International Journal of Clinical Dentistry

Editor-in-Chief: Giuseppe Alessandro Scardina, PhD
ISSN: 1939-5833
Frequency: Quarterly
Binding: Softcover
Size: 7 x 10, Single column

The archive of International Journal of Clinical Dentistry is a multidisciplinary forum for publications from all fields of oral medicine. The Journal builds a bridge between basic and clinical sciences, promoting the exchange of information and the advancement of oral medicine for the benefit of patients and clinicians.

IJCD offers comprehensive coverage of new techniques, important developments, and innovative ideas in all fields of clinical dentistry. The Journal publishes original scientific articles and invited reviews that provide an international readership with up-to-date results of basic and clinical studies in the field of oral and maxillofacial science and medicine. The Journal will clarify the relevance of these results for modern practices. Topics include Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Prosthetics and Restorative Dentistry, Operative Dentistry, Endodontics, Periodontology, Orthodontics, Dental Materials Science, Clinical Trials, Epidemiology, Pedodontics, Oral Implant, Preventive Dentistry, Oral Pathology, and Oral Basic Sciences. The Journal also includes specifics on new instruments and diagnostic equipment, as well as modern therapeutic drugs and devices.

Indexed by Scopus, EMCare, Index Copernicus, ASCI, WAME, Chemical Abstracts, Ulrich’s Serials Solutions Database, Abstracts in Anthropology, EBSCO’S Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source Database

Table of Contents

Volume 15 Issue 4 (2022)
Volume 15 Issue 3 (2022)
Volume 15 Issue 2 (2022)
Volume 15 Issue 1 (2022)
Volume 14 Issue 4 (2021)
Volume 14 Issue 3 (2021)
Volume 14 Issue 2 (2021)
Volume 14 Issue 1 (2021)
Volume 13 Issue 4 (2020)
Volume 13 Issue 3 (2020)
Volume 13 Issue 2 (2020)
Volume 13 Issue 1 (2020)
Volume 12 Issue 4 (2019)
Volume 12 Issue 3 (2019)
Volume 12 Issue 2 (2019)
Volume 12 Issue 1 (2019)
Volume 11 Issue 4 (2018)
Volume 11 Issue 3 (2018)
Volume 11 Issue 2 (2018)
Volume 11 Issue 1 (2018)
Volume 10 Issue 4 (2017)
Volume 10 Issue 3 (2017)
Volume 10 Issue 2 (2017)
Volume 10 Issue 1 (2017)
Volume 9 Issue 4 (2016)
Volume 9 Issue 3 (2016)
Volume 9 Issue 2 (2016)
Volume 9 Issue 1 (2016)
Volume 8 Issue 4 (2015)
Volume 8 Issue 3 (2015)
Volume 8 Issue 2 (2015)
Volume 8 Issue 1 (2015)
Volume 7 Issue 4 (2014)
Volume 7 Issue 3 (2014)
Volume 7 Issue 2 (2014)
Volume 7 Issue 1 (2014)
Volume 6 Issue 4 (2013)
Volume 6 Issue 3 (2013)
Volume 6 Issue 2 (2013)
Volume 6 Issue 1 (2013)
Volume 5 Issue 4 (2012)
Volume 5 Issue 3 (2012)
Volume 5 Issue 2 (2012)
Volume 5 Issue 1 (2012)
Volume 4 Issue 4 (2011)
Volume 4 Issue 3 (2011)
Volume 4 Issue 2 (2011)


Giuseppe Alessandro Scardina
Associate Professor
Department of Surgical Oncological and Stomatological Disciplines
University of Palermo
Via Del Vespro, 129-90127 Palermo
E-mail 1:
E-mail 2:

Honorary Editors

Pietro Messina
Professor of Oral Sciences
Department of Surgical Oncological and Stomatological Disciplines
University of Palermo

L.P. Samaranayake
Dean Chair, Professor of Oral Microbiology
Faculty of Dentistry
The University of Hong Kong
Director, Prince Philip Dental Hospital
Hong Kong

Editorial Board

Ali I. Abdalla, Professor of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Tanta, Egypt
Nibras Ahmed, Department of Oral Biology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Daniela Alterio, MD, Professor of Radiation Therapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy
Vasudev Ballal, BDS, MDS, Ph.D, Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Karnataka, India
Alberto Barlattani, Professor, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Fatebenefratelli Hospital, Rome, Italy
Roberta Tarkany Basting, DDS, MS, ScD, Professor, Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Research Center Sao Leopoldo Mandic, Campinas, SP, Brazil
Emre Bodrumlu, DDS, PhD, Professor, Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit-Samsun, Turkey
William H. Bowen, DDS, PhD, Professor, Center of Oral Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, U.S.A.
F.J. Trevor Burke, Professor of Primary Dental Care, Birmingham Scholl of Dentistry, St. Chad’s Queensway, Birmingham, UK
Andrea Butera, RDH, PhD Student, Research Fellow, Unit of Dental Hygiene, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Italy
Mario Capogreco, Professor, University of L’Aquila, Italy
Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti, Professor and Head, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, State University of Paraiba, Brazil
Ponlatham Chaiyarit, D.D.S., M.S., Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Oral Diagnosis, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
Mustafa Demirci, Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Capa, Istanbul, Turkey
Dr. Dennis, MdSc, Sp.KG, Specialist in Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
Francesco Saverio De Ponte, MD, Professor, Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
Serge Dibart, DMD, Professor, Department of Periodontology and Oral Biology, Boston University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, U.S.A.
Kikwilu Emil, Professor, Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Silvestre Francisco, Unidad de Pacientes Especiales, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Baiping Fu, DMD, Professor, Vice Director, Department of Stomatology, No. 1 Hospital aff. To Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Eric M. Genden, MD, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, U.S.A.
Allahyar Geramy, DDS, MSc, Associate Professor, TUMS, Coordinator, Post graduate, Orthodontics Department, Dental Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Angelo Itro, Professor, Department of Head and Neck Pathology, Oral Cavity and Audio-Verbal Communication, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
Anders Johansson, Professor, Department of Oral Sciences – Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Bergen, Norway
Estela Kaminagakura, Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Universitary Center of Lavras, Brazil
Valentina Lanteri, PhD, Oral Sciences, University of Milan Italy
Daniel M. Laskin, Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Schools of Dentistry and Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, U.S.A.
Yong-Keun Lee, Professor, Department of Dental Biomaterials Science and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
Liran Levin, Professor, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, The Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Myriam Maroto, Professor, Department of Prevention, Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Marcello Melis, DMD, RPharm, Private Practice, Cagliari, Italy; Adjunct Professor, School of Dentistry, University of Cagliari, Italy
Peter Milgrom, Professor, Department of Dental Public Health Sciences Adjunct, Professor of Pediatric Dentistry, Director, Northwest/Alaska Center to Reduce Oral Health Disparities, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.
M.S. Muthu, Professor and Head, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India
Erika Nagle, Professor, Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Riga Stradins University, Latvia
Miguel Peñarrocha-Diago, MD, Professor of Stomatology in the School of Medicine and Dentistry and Master Director of Surgery and Oral implants, Valencia University Medical and Dental School, Valencia, Spain
Jesus Gallego Rodriguez, Department of E.G.I., Province Odontology School of La Habana, La Habana, Cuba
Louis Soares, Professor, Biomedical Vibrational Spectroscopy Laboratory, Research and Development Institute, University of Vale do Paraiba, SP, Brazil
Katarina Sondell, Professor, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education Center, Sweden
David Sonntag, DMD, Professor, Department of Operative Dentistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany
Christian F.J. Stappert, DDS, Professor, Department of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry, Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, U.S.A.
Renato Herman Sundfeld, DDS, MS, PHD, Professor, Department of Community Dentistry, Araçatuba Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araçatuba, Brazil, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Brazil
Grant Townsend, Professor, School of Dentistry, The University of Adelaide, Australia
Eleftherios Vairaktaris, MD, DDS, PhD, PhD, Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece
Tim Van den Wyngaert, Professor, Department of Medical Oncology/Nuclear Medicine, Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium
Miira Vehkalahti, DDS, PhD, Docent Senior Researcher, Department of Oral Public Health Institute of Dentistry, University of Helsinki, Finland
Saman Warnakulasuriya, Professor, Department of Oral Medicine, King’s College London Dental Institute at Guy’s, Denmark Hill Campus, London, UK
Nermin Yamalik, Professor, Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hacettepe, Ankara, Turkey
Stefan Zimmer, Professor, Department of Operative and Preventive Dentistry and Endodontics, Section of Periodontology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany


International Journal of Clinical Dentistry is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes four issues per year. The journal is owned and operated by Nova Science Publishers and funded entirely by subscription revenue and author-optional publication services. The journal is available in print and electronic formats.

There is no charge to submit your article and have it published in the journal. Nova offers a number of optional publication services that carry fees, but authors are not required to select these services, and the services won’t be offered until after acceptance of the articles. These services include Open Access, color printing, article offprints, discounted print copies of the journal issue, and licenses for use of the published articles.

Submission of an article must be accompanied by a signed Copyright Transfer and Disclosure Form, which can be printed or downloaded here: Submissions that do not include a signed Copyright Transfer and Disclosure Form will be treated as incomplete.

Authors will receive complimentary PDFs of their final articles upon publication. Print copies are offered to authors at a discounted price.

Authors may deposit and display the proofed versions of their articles in and on their personal non-commercial and affiliate non-commercial repositories and websites at any time. The same may be done with their final published articles only after a period of six months has elapsed from the day of publication. Authors may obtain reproduction and republication rights for their articles by transacting with Copyright Clearance Center or with Nova directly.

Manuscript Submissions
International Journal of Clinical Dentistry has ceased publication and is no longer accepting submissions.

It is understood that articles submitted to the journal have not been submitted elsewhere for simultaneous publication consideration and have not been previously published, in whole or in part, unless the new article is an expansion of the original, in which case full transparency of the re-used portions must be provided. Please note that articles cannot be retracted or withdrawn after they have been published.

It is important that all authors and organizations where the research has been carried out have consented to the work’s submission and that all authors have significantly contributed.

Manuscript Preparation
All abstracts and articles must be written in English with references in standard Roman script.

Articles reporting results of original research should be divided into Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements (if any), and References. The abstract of the article usually contains these subdivision headings and summarizes each of them. All abstracts and articles must be written in English with references in standard Roman script.

All diagrams, photographs, illustrations, and charts should be referred to in the text as Figures, and they should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. These figures must be supplied as separate electronic files named in the format in which they were created, and they must be one of the following types: tiff, bitmap, jpeg, gif, ppt, psd, png, or eps. The resolution of these figures must be at least 300 dpi. All illustrations should be accompanied by suitable legends and kept to the minimum essential for proper presentation of the results of findings. Legends are required for all illustrations and should be provided as editable text separate from the figures. For photomicrographs, legends must specify original magnification and stain (if used).

Figures must also be placed inside or at the end of the manuscript. If scanned images are used, please retain the original hard copy of the figure for possible transmission to Nova Science Publishers. If previously published figures are used, written permission from the copyright holders must be obtained and submitted along with the text indicating the copyright holder’s citation instructions. Such permissions must grant unrestricted use.

Tables should be logically organized, and they should supplement the information provided in the text. Each table should be typed on a separate page with the number, title, and footnotes. Tables should be kept to the minimum essential for proper presentation of the results or findings. Permissions from author and publisher must be obtained for the direct use of previously published material including text, photographs, drawings, etc. The permission should be included with the manuscript.

All references and only those cited in the text should appear in the list of references. They should be numbered consecutively as they appear in the text of the paper.


1. Thornton JB, Retief DH, Bradley EA. Marginal leakage of two glass ionomer cements: Ketac-Fil and Ketac-Silver. Am J Dent 1988;1:35-38

2. Alpeggiani M, Gagliani M, Re D, et al. Operator influence using adhesive systems: One bottle vs. multi bottles. J Dent Res 1998;77:942 (Abstr 2487) or J Dent Res 2003;82 (Sp Iss A): 0275

Papers in the course of publication should only be entered in the references if they have been accepted for publication and then given in the standard manner in the text and in the list of references with the publication title, accompanied by “In press.”

3. Crim GA, Abbott LJ. Effect of curing time on marginal sealing by four dentin bonding agents. Am J Dent, In press.

Book and monograph references should include author, title, city, publisher, year of publication, and page numbers, e.g.:

4. Malone WFP, Koth DL. Tylman’s theory and practice of fixed prosthodontics. St. Louis: Ishiyaku Euro-America, 1989;110-123.

5. Ripa LW, Finn SB. The care of injuries to the anterior teeth of children. In: Finn SB. Clinical pedodontics. 4th ed, Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1973;125.

Personal communications should only appear in parentheses in the text and not in the list of references.

The journal uses double-blind peer-review. The identities of both reviewers and authors are concealed from each other throughout the review. To facilitate this, authors must ensure that their manuscripts are prepared in such a way that they do not reveal their identities to reviewers, either directly or indirectly. Please therefore ensure that the following items are present in your submission and provided as separate files.

– Anonymized Manuscript
– Title Page
– Abstract Page

Anonymized Manuscript
Please remove any identifying information, such as authors’ names or affiliations, from your manuscript before submission. As well as removing names and affiliations under the title within the manuscript, other steps need to be taken to ensure the manuscript is correctly prepared for double blind peer review. The key points to consider are:

Use the third person to refer to work the authors have previously published. For example, write “Black and Hart (2015) have previously demonstrated” rather than “we/the authors have previously demonstrated (Black & Hart, 2015).”

Make sure that figures and tables do not contain any reference to author affiliations.

Choose file names with care, and ensure that the file’s “properties” are also anonymised. If you are using Office 2007 or later, consider using the Document Inspector Tool prior to submission.

Title Page
The Title Page will remain separate from the manuscript throughout the peer-review process and will not be sent to the reviewers. The Title Page should include:

– The manuscript title
– All authors’ complete names and complete affiliations
– A complete address for the corresponding author, including an e-mail address

Abstract Page
The abstract page should follow the title page and contain only the title of the manuscript and the abstract. The abstract should have the following sections: Purpose, Methods, and Results. As a separate sentence after the abstract, a short statement should highlight the clinical significance of the manuscript.

Editorial Team
The editorial team works diligently to maintain the quality of the journal’s content, and their responsibilities are many. Together they:

• identify trending, emerging, and important topics of research within their specific fields of study;
• recruit authors of quality research for publication;
• coordinate and oversee the peer-review process;
• liaise with authors, referees, and the publisher;
• write editorials;
• perform technical and developmental editing of manuscripts;
• act as the journal’s ambassadors to the global scientific community;

Publication Ethics and Research Conduct
Nova and its editors are committed to maintaining trust in the journal, the value of authorship, and the integrity of science. Authors should be eager to help us maintain these standards. Guidelines are for transparency are provided below to help authors avoid the appearance of ethical misconduct in their research and to help ensure adherence to the best practices set forth by national and international professional and regulatory bodies.

Plagiarism is a blight on the scientific community and a crime. The unauthorized use or close imitation of another’s language, text, data, ideas, or theories is prohibited. In all instances of authorized use, full credit to and representation of the original author’s work must be provided. It is the authors’ responsibility to secure permission for the use of copyrighted material.

The journal will use CrossCheck and/or other software to screen submitted articles for plagiarism and will investigate all reports and suspicions of plagiarism. Authors suspected of plagiaristic misconduct will be contacted and given the opportunity to prove the validity of their work and refute the allegations. All instances of proven plagiarism will be reported to the Publisher, the editorial office, the author’s institute, and other governing bodies as necessary. Plagiarized articles already accepted for publication will be cancelled, and plagiarized articles that have already been published will be retracted and denounced in a public erratum.

In order to establish transparency in your research, authors must be sure to provide statements on the following items.

1) Information regarding the source(s) of the work’s funding;
2) All financial and non-financial potential conflicts of interest;
3) A statement of informed consent for all studies that involve human participants;
4) A statements of human rights for all studies that involve human participants;
5) A statement on the humane treatment and proper welfare of all animals involved in the study.

The appropriate statements are provided below. They should be included in the article’s text in a section titled Ethical Compliance. This section should immediately precede the References section.

1) Sources of Funding
Please provide the names of all funding agencies, research grants, and grant numbers.

Source of Funding: This study was funded by ____________________.

2) Potential Conflicts of Interest
Authors are required to disclose all personal and professional relationships and interests that can be viewed as potentially imparting bias in the work. Readers are entitled to this information and to their own conclusions and perceptions of conflict. Potential conflicts could be financial relationships, employment, sponsorships, public holdings, competing interests, spousal interests, personal relationships, personal beliefs, etc.

Possible or perceived conflicts of interest among peer reviewers are handled by the Editors. A request for the reviewer to disclose all possible or perceived conflicts of interest will be included with all invitations for peer-review. When possible or perceived conflicts of interest are present, peer reviewers are expected to recuse themselves. When editors, editorial board members, and other members of the editorial team have possible or perceived conflicts of interests with content that is submitted to them, they should recuse themselves and reassign their tasks to other capable members. If possible or perceived conflict of interest cannot be avoided by reassignment, it should be suggested to the submitting author that he/she submit to a different journal.

The Committee on Publication Ethics provides guidelines for investigating the suspected non-disclosure of conflicts of interest.

The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors provides guidelines for the proper disclosure of conflicts of interest.

a) Disclosure of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


b) Disclosure of Interest:

3) Informed Consent
Study participants have the right to decide how the identifiable personal information gathered on them is used. It is essential that all participants (or guardians) give their written informed consent to participate in the study and its subsequent publication.

Informed consent was obtained from each individual participant involved in this study.

4) Statement of Human Rights
The wellbeing of human subjects takes precedence over the interests of science. If a study involves human participants, authors must include a statement to assure us that the study was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its subsequent amendments.

This study was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its subsequent amendments.

5) Statement of Animal Welfare
All studies that involve animals must contain a statement to assure us that the study and its procedures were approved by their affiliate institutional research ethics committees.

All animals involved in this study were treated in accordance with the ethical standards set forth by the institution at which the study was conducted.

Committee on Publication Ethics
Nova and its editors follow the Codes of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). These codes and guidelines are valuable instructions that ensure transparency and fairness in research and publishing. The single document provides steps for submissions, peer-review, confidentiality, the creation and maintenance of editorial boards, editorial responsibilities and decision-making, communication policy, appeal procedures, handling complaints and instances of misconduct, quality assurance, publishing corrections and retractions, adherence to national and international ethics guidelines, and many more aspects of the publication process.

The COPE Codes of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines can be read at the link below. We recommend your familiarity with them while you conduct your research and publish with Nova and any other scientific publisher.

If you notice any ethical misconduct in Nova’s publications, please contact us.

Publisher’s Office
Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
415 Oser Avenue, Suite N
Hauppauge, New York 11788, USA
Phone: (631) 231-7269

Advertising Opportunities
Please contact our office using the information above.

The journal content is preserved electronically to ensure that access can continue in perpetuity if the journal ceases publication. Nova complies with NISO standards in the event of journal transfer between publishers.

Publish with Nova Science Publishers

We publish over 800 titles annually by leading researchers from around the world. Submit a Book Proposal Now!