). A guide to foreign missionary manuscripts in the Presbyterian Historical Society. New York: Greenwood Press.
Holliday, A., Kullman, J., & Hyde, M. (2004). Intercultural communication, an advanced resource book. London; New York: Routledge.
Hoover, S. M. (2008). Surprises and Learnings from the Tehran Conference. Journal of Media and Religion, 7(1-2), 100-102.
Hulme, P., & Youngs, T. (2002). The Cambridge Companion to Travel Writing. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Imamoğlu, C. (2007). Assisted living as a new place schema. Environment and Behavior, 39(2), 246-268.
Iriye, A. (2002). Cultural relations and politics. In A. DeConde, R. D. Burns, & F. Logevall, Encyclopedia of American foreign policy / Vol. 1 , A-D (pp. 409-426). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Israel, J., & Anderson, D. L. (2002). Department of state. In A. DeConde, R. D. Burns, & F. Logevall, Encyclopedia of American foreign policy / Vol. 1, E-N (Vol. 1, pp. 451-462). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Ito, T. A. (2011). Perceiving social category information from faces: Using ERPs to study person perception. In A. B. Todorov, S. T. Fiske, & D. A. Prentice, Social neuroscience: Toward understanding the underpinnings of the social mind (pp. 85-100). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
Johnston Conover, P., Mingst, K. A., & Sigelman, L. (1980). Mirror images in Americans’ perceptions of nations and leaders during the Iranian hostage crisis. Journal of Peace Research, 4, 325-337.
Kambin, P. (2011). A history of the Iranian Plateau: Rise and fall of an empire. Bloomington: IUniverse Inc.
Kedie, N. R. (1988). Iranian revolutions in comparative perspectives. In E. Burke, E. Abrahamian, & I. M. Lapidu, Islam, Politics, and Social Movements (pp. 298-314). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kellogg, R. T. (1997). Cognitive psychology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Keshishian, F. (2000). Acculturation, communication, and the U.S. mass media: The experience of an Iranian immigrant. Howard Journal of, 11(2), 93-106.
Khatib-Shahidi, R. (2013). German foreign policy towards Iran before World War II: Political relations, economic influence and the National Bank of Persia. London: I.B. Tauris.
Kim, S.-B. D. (2013). Changes and trends in world Christianity. Transformation: An International Journal of Holistic Mission Studies, 30(4), 257-266.
Kimball, W. F. (2002). Alliances, coalitions, and entents. In A. DeConde, R. D. Burns, & F. Logevall, Encyclopedia of American foreign policy / Vol. 1 , A-D (pp. 13-28). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Kinney, A. F. (2012). The Oxford handbook of Shakespeare. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kinzer, S. (2011). All the Shah’s men : An American coup and the roots of Middle East terror. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Klare, M. T. (2002). Arms transfers and trade. In A. DeConde, R. D. Burns, & F. Logevall, Encyclopedia of American foreign policy / Vol. 1 , A-D (pp. 105-116). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Kovacs, M. G. (1989). The epic of Gilgamesh. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
Kull, S. (2007). Public opinion in Iran and America on key international issues. World PublicO pinion. Retrieved from http://www.
Lane, C. (1995). Germany’s New Ostpolitik. Foreign Affairs, 74(6), 77-89.
Laurie, T. (1853). Dr. Grant and the mountain Nestorians. Boston: Gould and Lincoln.
Laurie, T. (1863). Woman and her saviour in Persia. Boston: Gould and Lincoln.
Laurie, T. (1887). Woman and the gospel in Persia. Chicago: Woman’s Presbyterian Board of Missions of the Northwest.
Lauwers, J., Dhont, M., & Huybrecht, X. (2012). “This is Sparta!:” Discourse, gender, and the Orient in Zack Snyder’s 300. In A.-B. Renger, & J. Solomon, Ancient worlds in film and television: Gender and politics (pp. 79-94). Boston: Brill.
Lee, K. (2003). Health impacts of globalization: Towards global governance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Llewellyn-Jones, L., & Robson, J. (2010). Ctesias’ History of Persia: Tales of the Orient. New York: Routledge.
Llobera, J. R. (2003). An invitation to anthropology : the structure, evolution, and cultural identity of human societies. New York: Berghahn Books.
Lorentz, J. H. (2010). The A to Z of Iran. Lanham: Scarecrow Press.
Macuch, R. (1987). Assyrians in Iran. In E. Yarshater, Encyclopaedia Iranica (Vol. II, pp. 820-842). London; Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Maghsoudlou, B. (2009). Grass: Untold Stories. Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers.
Mahdavi, S. (2005). Shahs, doctors, diplomats and missionaries in 19th century Iran. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 32(2), 169-191.
Malcolm, I., & Sharifian, F. (2002). Aspects of aboriginal English oral discourse: An application of cultural schema theory. Discourse Studies, 4(2), 169-181.
Malick, D. G. (2008). The American mission press : A preliminary bibliography. Chicago: Atour Publications.
Mansoori, A. (1986). American missionaries in Iran, 1834-1934. Muncie: Ball State University.
Marr, T. (2006). “Drying up the Euphrates”: Muslims, Millennialism, and early American missionary enterprise. In T. Marr, The cultural roots of American Islamicism (pp. 130-149). Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Marr, T. (2006). The cultural roots of American Islamicism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, J. D., Rapp, H. C., & Williams, U. (1993). Individual differences in behavioral prediction: The acquisition of personal-action schemata. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19(4), 443-451.
McCrisken, T. B. (2002). Foreign aid. In A. DeConde, R. D. Burns, & F. Logevall, Encyclopedia of American foreign policy / Vol. 2, E-N (pp. 93-11). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
McGlinchey, S. (2013). Lyndon B. Johnson and arms credit sales to Iran 1964-1968. Middle East Journal, 67(2), 229-247.
McVee, M. B., Dunsmore, K., & Gavelek, J. R. (2005). Schema theory revisited. Review of Educational Research, 75(4), 531-566.
Merrick, J. L. (1847). The pilgrim’s harp. Boston: Crocker and Brewster.
Millspaugh, A. C. (1925). The American task in Persia. New York ; London: Century Co.
Millward, W. G. (1975). The social psychology of anti-Iranology. Iranian Studies, 8(1/2), 48-69.
Mirani, G., Soofi, M., Ahmadzadeh Namvar, F., & Haghboei, A. (2006). The shadow of schema over intercultural communications: A research on Iran-USA case. doi:
Mobasher, M. M. (2012). Iranians in Texas : Migration, politics, and ethnic identity. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Mobasher, M. M. (2012). Iranians in Texas: Migration, politics, and ethnic identity. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Momen, M. (2005). The role of women in the Iranian Bahai community. In R. Gleave, Religion and society in Qajar Iran (pp. 346-370). London: RoutledgeCurzon.
Morier, J. J. (1812). A journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the years 1808 and 1809 : in which is included, some account of the proceedings of His Majesty’s mission, under Sir Harford Jones, Bart. K. C. to the court of the King of Persia. London: Longman.
Morton, D. O. (1832). Memoir of the Rev. Levi Parsons, first missionary to Palestine from the United States (1832). Edinburgh: Edinburgh.
Moskowitz, G. B. (2005). Social cognition: Understanding self and others. New York: Guilford Press.
Movahedi, S. (1985). The social psychology of foreign policy and the politics of international images. Human Affairs, 8, 1-11.
Mullen, A. (2010). Bringing power back in: The Herman-Chomsky propaganda model, 1988-2008. In J. Klaehn, The political economy of media and power (pp. 207-228). New York: Peter Lang.
Murre-van den Berg, H. (1996). The Missionaries’ Assistants: The Role of Assyrians in the Development of Written Urmia Aramaic. Journal of the Assyrian Academic Society(2), 3 - 17.
Murre-van den Berg, H. (2005). Nineteenth-century Protestant Missions and Middle-Eastern women: An overview. In I. M. Okkenhaug, & I. Flaskerud, Gender, Religion and Change in the Middle East. Two Hundred Years of History. (pp. 103-122). Oxford and New York: BERG.
Nategh, H. (1996). Karnameye farhangie farangi. Paris: Khavaran.
Newcomb, H. (1854). Cyclopedia of missions ; containing a comprehensive view of missionary operations throughout the world ; with geographical descriptions, and accounts of the social, moral, and religious condition of the people. New York: C. Scribner.
Nishida, H. (1999). A cognitive approach to intercultural communication based on schema theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(5), 753-777.
Nye, J. S. (2013). Presidential leadership and the creation of the American era. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Oller, J. W. (1995). Adding Abstract to Formal and Content Schemata: Results of Recent Work in Peircean Semiotics. Applied Linguistics, 16(3), 273-306.
Pazy, A. (1994). Cognitive schemata of professional obsolescence. Human Relations, 47(10), 1167-1199.
Pennington, D. C. (2000). Social cognition. London and Philadelphia: Routledge.
Perkins, H. M. (1887). Life of Rev. Justin Perkins, D. D., Pioneer missionary to Persia. Chicago: Woman’s Pbesbyterian Board of Missions.
Perkins, J. (1843). A Residence of Eight Years in Persia among the Nestorian Christians with Notices of the Muhammedans. New York: Allen, Morrill & Wardwell.
Perkins, J. (1853). The Persian flower: A memoir of Judith Grant Perkins, of Oroomiah, Persia. Boston: American Tract Society.
Public Affairs Alliance of Iranian Americans. (2008). Public opinion survey of American Perceptions of Iranian Americans. Public Affairs Alliance of Iranian Americans. Retrieved September 22, 2013, from
Rivas, D. (2002). Humanitarian intervention and relief. In A. DeConde, R. D. Burns, & F. Logevall, Encyclopedia of American foreign policy / Vol. 2, E-N (pp. 151-172). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Saïd, S. (2011). Homer and the Odyssey. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.
Sajjādī, Ṣ. (1989). BĪMĀRESTĀN. In E. Yar-Shater, Encyclopædia Iranica (Vol. IV, pp. 257-261). London ; Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Saleh, A. P. (1976). Cultural ties between Iran and the United States. Tehran: Sherkat-e- Chapkhaneh Bistopanj-e Shahrivar.
Sasaki, M. (2000). Effects of cultural schemata on students’ test-taking processes for cloze tests: A multiple data source approach. Language Testing, 17(1), 85-114.
Schayegh, C. (2009). Who is knowledgeable, is strong: Science, class, and the formation of modern Iranian Society, 1900–1950. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Schrodt, P. (2006). Development and validation of the Stepfamily Life Index. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 23(3), 427-444.
Shackley, M. L. (2006). Atlas of travel and tourism development. Boston: Elsevier.
Shahghasemi, E. (2009). How do Iranian bloggers view the American people. iCom 2009. Melaka.
Shahghasemi, E., & Heisey, D. R. (2009). The cross-cultural schemata of Iranian-American people toward each other: A qualitative approach. Intercultural Communication Studies, XVIII(1), 143-160.
Shahghasemi, E., Heisey, D. R., & Mirani, G. (2011). How do Iranians and U.S. citizens perceive each other: A systematic review. Journal of Intercultural Communication(27).
Shahidi, H. (2007). Journalism in Iran: From mission to profession. London; New York: Routledge.
Sharifi, R., Shahghasemi, E., & Emamzadeh, Z. (2017). Cross cultural schemata Iranian women have of Americans. Art of Communication. Warsaw: Interdisciplinary Research Foundation.
Shatzmiller, M. (1993). Crusaders and Muslims in twelfth-century Syria. New York: Brill.
Shavit, D. (1988). The United States in the Middle East: A historical dictionary. New York: Greenwood Press.
Shedd, M. L. (1918). Mary Lewis [Mrs. W. A.] Shedd papers. Union Theological Seminary: Finding Aid.
Shedd, M. L. (1922). The measure of a man: The life of William Ambrose Shedd, missionary to Persia. New York: George H. Doran Co.
Shedd, W. A. (1904). Islam and the Oriental Churches: Their historical relations. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication and Sabbath-school Work.
Shmuel, R. b. (2011). The Western missionaries and the revival of the Neo-Aramaic dialects. Simtha, 5(18), 6-13.
Shuster, W. M. (1912). The strangling of Persia; A record of European diplomacy and oriental intrigue. New York: The Century Co.
Sick, G. (1985). All fall down: America’s fateful encounter in Iran. London: Tauris.
Sicker, M. (2001). The Middle East in the Twentieth Century. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
Siew Ming, T. (1997). Induced content schema Vs induced linguistic schema—Which is more beneficial for Malaysian ESL readers? RELC Journal, 28(2), 107-127.
Simon, H. A. (1976). Discussion: Cognition and social behavior. In J. Carroll, & J. Payne, Cognition and social behavior (pp. 253-269). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Slade, S. (1981). The Image of the Arab in America: Analysis of a Poll on American Attitudes. Middle East Journal, 35(2), 143-162.
Smith, E., & Dwight, H. G. (1834). Missionary researches in Armenia : including a journey through Asia Minor and into Georgia and Persia, etc. London: Watford Field House.
Sokolowski, R. (2000). Introduction to phenomenology. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Southgate, H. (1840). Narrative of a tour through Armenia, Kurdistan, Persia and Mesopotamia : with an introduction, and occasional observations upon the condition of Mohammedanism and Christianity in those countries. New York: D. Appleton & Co.
Speer, R. E. (1911). The Hakim Sahib, the foreign doctor: A biography of Joseph Plumb Cochran, M.D., of Persia. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co.
Spellman, K. (2004). Religion and nation: Iranian local and transnational networks in Britain. New York: Berghahn Book.
Stockwell, P. (2003). Schema poetics and speculative cosmology. Language and Literature, 12(3), 252-271.
Strickland, D. H. (2003). Saracens, Demons, and Jews: Making Monsters in Medieval Art. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Stümpel-Hatami, I. (1999). Christianity as described by Persian Muslims. In J. Waardenburg, Muslim perceptions of other religions: A historical survey (pp. 227-240). New York: Oxford University Press.
Sullivan, W. H. (1981). Mission to Iran. New York: Norton.
Tadayon, K. M. (1982). The changing image of Iran in the United States: Open-ended format surveys before and after the hostage crisis. International Communication Gazette, 30, 89-95.
Tavassoli, S. (2011). Christian encounters with Iran: Engaging Muslim thinkers after the Revolution. London: I. B. Tauris.
Taylor, G. (2005). Fever And thirst: Dr. Grant and the Christian tribes of Kurdistan. Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers.
Taylor, S. E., & Crocker, J. (1981). Schematic bases of social information processing. In E. Higgins, C. A. Herman, & M. P. Zanna, Social Cognition (pp. 89-134). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate.
Terror Free Tomorrow. (2007). Polling Iranian Public Opinion: An unprecedented nationwide survey of Iran. Washington: Terror Free Tomorrow. Retrieved October 12, 2013, from http://www.
Tigay, J. H. (1982). The evolution of the Gilgamesh epic. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Van Gorder, C. (2010). Christianity in Persia and the status of non-muslims in Iran. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Walker, W. O. (2002). Narcotics policy. In A. DeConde, R. D. Burns, & F. Logevall, Encyclopedia of American foreign policy / Vol. 2, E-N (pp. 455-472). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Ward, S. R. (2009). Immortal: A military history of Iran and its armed forces. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Waring, E. S. (1807). A tour to Sheeraz, by the route of Kazroon and Feerozabad : with various remarks on the manners of the Persians to which is added a history of Persia. London.
Warne, A. (2013). Psychoanalyzing Iran: Kennedy’s Iran Task Force and the Modernization of Orientalism, 1961–3. The International History Review, 35(2), 396-422.
Werner, C. M., Rhodes, M. U., & Partain, K. K. (1998). Designing effective instructional signs with schema theory: Case studies of polystyrene recycling. Environment and Behavior, 30(5), 709-735.
Westwood, A. F. (1965). Politics of distrust in Iran. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 358(1), 123-135.
Wishard, J. G. (1908). Twenty years in Persia: A narrative of life under the last three shahs. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company.
Woods, L. (1833). Memoirs of American missionaries, formerly connected with the Society of Inquiry Respecting Missions, in the Andover Theological Seminary: Embracing a history of the Society, etc., with an introductory essay. Boston: Peirce and Parker.
World Public Opinion. (2009). Iranians Favor Diplomatic Relations With US But Have Little Trust in Obama. Maryland: World Public Opinion.
Yekta Steininger, M. (2010). The United States and Iran: Different values and attitudes toward nature; scratches on our hearts and minds. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Yeselson, A. (1956). United States-Persian diplomatic relations, 1883-1921. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
Zajonc, R. B. (1989). Styles of explanation in social psychology. European Journal of Social Psychology, 19(5), 345-368.
Zaki, J., & Ochsner, K. (2011). You, me, and my brain: Self and other representations in social cognitive neuroscience. In A. B. Todorov, S. T. Fiske, & D. A. Prentice, Social neuroscience: Toward understanding the underpinnings of the social mind (pp. 14-39). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

This study will be interesting for academic disciplines as diverse as political sciences, communication, critical studies, cultural studies, social psychology, history and conflict resolution. All students, academics and practitioners will benefit by reading this book, though for different purposes. The book will best sell in the U.S. and there is a great possibility that many copies will sell among hundreds of thousands of Iranian-Americans living in the U.S.

You have not viewed any product yet.